[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness among infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or disease modifying treatment available and novel interventions are urgently required. Cathelicidins are cationic host defence peptides expressed in the inflamed lung, with key roles in innate host defence against infection. We demonstrate that the human cathelicidin LL-37 has effective antiviral activity against RSV in vitro, retained by a truncated central peptide fragment. LL-37 prevented virus-induced cell death in epithelial cultures, significantly inhibited the production of new infectious particles and diminished the spread of infection, with antiviral effects directed both against the viral particles and the epithelial cells. LL-37 may represent an important targetable component of innate host defence against RSV infection. Prophylactic modulation of LL-37 expression and/or use of synthetic analogues post-infection may represent future novel strategies against RSV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of bronchiolitis in infants. It is also responsible for high morbidity
and mortality in the elderly. Programmed death ligands (PD-Ls) on antigen-presenting cells interact with receptors on T cells
to regulate immune responses. The programmed death receptor-ligand 1/programmed death receptor 1 (PD-L1-PD-1) pathway is inhibitory
in chronic viral infections, but its role in acute viral infections is unclear. We hypothesized that bronchial epithelial
cell (BEC) expression of PD-Ls would inhibit local effector CD8+ T cell function. We report that RSV infection of primary human BECs strongly induces PD-L1 expression. In a co-culture system
of BECs with purified CD8+ T cells, we demonstrated that RSV-infected BECs increased CD8+ T cell activation, proliferation, and antiviral function. Blocking PD-L1 on RSV-infected BECs co-cultured with CD8+ T cells enhanced CD8+ T cell IFN-γ, IL-2, and granzyme B production. It also decreased the virus load of the BECs. Based on our findings, we believe
therapeutic strategies that target the PD-L1-PD-1 pathway might increase antiviral immune responses to RSV and other acute
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) receptor (FP) is elevated in endometrial adenocarcinoma. This study found that PGF(2alpha) signaling via FP regulates expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Expression of CXCL1 and its receptor, CXCR2, are elevated in cancer tissue compared with normal endometrium and localized to glandular epithelium, endothelium, and stroma. Treatment of Ishikawa cells stably transfected with the FP receptor (FPS cells) with 100 nmol/L PGF(2alpha) increased CXCL1 promoter activity, mRNA, and protein expression, and these effects were abolished by cotreatment of cells with FP antagonist or chemical inhibitors of Gq, epidermal growth factor receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Similarly, CXCL1 was elevated in response to 100 nmol/L PGF(2alpha) in endometrial adenocarcinoma explant tissue. CXCL1 is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant. The expression of CXCR2 colocalized to neutrophils in endometrial adenocarcinoma and increased neutrophils were present in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared with normal endometrium. Conditioned media from PGF(2alpha)-treated FPS cells stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis, which could be abolished by CXCL1 protein immunoneutralization of the conditioned media or antagonism of CXCR2. Finally, xenograft tumors in nude mice arising from inoculation with FPS cells showed increased neutrophil infiltration compared with tumors arising from wild-type cells or following treatment of mice bearing FPS tumors with CXCL1-neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, our results show a novel PGF(2alpha)-FP pathway that may regulate the inflammatory microenvironment in endometrial adenocarcinoma via neutrophil chemotaxis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are abundant in the lower respiratory tract. They play a central role in the innate response to infection but
may also modulate excessive inflammation. Both macrophages and ciliated epithelial cells respond to infection by releasing
soluble mediators, leading to the recruitment of innate and adaptive effector cells. To study the role of lung macrophages
in acute respiratory viral infection, we depleted them by the inhalation of clodronate liposomes in an established mouse model
of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. Infection caused an immediate local release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines,
peaking on day 1, which was virtually abolished by clodronate liposome treatment. Macrophage depletion inhibited the activation
(days 1 to 2) and recruitment (day 4) of natural killer (NK) cells and enhanced peak viral load in the lung (day 4). However,
macrophage depletion did not affect the recruitment of activated CD4 or CD8 T cells, weight loss, or virus-induced changes
in lung function. Therefore, lung macrophages play a central role in the early responses to viral infection but have remarkably
little effect on the adaptive response occurring at the time of peak disease severity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), as major producers of IFN-alpha, are thought not only to be pivotal in antiviral immunity, but also to limit allergic inflammation. In this study, we delineate the role of pDC in a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced airway inflammation. Bone marrow-derived pDC generated high levels of IFN-alpha upon RSV infection, and the percentage of pDC expressing MHC class II and maturation-associated costimulatory molecules was increased. However, their weak Ag-presenting capacity was not enhanced. Furthermore, pDC induced marked levels of IL-10 in T cell cultures irrespective of infection. In vivo, numbers of pDC in the lung increased early after RSV infection and remained elevated throughout the inflammatory phase and the resolution phase of infection. Depletion of pDC resulted in increases in peak RSV titers, pulmonary inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, adoptive transfer of activated pDC to the airways reduced RSV copy numbers. In conclusion, RSV infection induces activation of murine pDC with robust IFN-alpha production, limiting replication and accelerating elimination of RSV. In addition to this innate response, pDC also may play an immune regulatory role in reducing pulmonary inflammation and inhibiting the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increases in numbers of lung dendritic cells (DC) observed during respiratory viral infections are assumed to be due to recruitment from bone marrow precursors. No local production has been demonstrated. In this study, we isolated defined populations of murine lung cells based on CD11c and MHC class II (MHC II) expression. After culture for 12 days with GM-CSF, we analyzed cell numbers, DC surface markers, and Ag-presenting capacity. Only CD11c+ MHC II- cells from naive mice proliferated, yielding myeloid DC, which induced Ag-specific proliferation of naive T cells. After respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, numbers of pulmonary CD11c+ MHC II- precursor cells were significantly reduced and DC could not be generated. Moreover, RSV infection prevented subsequent in vivo expansion of pulmonary DC in response to influenza infection or LPS treatment. These results provide direct evidence of local generation of fully functional myeloid DC in the lung from CD11c+ MHC II(-) precursor cells that are depleted by RSV infection, leading to an inability to expand lung DC numbers in response to subsequent viral infection or exposure to bacterial products. This depletion of local DC precursors in respiratory viral infections may be important in explaining complex interactions between multiple and intercurrent pulmonary infections.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integrin CD11c is known as a marker for dendritic cells and has recently been described on T cells following lymphotropic choriomeningitis virus infection, a systemic infection affecting a multitude of organs. Here, we characterise CD11c bearing T cells in a murine model of localised pulmonary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Mice were infected intranasally with RSV and expression of beta2 integrins and T lymphocyte activation markers were monitored by flow cytometry. On day 8 post RSV infection CD11c+ CD8+ and CD11c- CD8+ T cells were assessed for cytokine production, cytotoxic activity and migration. Expression of CD11c mRNA in CD8+ T cells was assessed by quantitative PCR.
Following RSV infection CD11c+ CD8+ T cells were detectable in the lung from day 4 onwards and accounted for 45.9 +/- 4.8% of CD8+ T cells on day 8 post infection, while only few such cells were present in mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen and blood. While CD11c was virtually absent from CD8+ T cells in the absence of RSV infection, its mRNA was expressed in CD8+ T cells of both naïve and RSV infected mice. CD11c+, but not CD11c-, CD8+ T cells showed signs of recent activation, including up-regulation of CD11a and expression of CD11b and CD69 and were recruited preferentially to the lung. In addition, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells were the major subset responsible for IFNgamma production, induction of target cell apoptosis in vitro and reduction of viral titres in vivo.
CD11c is a useful marker for detection and isolation of pulmonary antiviral cytotoxic T cells following RSV infection. It identifies a subset of activated, virus-specific, cytotoxic T cells that exhibit potent antiviral effects in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Respiratory research