Hao Yu

Third Military Medical University, Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China

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Publications (14)50.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased worldwide and has attracted rising attention, but the mechanism is still unclear. Previous studies revealed that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels take part in weight loss by enhancing intracellular Ca(2+) levels. However, the potential mechanism of the effect of dietary capsaicin on obesity is not completely understood. Ca(2+) transfer induced by connexin43 (Cx43) molecules between coupled cells takes part in adipocyte differentiation. Whether TRPV1-evoked alterations in Cx43-mediated adipocyte-to-adipocyte communication play a role in obesity is unknown. We investigated whether Cx43 participated in TRPV1-mediated adipocyte lipolysis in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissues from humans and wild-type (WT) and TRPV1-deficient (TRPV1(-/-)) mice. TRPV1 and Cx43 co-expressed in mesenteric adipose tissue. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin increased the influx of Ca(2+) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and promoted cell lipolysis, as shown by Oil-red O staining. These effects were deficient when capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, and 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA), a gap-junction inhibitor, were administered. Long-term chronic dietary capsaicin reduced the weights of perirenal, mesenteric and testicular adipose tissues in WT mice fed a high-fat diet. Capsaicin increased the expression levels of p-CaM, Cx43, CaMKII, PPARδ and HSL in mesenteric adipose tissues from WT mice fed a high-fat diet, db/db mice, as well as obese humans, but these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Long-term chronic dietary capsaicin decreased the body weights and serum lipids of WT mice, but not TRPV1(-/-) mice, fed a high-fat diet. This study demonstrated that capsaicin activation of TRPV1-evoked increased Ca(2+) influx in Cx43-mediated adipocyte-to-adipocyte communication promotes lipolysis in both vitro and vivo. TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves visceral fat remodeling through the up-regulation of Cx43.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: High-salt diet induces cardiac remodelling and leads to heart failure, which is closely related to cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. We investigated whether activation of TRP vanilloid (subtype 1) (TRPV1) channels by dietary capsaicin can, by ameliorating cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, prevent high-salt diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Experimental approach: Male wild-type (WT) and TRPV1(-/-) mice were fed a normal or high-salt diet with or without capsaicin for 6 months. Their cardiac parameters and endurance capacity were assessed. Mitochondrial respiration and oxygen consumption were measured using high-resolution respirometry. The expression levels of TRPV1, sirtuin 3 and NDUFA9 were detected in cardiac cells and tissues. Key results: Chronic high-salt diet caused cardiac hypertrophy and reduced physical activity in mice; both effects were ameliorated by capsaicin intake in WT but not in TRPV1(-/-) mice. TRPV1 knockout or high-salt diet significantly jeopardized the proficiency of mitochondrial Complex I oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and reduced Complex I enzyme activity. Chronic dietary capsaicin increased cardiac mitochondrial sirtuin 3 expression, the proficiency of Complex I OXPHOS, ATP production and Complex I enzyme activity in a TRPV1-dependent manner. Conclusions and implications: TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin can antagonize high-salt diet-mediated cardiac lesions by ameliorating its deleterious effect on the proficiency of Complex I OXPHOS. TRPV1-mediated amendment of mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a novel target for management of early cardiac dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · British Journal of Pharmacology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of the improvement of glucose homeostasis through angiotensin receptor blockers are not fully elucidated in hypertensive patients. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in cultured myotubes and skeletal muscle from wild-type and muscle-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ knockout (MCK-PPARδ(-/-)) mice. Telmisartan increased PPARδ expression and activated PPARδ transcriptional activity in cultured C2C12 myotubes. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes, telmisartan enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation as well as Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These effects were inhibited by antagonizing PPARδ or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, but not by PPARγ and PPARα inhibition. Palmitate reducing the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes could be restored by telmisartan. In vivo experiments showed that telmisartan treatment reversed high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in wild-type mice but not in MCK-PPARδ(-/-) mice. The protein levels of PPARδ, phospho-Akt, phospho-AS160, and Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane in the skeletal muscle on insulin stimulation were reduced by high-fat diet and were restored by telmisartan administration in wild-type mice. These effects were absent in MCK-PPARδ(-/-) mice. These findings implicate PPARδ as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels have been observed in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased monocyte migration is associated with increased TRPC3 expression. Monocyte migration assay was performed in a microchemotaxis chamber using chemoattractants formylated peptide Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Proteins were identified by immunoblotting and quantitative in-cell Western assay. The effects of TRP channel-inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB) and small interfering RNA knockdown of TRPC3 were investigated. We observed an increased fMLP-induced migration of monocytes from hypertensive patients compared with normotensive control subjects (246 ± 14% vs 151 ± 10%). The TNF-α-induced migration of monocytes in patients with essential hypertension was also significantly increased compared to normotensive control subjects (221 ± 20% vs 138 ± 18%). In the presence of 2-APB or after siRNA knockdown of TRPC3 the fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly blocked. The fMLP-induced changes of cytosolic calcium were significantly increased in monocytes from hypertensive patients compared to normotensive control subjects. The fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly reduced in the presence of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. We conclude that increased monocyte migration in patients with essential hypertension is associated with increased TRPC3 channels.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver is characterized by the fatty deformation and lipid deposition of hepatic parenchymal cells that are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. In this study, we report the effect of capsaicin on its receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel, in preventing fatty liver formation. Functional TRPV1 has been detected in hepatocytes and liver tissues. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin reduced lipid accumulation and triglyceride level in the liver from wild-type (WT) mice. However, these effects were absent in the liver from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Chronic dietary capsaicin increased the hepatic uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression in WT but not in TRPV1(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). We conclude that TRPV1 long-time activation might prevent high-fat diet-induced fatty liver in mice through upregulation of hepatic UCP2. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising intervention in populations at high risk for fatty liver.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat. Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes. Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway. Here, we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present in mouse BAT. Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation. Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application, menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8−/− and UCP1−/− mice. Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8, suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis, which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in metabolic syndrome (MS). Chronic administration of rosiglitazone ameliorates endothelial dysfunction through PPARγ-mediated metabolic improvements. Recently, studies suggested that single dose of rosiglitazone also has direct vascular effects, but the mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we established a diet-induced rat model of MS. The impaired vasorelaxation in MS rats was improved by incubating arteries with rosiglitazone for one hour. Importantly, this effect was blocked by either inhibition of PPARγ or PPARδ. In cultured endothelial cells, acute treatment with rosiglitazone increased the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS and the production of NO. These effects were also abolished by inhibition of PPARγ, PPARδ, or PI3K. In conclusion, rosiglitazone improved endothelial function through both PPARγ- and PPARδ-mediated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which might help to reconsider the complex effects and clinical applications of rosiglitazone.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · PPAR Research
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    ABSTRACT: The secreted proteins from goblet cells compose the intestinal mucus. The aims of this study were to determine how they exist in two intestinal mucus layers. The intestinal mucosa was fixed with Carnoy solution and immunostained. Mucus from the loose layer, the firm layer was gently suctioned or scraped, respectively, lysed in SDS sample buffer with or without DTT, then subjected to the western blotting of rTFF3, rIgGFcγBP or rMuc2. The non-reduced or reduced soluble mucus samples in RIPA buffer were co-immunoprecipitated to investigate their possible interactions. Polyclonal antibodies for rTFF3, the rIgGFcγBP C-terminal domain and the rMuc2 C-terminal domain confirmed their localization in the mucus layer and in the mucus collected from the rat intestinal loose layer or firm layer in both western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments. A complex of rTFF3, which was approximately 250 kDa, and a monomer of 6 kDa were present in both layers of the intestinal mucus; rIgGFcγBP was present in the complex (250-280 kDa) under non-reducing conditions, but shifted to 164 kDa under reducing conditions in both of the layers. rMuc2 was found mainly in a complex of 214-270 kDa under non-reducing conditions, but it shifted to 140 kDa under reducing conditions. The co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that binding occurs among rTFF3, rIgGFcγBP and rMuc2 in the RIPA buffer soluble intestinal mucus. Blocking the covalent interaction by 100 mM DTT in the RIPA buffer soluble intestinal mucus disassociated their binding. Rat goblet cell-secreted TFF3, IgGFcγBP and Muc2, existing in the two intestinal mucus layers, are bound together by covalent interactions in the soluble fraction of intestinal mucus and form heteropolymers to be one of the biochemical mechanisms of composing the net-like structure of mucus.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: High dietary salt-caused hypertension is associated with increasing reactive oxygen species generation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a specific receptor for capsaicin, is proposed to be involved in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension, as determined in acute or short-term experiments. However, it remains unknown whether activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin could prevent the vascular oxidative stress and hypertension induced by a high-salt diet. Here, we report that consumption of a high-salt diet blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries and elevated nocturnal blood pressure in mice. These effects were associated with increased superoxide anion generation and reduced NO levels in mesenteric vessels in mice on a high-salt diet. However, chronic administration of capsaicin reduced the high-salt diet-induced endothelial dysfunction and nocturnal hypertension in part by preventing the generation of superoxide anions and NO reduction of mesenteric arteries through vascular TRPV1 activation. Our findings provide new insights into the role of TRPV1 channels in the long-term regulation of blood pressure in response to high-salt intake. TRPV1 activation through chronic dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations with salt-sensitive hypertension.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in metabolic syndrome (MS). Chronic administration of rosiglitazone ameliorates endothelial dysfunction through PPARγ-mediated metabolic improvements. Recently, studies suggested that single dose of rosiglitazone also has direct vascular effects, but the mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we established a diet-induced rat model of MS. The impaired vasorelaxation in MS rats was improved by incubating arteries with rosiglitazone for one hour. Importantly, this effect was blocked by either inhibition of PPARγ or PPARδ. In cultured endothelial cells, acute treatment with rosiglitazone increased the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS and the production of NO. These effects were also abolished by inhibition of PPARγ, PPARδ, or PI3K. In conclusion, rosiglitazone improved endothelial function through both PPARγ- and PPARδ-mediated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which might help to reconsider the complex effects and clinical applications of rosiglitazone.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · PPAR Research
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    ABSTRACT: rMuc3 is a typical transmembrane mucin and contains a 174 amino acid domain called an SEA module in its C-terminal domain which is cleaved in eukaryotic cells. However, the mechanism by which the rMuc3 SEA module is proteolyzed and its biological significance has to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that the rMuc3 C-terminal domain was cleaved at LSKGSIVV motif within SEA module in prokaryotic cells, the time-dependence of the cleavage was found in the purified rMuc3 C-terminal domain carrying a mutated LSKASIVV motif expressed in bacteria. Thus, the cleavage of rMuc3 SEA module depended on autoproteolysis. The autoproteolysis of the SEA module of rMuc3 C-terminal domain played a critical role in the migration and invasion of the LoVo human colon cancer cells with rMuc3 C-terminal domain in vitro. The rMuc3 C-terminal domain induced a significant activation of HER/ErbB2 phosphorylated form (py1248) in LoVo cells. Inhibition of the phosphorylation by gefitinib (ZD1839) did attenuate migration and invasion of LoVo cells with rMuc3 C-terminal domain. Thus, rMuc3 C-terminal domain undergoes autoproteolysis at its SEA module, which maintains its availability for the potentiation of the signaling process that is modulated by HER/ErbB2 phosphorylation to promote the migration and invasion of LoVo cells.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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    ABSTRACT: SOX2 and Hath1 are transcription factors that are critical for the control of terminal cell differentiation in the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study investigated the correlations between SOX2 and Hath1 expression in gastric carcinoma and patients' clinicopathological features and prognosis. Hath1 and SOX2 were detected by immunohistochemistry in gastric carcinoma (n = 50). Probability of survival of patients after surgery was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using Log-rank test. Hath1 and SOX2 were inversely expressed in gastric carcinoma. Patients with strong SOX2 expression (++ to +++) showed lower incidences of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007), deeper invasion (p = 0.010), and III-IV clinical stages (p = 0.011) compared to patients with low SOX2 expression (- to +). There was no significant difference in SOX2 and Hath1 expression in the cancerous tissues of the patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection (p > 0.05). The patients with strong expression of SOX2 in their cancerous tissues (++ to +++) had a better prognosis than those with low expression of SOX2 (- to +; p = 0.005). There was no correlation between Hath1 expression level and prognosis (p = 0.676). SOX2 and Hath1 are inversely expressed in gastric carcinoma. SOX2 provides a survival advantage to patients of gastric carcinoma and appears to be associated with metastasis and clinical stages.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: A prominent feature of the rodent Muc3 SEA module is the precursor cleavage event that segregates the O-glycosylated N-terminal fragment and transmembrane domain into the noncovalently attached heterodimer. There are seven potential N-glycosylation sites that occur in a cluster in the SEA module of Muc3. However, it is unknown if these sites are modified or what the function of these N-glycans may be in the SEA module. Our data show that the proteolytic cleavage of the rodent Muc3 SEA module was partially prevented by treatment with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation. Each single mutant of the seven N-glycosylation sites (N1A, N2A, N3A, N4A, N5A, N6A, and N7A) and multiple mutants, including double (N34A) and triple (N345A) mutants, and mutants with four (N3457A), five (N34567A), six (N134567A and N234567A), seven (N1234567A) mutations, confirmed that all seven of these potential sites are N-glycosylated simultaneously. The proteolytic cleavage of the SEA module was not affected when it lacked only one, two, or three N-glycans, but was partially inhibited when lacking four, five, and six N-glycans. In all, 2%, 48%, 85%, and 73% of the products from N3457A, N34567A, N134567A, and N234567A transfectants, respectively, remained uncleaved. The proteolytic cleavage was completely prevented in the N1234567A transfectant, which eliminated all seven N-glycans in the SEA module. The interaction of the heterodimer was independent of the N-glycans within the rodent Muc3 SEA module. Thus, the N-glycosylation pattern constituted a control point for the modulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the SEA module.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Glycobiology