[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide (PZA) derives mainly from mutations in the pncA gene. We developed a reverse hybridization-based line probe assay with oligonucleotide probes designed to detect mutations
in pncA. The detection of PZA resistance was evaluated in 258 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The sensitivity and specificity of PZA resistance obtained by this new assay were both 100%, consistent with the results
of conventional PZA susceptibility testing. This assay can be used with sputa from tuberculosis patients. It appears to be
reliable and widely applicable and, given its simplicity and rapid performance, will be a valuable tool for diagnostic use.
Preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including
rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide (PZA), rpsL and rrs for streptomycin (STR), and gyrA for levofloxacin, were amplified simultaneously by PCR, and the DNA sequences were determined. It took 6.5 h to complete
all procedures. Among the 138 clinical isolates tested, 55 were resistant to at least one drug. Thirty-four of 38 INH-resistant
isolates (89.5%), 28 of 28 RIF-resistant isolates (100%), 15 of 18 EMB-resistant isolates (83.3%), 18 of 30 STR-resistant
isolates (60%), and 17 of 17 PZA-resistant isolates (100%) had mutations related to specific drug resistance. Eighteen of
these mutations had not been reported previously. These novel mutations include one in rpoB, eight in katG, one in the mabA-inhA regulatory region, two in embB, five in pncA, and one in rrs. Escherichia coli isolates expressing individually five of the eight katG mutations showed loss of catalase and INH oxidation activities, and isolates carrying any of the five pncA mutations showed no pyrazinamidase activity, indicating that these mutations are associated with INH and PZA resistance,
respectively. Our sequencing-based method was also useful for testing sputa from tuberculosis patients and for screening of
mutations in Mycobacterium bovis. In conclusion, our new method is useful for rapid detection of multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and for identifying novel mutations in drug-resistant M. tuberculosis.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients involved in an outbreak of catheter-associated urinary tract infections that occurred in a
neurosurgery ward of a hospital in Sendai, Japan. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SpeI-, XbaI-, or HpaI-digested genomic
DNAs from the isolates revealed that clonal expansion of a P. aeruginosa strain designated IMCJ2.S1 had occurred in the ward. This strain possessed broad-spectrum resistance to aminoglycosides,
β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and chlorhexidine. Strain IMCJ2.S1 showed a level of resistance
to some kinds of disinfectants similar to that of a control strain of P. aeruginosa, ATCC 27853. IMCJ2.S1 contained a novel class 1 integron, In113, in the chromosome but not on a plasmid. In113 contains an
array of three gene cassettes of blaIMP-1, a novel aminoglycoside resistance gene, and the aadA1 gene. The aminoglycoside resistance gene, designated aac(6′)-Iae, encoded a 183-amino-acid protein that shared 57.1% identity with AAC(6′)-Iq. Recombinant AAC(6′)-Iae protein showed aminoglycoside
6′-N-acetyltransferase activity by thin-layer chromatography. Escherichia coli expressing exogenous aac(6′)-Iae showed resistance to amikacin, dibekacin, isepamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin but not to arbekacin,
gentamicins, or streptomycin. Alterations of gyrA and parC at the amino acid sequence level were detected in IMCJ2.S1, suggesting that such mutations confer the resistance to fluoroquinolones
observed for this strain. These results indicate that P. aeruginosa IMCJ2.S1 has developed multidrug resistance by acquiring resistance determinants, including a novel member of the aac(6′)-I family and mutations in drug resistance genes.
Preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy