[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the acute effects of type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibition with sildenafil on flow-mediated vasodilation in the brachial artery of patients with chronic heart failure.
Impaired endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with heart failure is partly attributable to hyporesponsiveness of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) mediated vasorelaxation effector mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle. The effect of inhibition of cGMP degradation with sildenafil, a specific type 5 cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on flow-mediated dilation in heart failure is unknown.
Flow-mediated vasodilation after release of 1, 3 and 5 min of transient arterial occlusion was measured in the brachial artery with high resolution two-dimensional ultrasound imaging in 48 patients with chronic heart failure before and 1 h after randomized, double-blind assignment to a single oral dose of sildenafil 12.5, 25 or 50 mg or matching placebo.
In response to oral administration of a single dose of study drug, the change in flow-mediated vasodilation after release of 1, 3 and 5 min of arterial occlusion was significantly greater in patients receiving sildenafil 25 mg (3.3 +/- 1.9, 3.8 +/- 1.8 and 4.0 +/- 1.8%, respectively, p < 0.05) and patients receiving sildenafil 50 mg (3.7 +/- 1.3, 4.1 +/- 1.1, 3.9 +/- 1.3%, respectively, p < 0.05) than that of patients receiving placebo (0.7 +/- 1.1, 0.2 +/- 1.2, 0.6 +/- 0.8%, respectively).
Acute type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibition with sildenafil 25 and 50 mg increases endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure when compared with placebo.
Preview · Article · Sep 2000 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid acquisition of echocardiographic images is critical for the predictive accuracy of stress echocardiography. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3D) allows review of several standard 2-dimensional images from a single volumetric data set. To assess the feasibility of RT3D for treadmill stress echocardiography, we performed treadmill stress RT3D on 20 volunteers (10 men and 10 women; mean age 32 ± 6 years) with a device that uses a matrix phased-array transducer in a 60-degree pyramidal volume. Images are displayed as 2 steerable, intersecting B-scan sectors with adjustable C-scan planes parallel to the transducer face. At pre-exercise and immediate postexercise assessment, the volumetric data were obtained from apical and parasternal windows, respectively. Left ventricular segments were divided into 16 standard segments according to criteria defined by the American Society of Echocardiography. The use of both volume sets resulted in visualization of 98% of the segments at peak exercise. Even with only an apical volume set, 89% of the segments were adequately visualized. Image optimization and acquisition time at peak exercise was 35 ± 18 seconds from the apical window and 50 ± 28 seconds from the parasternal window. This preliminary study indicates that RT3D treadmill stress echocardiography is feasible and may be an important application of this new 3-dimensional device. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1999;12:285-9.)
No preview · Article · May 1999 · Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that real-time, 3-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography can obtain all standard 2-dimensional (2-D) views from acquisition of 2 volume sets, we scanned 45 patients (24 men, 21 women; mean age 49 +/- 17 years). This real-time 3-D device (VOLUMETRICS Medical Imaging, Durham, NC) uses a matrix phased array transducer in a 60 degree pyramidal volume. Images are displayed as 2 steerable, intersecting, conventional 2-D image sectors that can be oriented throughout 3-D space. By using this equipment, we were able to obtain 93.3% of standard views from a parasternal volume set and 85.2% of standard views from an apical volume set. The mean scanning time was 91 +/- 19 seconds for the parasternal volume set and 86 +/- 22 seconds for the apical volume set. We conclude that standard 2-D views can be obtained in the majority of patients by using this method. This equipment has the potential to substantially decrease the imaging time compared with the standard 2-D echocardiography.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography