Hong Cao

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (43)

  • Hong Cao · Barbara Schroeder · Jing Chen · [...] · Mark A. McNiven
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of transferrin (Tf) and its cognate receptor (TfR1) is a central pathway supporting the uptake of trophic iron. It has generally been assumed that this is a constitutive process. However, we have reported that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, is activated by Tf to facilitate the internalization of the TR/TfR1 ligand-receptor complex. As an extension of these findings, we have tested if subsequent trafficking steps might be regulated by additional kinase-dependent cascades and observed a significant endocytic block by inhibiting c-Abl kinase by a variety of methods. Importantly, Tf internalization was reduced significantly in all of these cell models and could be restored by re-expression of WT c-Abl. Surprisingly, this attenuated Tf/TfR1 endocytosis was due to a substantial drop in both the surface and total cellular receptor levels. Additional studies with the LDL receptor showed a similar effect. Surprisingly, immunofluorescence microscopy of imatinib-treated cells revealed a marked colocalization of internalized TfR1 with late endosomes/lysosomes, while attenuating lysosome function with several inhibitors reduced this receptor loss. Importantly, inhibition of c-Abl resulted in a striking redistribution of the chaperone Hsc70 from a diffuse, cytosolic localization to an association with the TfR1 at the late endosome-lysosome. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsc70 ATPase activity in cultured cells by the drug VER155008 prevents this chaperone-receptor interaction, resulting in an accumulation of the TfR1 in the early endosome. Thus, inhibition of c-Abl minimizes receptor recycling pathways and results in chaperone-dependent trafficking of the TfR1 to the lysosome for degradation. These findings implicate a novel role for c-Abl and Hsc70 as an unexpected regulator of Hsc70-mediated transport of trophic-receptor cargo between the early and late endosomal compartments.
    Article · May 2016 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Hong Cao · Robbin D. Eppinga · Gina L. Razidlo · [...] · Mark A. McNiven
    Dataset · Mar 2016
  • Hong Cao · Robbin D. Eppinga · Gina L. Razidlo · [...] · Mark A. McNiven
    Dataset · Mar 2016
  • Hong Cao · Robbin D. Eppinga · Gina L. Razidlo · [...] · Mark A. McNiven
    Dataset · Mar 2016
  • Hong Cao · Robbin D. Eppinga · Gina L. Razidlo · [...] · Mark A. McNiven
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastatic invasion of tumors into peripheral tissues is known to rely upon protease-mediated degradation of the surrounding stroma. This remodeling process uses complex, actin-based, specializations of the plasma membrane termed invadopodia that act both to sequester and release matrix metalloproteinases. Here we report that cells of mesenchymal origin, including tumor-associated fibroblasts, degrade substantial amounts of surrounding matrix by a mechanism independent of conventional invadopodia. These degradative sites lack the punctate shape of conventional invadopodia to spread along the cell base and are reticular and/or fibrous in character. In marked contrast to invadopodia, this degradation does not require the action of Src kinase, Cdc42 or Dyn2. Rather, inhibition of Dyn2 causes a marked upregulation of stromal matrix degradation. Further, expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases are differentially regulated between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts. This matrix remodeling by fibroblasts increases the invasive capacity of tumor cells, thereby illustrating how the tumor microenvironment can contribute to metastasis. These findings provide evidence for a novel matrix remodeling process conducted by stromal fibroblasts that is substantially more effective than conventional invadopodia, distinct in structural organization and regulated by disparate molecular mechanisms.Oncogene advance online publication, 18 May 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.163.
    Article · May 2015 · Oncogene
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular mechanisms by which hepatitis B virus (HBV) is assembled and exported are largely undefined. Recently, it has been suggested that these steps require the multivesicular body (MVB) and the autophagic machinery. However, the mechanisms by which HBV might regulate these compartments are unclear. In this study we have found that by activating Rab7, HBV alters its own secretion by inducing dramatic changes in the morphology of MVB and autophagic compartments. These changes are characterized by the formation of numerous tubules that are dependent upon the increase in Rab7 activity observed in the HBV-expressing HepG2.2.15 cells compared to HepG2 cells. Interestingly, a transfection-based expression of the five individual viral proteins indicated that the precore protein, which is a precursor of HBeAg, was largely responsible for the increased Rab7 activity. Finally, siRNA-mediated depletion of Rab7 significantly increased the secretion of virions, suggesting that reduced delivery of the virus to the lysosome facilitates viral secretion. These findings provide novel evidence indicating that HBV can regulate its own secretion through an activation of the endo-lysosomal and autophagic pathway via Rab7 activation.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Cell Science
  • Hong Cao · Robbin Eppinga · Eugene Krueger · [...] · Mark A. McNiven
    Article · May 2014 · Gastroenterology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin β1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 1-11. ©2014 AACR.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2014 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
  • Article · May 2013 · Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian epithelial cells is believed to require the synergistic action of structural coat proteins and mechanochemical enzymes to deform and sever the plasma membrane (PM) into discreet vesicles. It is generally believed that the formation of clathrin-coated pits in epithelial cells occurs randomly along the apical and basolateral plasma membranes. In this study we visualized the endocytic machinery in living hepatocytes using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged dynamin, a large mechanochemical guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase implicated in the liberation of nascent vesicles from the plasma membrane and a variety of internal membrane compartments. Confocal microscopy of living cells expressing the epithelial isoform of GFP-tagged dynamin [Dyn2-GFP] revealed a distribution along the ventral PM in discrete vesicle-like puncta or in large (2-10 μm) tubuloreticular plaques. Remarkably, these large structures are dynamic as they form and then disappear, while generating large numbers of motile endocytic vesicles with which dynamin associates. Inhibiting dynamin function by microinjection of purified dynamin antibodies increases the number and size of the tubuloreticular plaques. Importantly, these "hot spots" sequester specific trophic receptors and cognate ligands such as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), but not TfR2. Conclusion: These findings suggest that hepatocytes sequester or prerecruit both structural and enzymatic components of the clathrin-based endocytic machinery to functional hot spots, from which large numbers of coated pits form and vesicles are generated. This process may mimic the endocytic organization found at the synapse in neuronal cells.
    Article · Nov 2011 · Hepatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal tumors invade local parenchyma and metastasize to distant organs. Src-mediated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways promote pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) metastasis, though the molecular mechanisms supporting this invasive process are poorly understood and represent important and novel therapeutic targets. The large GTPase Dynamin 2 (Dyn2), a Src-kinase substrate, regulates membrane-cytoskeletal dynamics although it is yet to be defined if it contributes to tumor cell migration and invasion. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test if Dyn2 is upregulated in human pancreatic tumors and to define its role in cell migration and metastatic invasion using in vitro assays and nude mouse models. Histological analysis showed that 81% of 85 patients had elevated Dyn2 in PDAC. To test if Dyn2 overexpression alters metastatic properties of human pancreatic tumor cells, stable clones of BxPC-3 cells overexpressing either wild-type Dyn2 or a phosphorylation-deficient mutant Dyn2Y(231/597)F known to attenuate Dyn2 function, were generated and analyzed. Importantly, tumor cells overexpressing Dyn2 protruded lamellipodia at twice the rate, migrated faster (180%) and farther (2.5-fold greater distance) on glass and through transwell chambers (2-3-fold more cells through the filter) compared with cells expressing Dyn2Y(231/597)F or vector alone. Further, depletion of Dyn2 and dynamin inhibitors Myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromides and Dynasore significantly reduced cell migration, wound healing and invasion in transwell assays compared with controls. To test the metastatic potential conferred by increased Dyn2 expression, the BxPC-3 cell lines were implanted orthotopically into the pancreas of nude mice. Cells expressing Dyn2-green fluorescent protein exhibited a threefold increase in large distal tumors compared with cells expressing Dyn2Y(231/597)F or vector alone. Finally, histological analysis revealed that Dyn2 is upregulated in 60% of human metastatic pancreatic tumors. These findings are the first to implicate dynamin in any neoplastic condition and to directly demonstrate a role for this mechanoenzyme in invasive cell migration.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2011 · Oncogene
  • Susan Chi · Hong Cao · Yu Wang · Mark A McNiven
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface are tightly regulated by a complex endocytic machinery. Following internalization, EGFR is either recycled back to the cell surface or transported to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation. Currently, the molecular machinery that regulates this sorting pathway is only partially defined. Eps15 (EGFR pathway substrate 15) is an endocytic adaptor protein that is well known to support clathrin-mediated internalization of EGFR at the plasma membrane. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a novel short form of Eps15 (Eps15S) from rat liver that lacks the 111 C-terminal amino acids present in the traditional Eps15 form. The goal of this study was to define the functional role of the novel Eps15S form in EGFR trafficking. Overexpression of a mutant form of Eps15S (Eps15S ΔEH2/EH3) did not block EGFR internalization but reduced its recycling to the cell surface. After knockdown of all Eps15 forms, re-expression of Eps15S significantly reduced EGFR degradation while promoting recycling back to the cell surface. In contrast, re-expression of Eps15 did not potentiate receptor recycling. Furthermore, overexpression of the mutant Eps15S substantially reduced cell proliferation, linking EGFR recycling to downstream mitogenic effects. Finally, we found that Eps15S is localized to the Rab11-positive recycling endosome that is disrupted in cells expressing the Eps15S mutant, leading to an accumulation of the EGFR in early endosomes. These findings suggest that distinct forms of Eps15 direct EGFR to either the late endosome/lysosome for degradation (Eps15) or to the recycling endosome for transit back to the cell surface (Eps15S).
    Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Yu Wang · Hong Cao · Jing Chen · Mark A McNiven
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cell migration is supported in part by the cyclic formation and disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs); however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not fully defined. The large guanosine 5'-triphosphatase dynamin (Dyn) plays an important role in FA dynamics and is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using a novel antibody specific to phospho-dynamin (pDyn-Tyr-231), we found that Dyn2 is phosphorylated at FAs by Src kinase and is recruited to FAs by a direct interaction with the 4.1/ezrin/radizin/moesin domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which functions as an adaptor between Src and Dyn2 to facilitate Dyn2 phosphorylation. This Src-FAK-Dyn2 trimeric complex is essential for FA turnover, as mutants disrupting the formation of this complex inhibit FA disassembly. Importantly, phosphoactivated Dyn2 promotes FA turnover by mediating the endocytosis of integrins in a clathrin-dependent manner. This study defines a novel mechanism of how Dyn2 functions as a downstream effector of FAK-Src signaling in turning over FAs.
    Article · Mar 2011 · Molecular biology of the cell
  • Conference Paper · Oct 2010
  • Article · May 2010 · Gastroenterology
  • Shaun G Weller · Mirco Capitani · Hong Cao · [...] · Mark A McNiven
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The size and integrity of the Golgi apparatus is maintained via a tightly controlled regulation of membrane traffic using a variety of different signaling and cytoskeletal proteins. We have recently observed that activation of c-Src has profound effects on Golgi structure, leading to dramatically vesiculated cisternae in a variety of cell types. As the large GTPase dynamin (Dyn2) has been implicated in Golgi vesiculation during secretion, we tested whether inhibiting Dyn2 activity by expression of a Dyn2K44A mutant or siRNA knockdown could attenuate active Src-induced Golgi fragmentation. Indeed, these perturbations attenuated fragmentation, and expression of a Dyn2Y(231/597)F mutant protein that cannot be phosphorylated by Src kinase had a similar effect . Finally, we find that Dyn2 is markedly phosphorylated during the transit of VSV-G protein through the TGN whereas expression of the Dyn2Y(231/597)F mutant significantly reduces exit of the nascent protein from this compartment. These findings demonstrate that activation of Dyn2 by Src kinase regulates Golgi integrity and vesiculation during the secretory process.
    Article · Mar 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of transferrin are poorly defined and generally viewed as a constitutive process that occurs continuously without regulatory constraints. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endocytosis of the transferrin receptor is a regulated process that requires activated Src kinase and, subsequently, phosphorylation of two important components of the endocytic machinery, namely, the large GTPase dynamin 2 (Dyn2) and its associated actin-binding protein, cortactin (Cort). To our knowledge these findings are among the first to implicate an Src-mediated endocytic cascade in what was previously presumed to be a nonregulated internalization process.
    Article · Dec 2009 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
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    Lidiya Orlichenko · Shaun G Weller · Hong Cao · [...] · Mark A McNiven
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Remodeling of cell-cell contacts through the internalization of adherens junction proteins is an important event during both normal development and the process of tumor cell metastasis. Here we show that the integrity of tumor cell-cell contacts is disrupted after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation through caveolae-mediated endocytosis of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin. Caveolin-1 and E-cadherin closely associated at cell borders and in internalized structures upon stimulation with EGF. Furthermore, preventing caveolae assembly through reduction of caveolin-1 protein or expression of a caveolin-1 tyrosine phospho-mutant resulted in the accumulation of E-cadherin at cell borders and the formation of tightly adherent cells. Most striking was the fact that exogenous expression of caveolin-1 in tumor cells that contain tight, well-defined, borders resulted in a dramatic dispersal of these cells. Together, these findings provide new insights into how cells might disassemble cell-cell contacts to help mediate the remodeling of adherens junctions, and tumor cell metastasis and invasion.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2009 · Molecular biology of the cell
  • Article · May 2009 · Gastroenterology
  • Yu Wang · Hong Cao · Mark A. McNiven
    Article · May 2009 · Gastroenterology