I Luzzi

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (152)502.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Salmonella Napoli is uncommon in Europe. In Italy however, it has been growing in importance since 2000. To date, no risk factors have been identified to account for its rise. This study aims at describing the epidemiology, spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of S. Napoli in Italy from 2000 to 2013, and to explore the role of several environmental correlates, namely urbanization, altitude and number of livestock farms, on the risk of S. Napoli infection among humans. Method Data were obtained from Enter-Net Italy, a network of diagnostic laboratories. The data were aggregated at the municipality level. Descriptive epidemiology, multivariate regression models, spatial and spatio-temporal analyses were performed on the number of cases and incidence rates. Results S. Napoli showed an expanding trend at the national level, and an increasing number of cases. Compared to the other main serovars in Italy, the risk of S. Napoli infection was higher in the age group <1 year, and lower in the other age groups. Although urbanization and the number of farms were associated with the risk of S. Napoli infection to some extent, their role in the epidemiology of the disease remains inconclusive. S. Napoli cases showed a positive global spatial autocorrelation as well as a significant spatio-temporal interaction. Twenty-four spatial and spatio-temporal clusters were identified, seven purely spatial and 17 spatio-temporal, mainly in north-western Italy. Most of the clusters were in areas characterized by urban and industrial settlements surrounded by agricultural land and an abundance of freshwater bodies. Conclusions Our results point to the presence, in a number of areas in Italy, of a Salmonella of public health concern originating in the environment. This highlights the increasing relevance of environmental, non-food-related sources of human exposure to enteric pathogens.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogen that infects both animals and humans worldwide. The epidemiology of infection caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis is poorly understood; however, its outbreaks have been traced back to a probable source in wildlife. This study aimed to characterise Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates collected from animals with yersiniosis. This study included 90 isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis collected from different animals with yersiniosis between 1996 and 2013 in Italy. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and were biotyped. Genes associated with virulence plasmid pYV and those encoding O-antigen, high pathogenicity island (HPI), and superantigenic toxin (YPM) were determined by performing PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using NotI and SpeI enzymes, and 3 dendrograms were generated. No antibiotic resistance was found. The presence of pYV was shown in 57 out of 90 isolates. Virulence profiles of majority of the isolates indicated that they belonged to O:1a and O:1b serotypes, biotype 1, and genetic type 2. Isolates belonging to O:2a serotype were detected in sheep and cattle and were found to be associated (for the first time) with septicemia in hares. Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to O:5a and O:12-O13 serotypes were also detected in hares. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to the O:12-O13 serotype from a clinical case in Europe. Results of PFGE indicated that it was a reliable method for investigating the genetic relatedness of Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates. Thus, characterisation of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection in animals should be considered a possible tool for the surveillance of pseudotuberculosis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Veterinary Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative comparison between discriminatory indexes and concordance among MLVA, PFGE, automated ribotyping and phage typing has been performed testing 238 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates not epidemiologically correlated. The results show that MLVA is the best choice but each typing method provides a piece of information to establish clonal relationships between isolates. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of clinical microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: During 2008 to 2013, 215 outbreak alerts, also known as ‘urgent inquiries’ (UI), for food- and waterborne diseases were launched in Europe, the majority of them (135; 63%) being related to salmonellosis. For 110 (51%) UI, a potential food vehicle of infection was identified, with vegetables being the most reported category (34; 31%). A total of 28% (n = 60) of the outbreaks reported had an international dimension, involving at least two countries (mean: 4; standard deviation: 2; range: 2–14). Participating countries posted 2,343 messages (initial posts and replies, excluding updates), with a median of 11 messages per urgent inquiry (range: 1–28). Of 60 multicountry UI, 50 involved between two and four countries. The UI allowed early detection of multicountry outbreaks, facilitated the identification of the suspected vehicles and consequently contributed to the timely implementation of control measures. The introduction of an epidemic intelligence information system platform in 2010 has strengthened the role of the Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses network in facilitating timely exchange of information between public health authorities of the participating countries.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: In developed countries, typhoid fever is often associated with persons who travel to endemic areas or immigrate from them. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Because of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance to standard first-line drugs, fluoroquinolones are the drugs of choice. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by this Salmonella serovar represents an emerging public health issue. Two S. enterica ser. Typhi strains resistant to ciprofloxacin (CIP) were reported to the Italian surveillance system for foodborne and waterborne diseases (EnterNet-Italia) in 2013. The strains were isolated from two Italian tourists upon their arrival from India. A retrospective analysis of 17 other S. enterica ser. Typhi strains isolated in Italy during 2011-2013 was performed to determine their resistance to CIP. For this purpose, we assayed for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and conducted PCR and nucleotide sequence analyses. Moreover, all strains were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to evaluate possible clonal relationships. Sixty-eight percent of the S. enterica ser. Typhi strains were resistant to CIP (MICs, 0.125-16 mg/L), and all isolates were negative for determinants of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Analysis of sequences encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV subunits revealed mutations in gyrA, gyrB, and parC. Thirteen different clonal groups were detected, and the two CIP-resistant strains isolated from the individuals who visited India exhibited the same PFGE pattern. Because of these findings, the emergence of CIP-resistant S. enterica ser. Typhi isolates in Italy deserves attention, and monitoring antibiotic susceptibility is important for efficiently managing cases of typhoid fever.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Frontiers in Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) isolates are susceptible to only one or two classes of antibiotics. In 2011–2012, we investigated an outbreak of XDR-PA affecting children with onco-hematological diseases. Methods Outbreak investigation included ascertainment of cases, tracing of intestinal carriers and environmental surveillance. Contact precautions were adopted for patients with infection or colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility; phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production was performed, and carbapenemase genes were tested by multiplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR). Genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results XDR-PA was isolated from 27 patients; 12 had bacteremia, 6 other infections and 9 were colonized. Severe neutropenia was significantly associated with bacteremia. Bloodstream-infection mortality rate was 67%. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins and penicillins + β-lactamase inhibitors. Isolates were susceptible only to colistin in 22 patients, to colistin and amikacin in 4, and to ciprofloxacin and colistin in 1. PFGE results identified 6 subtypes of a single genotype, associated with clusters of cases, and 4 sporadic genotypes. Two sporadic isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers, negative to PCR. All other isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producers due to the presence of a VIM carbapenemase. Incidence of XDR-PA infections decreased from 0.72 cases/1,000 inpatient-days in March 2011-March 2012, to 0.34/1,000 in April-December 2012, after implementation of active finding of intestinal carriers on all onco-hematological inpatients. Conclusions Control measures targeting intestinal carriers are crucial in limiting in-hospital transmission of XDR-PA polyclonal strains, protecting more vulnerable patients, such as severely neutropenic children, from developing clinical infections.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12,i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium and its occurrence has markedly increased in several European countries in the last ten years. In June 2011, an outbreak of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- was reported among attendees of a wedding reception in the North-East of Italy. The source of this outbreak was identified as a cooked pork product served during the wedding reception. All Salmonella isolates from humans and the contaminated pork products were identified as Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and phage typed as DT7a. Afterwards, the farm where the pigs were raised was identified and sampled, and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from swine fecal samples. Despite the difference in serovar, these Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were also phage typed as DT7a. In the present study, Salmonella isolates from animals, humans and pork products during the outbreak investigation were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeats Analysis (MLVA), and resistance patterns, aiming to identify the most suitable subtyping methods to characterize isolates associated with this outbreak. In addition, a collection of epidemiologically unrelated strains of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium sharing the same phage type (DT7a) was similarly characterized in order to investigate their genetic relationship. This study provides a first snapshot of a rare Salmonella phage type, DT7a, associated with both Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, the study demonstrated that in this specific context MLVA could be a reliable tool to support outbreak investigations as well as to assess the genetic relatedness among Salmonella isolates.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide and includes more than 2500 different serovars, causing primarily gastroenteritis. However, the infection may occur elsewhere and produce characteristic clinical syndromes. Meningitis is a rare complication that occurs in less than 1% of clinical salmonellosis. Case presentation We describe a case of Salmonella Virchow meningitis in a 36-year-old Caucasian man presenting with headache in the occipital region, associated fever, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea and ambulatory difficulty. The cerebrospinal fluid culture showed growth of Salmonella, later confirmed to be Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow. Conclusions Salmonella Virchow infection is rare and this report highlights the risk of meningitis as a presentation of salmonellosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first Italian case of meningitis due to Salmonella Virchow in a young adult. The probable route of transmission remains unclear and a long carriage state after a previous episode of gastroenteritis should be considered.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli) is an emerging serovar in Italy. It accounts for 2-4% of all serovars isolated from human infections. The zoonotic origin of this serovar is still unknown and this makes difficult to apply any control intervention. We report here the isolation of S. Napoli from a river nightingale (Cettia cetti, Temminck 1820) which represents the first description of this serovar from wild birds. This finding adds knowledge to the ecology of S. Napoli and addresses further studies aimed to assess the epidemiologic link between S. Napoli isolated from wild birds, food, environmental sources and human infections.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita
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    ABSTRACT: In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combined. Attribution estimates were thus compared between different models, time periods and sampling points. All models identified pigs as the main source of human salmonellosis in Italy, accounting for 43-60% of infections, followed by G. gallus (18-34%). Attributions to turkeys and ruminants were minor. An increasing temporal trend in attributions to pigs and a decreasing one in those to G. gallus was also observed. Although the outcomes of the two models applied at farm and food levels essentially agree, they can be refined once more information becomes available, providing valuable insights about potential targets along the production chain.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Epidemiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: We describe trends of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from humans in Italy from January 1980 to December 2011. A total of 229,279 Salmonella isolates were reported during this period. Serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Derby, 4,[5],12,:i:-, and Napoli accounted for 135,783 (59%) of these isolates. Temporal trends from 2000 to 2011 varied by serovar: Enteritidis and Infantis decreased significantly (with a mean of -3.0% and -2.8% isolates per year, respectively, p<0.001); Typhimurium remained stable; while 4,[5],12:i:-, Derby and Napoli increased significantly (+66.4%, p<0.001; +8.1%, p<0.001; and +28.2%, p<0.05, respectively). Since 2000, Enteritidis fell consistently below Typhimurium, which is the most reported serovar in Italy in contrast to the international situation where Enteritidis still ranks at the top despite its significant decrease. Most serovars showed a marked seasonality, increasing over the summer months and peaking in August/September. Typhimurium, 4,[5],12:i:-, and Napoli were most likely to be isolated from children, whereas Enteritidis, Derby, and Infantis from adults. We conclude that the applied control measures are not equally efficient against the considered Salmonella serovars and that sources of infection other than those of Enteritidis (laying hens and eggs) have become increasingly important. Further investigations on the emerging serovars and on the causes related to their emergence are needed to define and implement newly tailored control measures.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-resistant derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids, such as pSLT, in clinically-relevant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains, represent a threat for human health. We have analysed 14 S. Typhimurium isolates recovered in Italy and the United Kingdom from swine and from cases of human infection for the presence of virulence-resistance (VR) plasmids. They were negative for the multidrug resistance (MDR) region of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), but expressed resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin/spectinomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracyclines. The isolates were characterised by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and detection of resistance and virulence determinants (PCR/sequencing). Identification of VR plasmids was accomplished by PCR detection of bla genes (encoding ampicillin resistance), class 1 integrons and the pSLT virulence gene spvC. Plasmid analyses were performed by alkaline lysis, S1-nuclease digestion, replicon typing, conjugation, restriction analyses, and Southern blot/hybridization. Two blaOXA-1 positive isolates contained pSLT-derived plasmids related to pUO-StVR2. In nine isolates, eight from swine and one from a patient, MDR-conferring-IncFII-VR plasmids were detected. They contained the blaTEM-1 gene as well as a nonconventional class 1 integron with dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassettes in its variable region, and a sul3 gene in the 3' conserved segment. Restriction analysis suggested a novel pSLT variant. The results obtained underline the role of swine as a potential reservoir for the blaTEM-1-IncFII-plasmids. The occurrence and spread of virulence- and MDR-conferring plasmids should be considered as a potential public health problem.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.)
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    ABSTRACT: After an urgent inquiry into a suspected international outbreak of Salmonella Goldcoast infection was launched by Hungary in October 2009 a nationwide multidisciplinary investigation was carried out in Italy. The aims were to verify whether the higher than expected number of cases of S. Goldcoast infection that had occurred in Italy in the previous months were linked to the outbreak in Hungary and to determine their origin. Between June 2009 and March 2010, 79 confirmed cases of S. Goldcoast infection were identified. Of these, 17 were part of three different point-source outbreaks probably associated with the consumption of salami. Eating salami was also reported by 20 of the 39 sporadic cases that could be interviewed. Fifteen strains of S. Goldcoast isolated from the cases were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. They shared more than 90% homology with the Hungarian epidemic strain and were also highly similar to S. Goldcoast strains that had been isolated in Italy from pigs and pork-containing food items in 2009 and 2010. Although the origin of the outbreak and the common source linking the Hungarian and the Italian cases could not be definitively identified, our results suggest a possible zoonotic connection of the outbreak cases with the pork production chain.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Poultry have been suggested as a reservoir for fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Our aim was to investigate whether genotypes associated with ciprofloxacin and multidrug resistance were shared among human and avian E. coli. We compared 277 human ExPEC isolates from urinary tract infection (UTI) and sepsis (142 susceptible and 135 ciprofloxacin resistant) and 101 avian isolates (68 susceptible and 33 ciprofloxacin resistant) by antimicrobial resistance phenotype, phylogenetic group and multilocus sequence type (ST). Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates from both human and avian sources were multidrug resistant. Human and avian isolates strongly differed in phylogenetic group assignment (B2 and A predominated among human and avian isolates, respectively), but a shift towards group A associated with ciprofloxacin resistance was observed among human isolates (8/100, 8.0% versus 17/87, 19.5%, P =0.021 for UTI and 5/42, 11.9% versus 15/48, 31.3%, P = 0.028 for sepsis). Heterogeneity of ST clones was observed, with ST131 strongly predominant in human ciprofloxacin-resistant strains (58/135, 43.0%), but not in avian strains. However, two major ST clonal complexes (CCs; CC10 and CC23, both belonging to group A) associated with ciprofloxacin resistance and multiresistance were shared by human and avian isolates. The major human and avian E. coli ST clones associated with multidrug resistance were identified. A subset of ST clones belonging to CC10 and CC23 poses a potential zoonotic risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract OBJECTIVES: Poultry have been suggested as a reservoir for fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Our aim was to investigate whether genotypes associated with ciprofloxacin and multidrug resistance were shared among human and avian E. coli. METHODS: We compared 277 human ExPEC isolates from urinary tract infection (UTI) and sepsis (142 susceptible and 135 ciprofloxacin resistant) and 101 avian isolates (68 susceptible and 33 ciprofloxacin resistant) by antimicrobial resistance phenotype, phylogenetic group and multilocus sequence type (ST). RESULTS: Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates from both human and avian sources were multidrug resistant. Human and avian isolates strongly differed in phylogenetic group assignment (B2 and A predominated among human and avian isolates, respectively), but a shift towards group A associated with ciprofloxacin resistance was observed among human isolates (8/100, 8.0% versus 17/87, 19.5%, P = 0.021 for UTI and 5/42, 11.9% versus 15/48, 31.3%, P = 0.028 for sepsis). Heterogeneity of ST clones was observed, with ST131 strongly predominant in human ciprofloxacin-resistant strains (58/135, 43.0%), but not in avian strains. However, two major ST clonal complexes (CCs; CC10 and CC23, both belonging to group A) associated with ciprofloxacin resistance and multiresistance were shared by human and avian isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The major human and avian E. coli ST clones associated with multidrug resistance were identified. A subset of ST clones belonging to CC10 and CC23 poses a potential zoonotic risk.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract OBJECTIVES: Poultry have been suggested as a reservoir for fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Our aim was to investigate whether genotypes associated with ciprofloxacin and multidrug resistance were shared among human and avian E. coli. METHODS: We compared 277 human ExPEC isolates from urinary tract infection (UTI) and sepsis (142 susceptible and 135 ciprofloxacin resistant) and 101 avian isolates (68 susceptible and 33 ciprofloxacin resistant) by antimicrobial resistance phenotype, phylogenetic group and multilocus sequence type (ST). RESULTS: Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates from both human and avian sources were multidrug resistant. Human and avian isolates strongly differed in phylogenetic group assignment (B2 and A predominated among human and avian isolates, respectively), but a shift towards group A associated with ciprofloxacin resistance was observed among human isolates (8/100, 8.0% versus 17/87, 19.5%, P = 0.021 for UTI and 5/42, 11.9% versus 15/48, 31.3%, P = 0.028 for sepsis). Heterogeneity of ST clones was observed, with ST131 strongly predominant in human ciprofloxacin-resistant strains (58/135, 43.0%), but not in avian strains. However, two major ST clonal complexes (CCs; CC10 and CC23, both belonging to group A) associated with ciprofloxacin resistance and multiresistance were shared by human and avian isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The major human and avian E. coli ST clones associated with multidrug resistance were identified. A subset of ST clones belonging to CC10 and CC23 poses a potential zoonotic risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to sequence the chromosomal region conferring resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT) in a Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) monophasic strain (4,[5],12:i:-) belonging to the PFGE profile STYMXB.0079. The presence of this resistance region and the analysis of its genetic environment was investigated in a selection of strains. A Sau3A1 genomic library was used to determine the nucleotide sequence of the genomic resistance region. PCRs were performed on 10 epidemiologically unrelated Salmonella strains, both STM and monophasic STM, with R-type ASSuT and PFGE profile STYMXB.0079, in order to investigate the presence of the resistance genes, the left and right junctions and the internal regions of the resistance region, as well as the genetic environment. The genomic resistance region consisted of two regions, resistance region 1 (RR1), conferring resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin and sulphonamides, and resistance region 2 (RR2), conferring tetracycline resistance. These resistance regions were both surrounded by IS26 elements and sequence comparative analysis showed 99% sequence identity with a region of plasmid pO111_1 from an Escherichia coli strain. All 10 strains were positive for the four resistance genes, the left and right junctions and the internal regions of RR1 and RR2. Concerning the genetic environment, all the strains lacked the STM1053-1997 and STM2694 genes, while only monophasic STM strains showed deletion of the fljA-fljB operon. This study describes two resistance regions localized on the bacterial chromosome of a clonal lineage of STM and monophasic STM that are widespread in Italy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio spp. infections still are a Public Health concern. Vibrio spp. can be found in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments, and can be able to cause diseases in fish, shellfish, mammals, as well as in humans. Since '80 to date, the number of species within the genus increased from 21 to more than 100. The most important is Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the cholera, responsible of seven pandemics; serotypes O1 and O139 can produce cholera toxin, while serotypes non-O1/non-O139 are generally associated with sporadic cholera cases and extraintestinal infections. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important cause of gastroenteritis associated with contaminated seafood consumption, whereas Vibrio vulnificus and V. alginolyticus can be related to wound infections or seafoodborne primary septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Disease prevention is mainly based on the application of proper individual or collective preventive measures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità

Publication Stats

3k Citations
502.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1977-2015
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      • • Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases
      • • Laboratory of Virology
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2010
    • Statens Serum Institut
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1993-2007
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Clinical Medicine
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2002
    • Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie
      • National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1979
    • Università Degli Studi Roma Tre
      Roma, Latium, Italy