Henrik Grönberg

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (248)1844.48 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Limitations of current diagnostic and prognostic tools for prostate cancer (PC) have led to over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Here, we investigate the biomarker potential of the SLC18A2 (VMAT2) gene for PC at three molecular levels. Thus, SLC18A2 promoter methylation was analyzed in 767 malignant and 78 benign radical prostatectomy (RP) samples using methylation-specific qPCR and Illumina 450K methylation microarray data. SLC18A2 transcript levels were assessed in 412 malignant and 45 benign RP samples using RNAseq data. SLC18A2 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 502 malignant and 305 benign RP samples. Cancer-specificity of molecular changes was tested using Mann-Whitney U tests and/or receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Log rank, uni- and multivariate Cox regression tests were used for survival analyses. We found that SLC18A2 promoter hypermethylation was highly cancer-specific (area under the curve (AUC): 0.923-0.976) and associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after RP in univariate analyses. SLC18A2 transcript levels were reduced in PC and had independent prognostic value for BCR after RP (multivariate HR 0.13, P<0.05). Likewise, SLC18A2 protein was down-regulated in PC (AUC 0.898) and had independent prognostic value for BCR (multivariate HR 0.51, P<0.05). Reduced SLC18A2 protein expression was also associated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis (HR 0.29, P<0.05).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Sequencing-based molecular characterization of tumors provides information required for individualized cancer treatment. There are well-defined molecular subtypes of breast cancer that provide improved prognostication compared to routine biomarkers. However, molecular subtyping is not yet implemented in routine breast cancer care. Clinical translation is dependent on subtype prediction models providing high sensitivity and specificity. In this study we evaluate sample size and RNA-sequencing read requirements for breast cancer subtyping to facilitate rational design of translational studies. We applied subsampling to ascertain the effect of training sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads on classification accuracy of molecular subtype and routine biomarker prediction models (unsupervised and supervised). Subtype classification accuracy improved with increasing sample size up to N = 750 (accuracy = 0.93), although with a modest improvement beyond N = 350 (accuracy = 0.92). Prediction of routine biomarkers achieved accuracy of 0.94 (ER) and 0.92 (Her2) at N = 200. Subtype classification improved with RNA-sequencing library size up to 5 million reads. Development of molecular subtyping models for cancer diagnostics requires well-designed studies. Sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads directly influence accuracy of molecular subtyping. Results in this study provide key information for rational design of translational studies aiming to bring sequencing-based diagnostics to the clinic.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Scientific Reports
  • T. Nordström · M. Aly · H. Grönberg

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether educational length affects prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and the time to prostate biopsy for men with raised PSA values. Materials and methods: Using register data on all men in Stockholm County in 2013 (n = 1,052,841), the limited-duration point prevalence of PSA testing and time between test and prostate biopsy or repeat testing were analysed. Patterns of follow-up were assessed using Kaplan-Meier product limit estimators and Cox proportional hazard models. Educational length was categorized as short (≤9 years), intermediate (10-12 years) or long (≥13 years). Results: PSA testing increased with educational length in all age groups. Among men aged 50-69 years, 61% with long and 54% with short education had had a PSA test within the preceding 10 years (p < 0.001). In men with PSA 4-10 ng/ml, 40% [95% confidence interval (CI) 38-41] with long and 27% (95% CI 26-29) with short education underwent a prostate biopsy within 12 months. After adjusting for PSA level and age, educational length was still associated with the chance of having a prostate biopsy in men with PSA 4-10 ng/ml (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.31), but not in men with higher PSA values. Conclusion: PSA testing increased with educational length. Men with long education were more likely to have a prostate biopsy after an increased PSA value below 10 ng/ml than men with short education. These differences may contribute to the worse prostate cancer outcomes observed among men with lower socioeconomic status.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for prostate cancer but has a high false-positive rate that translates into unnecessary prostate biopsies and overdiagnosis of low-risk prostate cancers. We aimed to develop and validate a model to identify high-risk prostate cancer (with a Gleason score of at least 7) with better test characteristics than that provided by PSA screening alone. Methods: The Stockholm 3 (STHLM3) study is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, diagnostic study of men without prostate cancer aged 50-69 years randomly invited by date of birth from the Swedish Population Register kept by the Swedish Tax Agency. Men with prostate cancer at enrolment were excluded from the study. The predefined STHLM3 model (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms [232 SNPs], and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]), and PSA concentration were both tested in all participants enrolled. The primary aim was to increase the specificity compared with PSA without decreasing the sensitivity to diagnose high-risk prostate cancer. The primary outcomes were number of detected high-risk cancers (sensitivity) and the number of performed prostate biopsies (specificity). The STHLM3 training cohort was used to train the STHLM3 model, which was prospectively tested in the STHLM3 validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between biomarkers and clinical variables and prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 7. This study is registered with ISCRTN.com, number ISRCTN84445406. Findings: The STHLM3 model performed significantly better than PSA alone for detection of cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 (p<0·0001), the area under the curve was 0·56 (95% CI 0·55-0·60) with PSA alone and 0·74 (95% CI 0·72-0·75) with the STHLM3 model. All variables used in the STHLM3 model were significantly associated with prostate cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 (p<0·05) in a multiple logistic regression model. At the same level of sensitivity as the PSA test using a cutoff of ≥3 ng/mL to diagnose high risk prostate cancer, use of the STHLM3 model could reduce the number of biopsies by 32% (95% CI 24-39) and could avoid 44% (35-54) of benign biopsies. Interpretation: The STHLM3 model could reduce unnecessary biopsies without compromising the ability to diagnose prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 7, and could be a step towards personalised risk-based prostate cancer diagnostic programmes. Funding: Stockholm County Council (Stockholms Läns Landsting).
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Depletion of highly abundant proteins is an approved step in blood plasma analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we explored a precipitation and differential protein solubility approach as a fractionation strategy for abundant protein removal from plasma. Total proteins from plasma were precipitated with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, followed by differential solubilization in 55% and 35% saturated ammonium sulfate solutions. Using a four hour liquid chromatography (LC) gradient and an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer, a total of 167 and 224 proteins were identified from the 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate fractions, whereas 235 proteins were found in the remaining protein fractions with at least two unique peptides. SDS-PAGE and exclusive total spectrum counts from LC-MS/MS analyses clearly showed that majority of the abundant plasma proteins were solubilized in 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate solutions, indicating that the remaining protein fraction is of potential interest for identification of less abundant plasma proteins. Serum albumin, serotransferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transthyretin were the abundant proteins that were highly enriched in 55% ammonium sulfate fractions. Immunoglobulins, complement system proteins, and apolipoproteins were among other abundant plasma proteins that were enriched in 35% ammonium sulfate fractions. In the remaining protein fractions a total of 40 unique proteins were identified of which, 32 proteins were identified with at least 10 exclusive spectrum counts. According to PeptideAtlas, 9 of these 32 proteins were estimated to be present at low μg ml(-1) (0.12-1.9 μg ml(-1)) concentrations in the plasma, and 17 at low ng ml(-1) (0.1-55 ng ml(-1)) range.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Analyst
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Inflammation has been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer development as an initiator or promoter, yet no large-scale study of inherited variation across cancer sites has been conducted. Methods: We conducted a cross-cancer genomic analysis for the inflammation pathway based on 48 genome-wide association studies within the National Cancer Institute GAME-ON Network across five common cancer sites, with a total of 64 591 cancer patients and 74 467 control patients. Subset-based meta-analysis was used to account for possible disease heterogeneity, and hierarchical modeling was employed to estimate the effect of the subcomponents within the inflammation pathway. The network was visualized by enrichment map. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified three pleiotropic loci within the inflammation pathway, including one novel locus in Ch12q24 encoding SH2B3 (rs3184504), which reached GWAS significance with a P value of 1.78 x 10(-8), and it showed an association with lung cancer (P = 2.01 x 10(-6)), colorectal cancer (GECCO P = 6.72x10(-6); CORECT P = 3.32x10(-5)), and breast cancer (P = .009). We also identified five key subpathway components with genetic variants that are relevant for the risk of these five cancer sites: inflammatory response for colorectal cancer (P = .006), inflammation related cell cycle gene for lung cancer (P = 1.35x10(-6)), and activation of immune response for ovarian cancer (P = .009). In addition, sequence variations in immune system development played a role in breast cancer etiology (P = .001) and innate immune response was involved in the risk of both colorectal (P = .022) and ovarian cancer (P = .003). Conclusions: Genetic variations in inflammation and its related subpathway components are keys to the development of lung, colorectal, ovary, and breast cancer, including SH2B3, which is associated with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men 50y, men >50y, women 50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed signifi- cant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (!50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analy- sis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimor- phism of body shape.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between perceived stress, social support, disease progression and mortality in a nationwide population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer. Materials and methods: The study surveyed 4105 Swedish men treated for clinically localized prostate cancer regarding stress, grief, sleep habits and social support. Associations between these factors and mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: Men with the highest levels of perceived stress had a statistically significantly increased rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared with men with low stress levels (hazard ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.63). Men with high stress levels also had a high frequency of grieving and sleep loss. They also had fewer people with whom to share their emotional problems and felt an inability to share most of their problems with partners, friends and family. Conclusions: This study contributes to the growing field of psychosocial quality of life research in men with prostate cancer. The findings show a significant association between prostate cancer-specific mortality and perceived stress in patients initially diagnosed with localized, non-metastatic prostate cancer. Significant associations between perceived stress and various psychosocial factors were also seen. The findings of this study could prove useful to target interventions to improve quality of life in men with prostate cancer.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric-oxide synthase (NOS)-polymorphisms influence the cellular amount of NO, and are associated with disease-risk in many disorders. We investigated 145 SNP-polymorphisms and a (CCTTT)n-microsatellite in the NOS2-gene in 3161 prostate-cancer patients and 2149 controls from a Swedish population-based GWAS-study.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Understanding the heterogeneous genotypes and phenotypes of prostate cancer is fundamental to improving the way we treat this disease. As yet, there are no validated descriptions of prostate cancer subgroups derived from integrated genomics linked with clinical outcome. Methods: In a study of 482 tumour, benign and germline samples from 259 men with primary prostate cancer, we used integrative analysis of copy number alterations (CNA) and array transcriptomics to identify genomic loci that affect expression levels of mRNA in an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach, to stratify patients into subgroups that we then associated with future clinical behaviour, and compared with either CNA or transcriptomics alone. Findings: We identified five separate patient subgroups with distinct genomic alterations and expression profiles based on 100 discriminating genes in our separate discovery and validation sets of 125 and 103 men. These subgroups were able to consistently predict biochemical relapse (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.016 respectively) and were further validated in a third cohort with long-term follow-up (p = 0.027). We show the relative contributions of gene expression and copy number data on phenotype, and demonstrate the improved power gained from integrative analyses. We confirm alterations in six genes previously associated with prostate cancer (MAP3K7, MELK, RCBTB2, ELAC2, TPD52, ZBTB4), and also identify 94 genes not previously linked to prostate cancer progression that would not have been detected using either transcript or copy number data alone. We confirm a number of previously published molecular changes associated with high risk disease, including MYC amplification, and NKX3-1, RB1 and PTEN deletions, as well as over-expression of PCA3 and AMACR, and loss of MSMB in tumour tissue. A subset of the 100 genes outperforms established clinical predictors of poor prognosis (PSA, Gleason score), as well as previously published gene signatures (p = 0.0001). We further show how our molecular profiles can be used for the early detection of aggressive cases in a clinical setting, and inform treatment decisions. Interpretation: For the first time in prostate cancer this study demonstrates the importance of integrated genomic analyses incorporating both benign and tumour tissue data in identifying molecular alterations leading to the generation of robust gene sets that are predictive of clinical outcome in independent patient cohorts.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · EBioMedicine
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between telomere length (TL) and risk for various cancers. These inconsistencies are likely attributable, in part, to biases that arise due to post-diagnostic and post-treatment TL measurement. To avoid such biases, we used a Mendelian randomization approach and estimated associations between nine TL-associated SNPs and risk for five common cancer types (breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancer, including subtypes) using data on 51,725 cases and 62,035 controls. We then used an inverse-variance weighted average of the SNP-specific associations to estimate the association between a genetic score representing long TL and cancer risk. The long TL genetic score was significantly associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (P=6.3x10(-15)), even after exclusion of a SNP residing in a known lung cancer susceptibility region (TERT-CLPTM1L) P=6.6x10(-6)). Under Mendelian randomization assumptions, the association estimate (odds ratio (OR)=2.78) is interpreted as the OR for lung adenocarcinoma corresponding to a 1000 base pair increase in TL. The weighted TL SNP score was not associated with other cancer types or subtypes. Our finding that genetic determinants of long TL increase lung adenocarcinoma risk avoids issues with reverse causality and residual confounding that arise in observational studies of TL and disease risk. Under Mendelian randomization assumptions, our finding suggests that longer TL increases lung adenocarcinoma risk. However, caution regarding this causal interpretation is warranted in light of the potential issue of pleiotropy, and a more general interpretation is that SNPs influencing telomere biology are also implicated in lung adenocarcinoma risk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Human Molecular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background. For risk-stratified screening to be implemented as a screening program for breast and prostate cancer it has to be accepted among the general population. Investigating public interest in stratified screening and its acceptability to the public is therefore essential since as yet little is known. Method. Cross-sectional web survey sent to a sample of 10 000 individuals (20–74 years of age) representative of the Swedish population as registered in 2009. Results. Among the responders (28%), a vast majority (94%) expressed an interest in knowing their breast or prostate cancer risk and stated wanting to know to ‘avoid worrying’. Men and women were equally interested in knowing their prostate and breast cancer risk, respectively. However, men showed more certainty. Trusting the healthcare workers with personal information (63%) as well as genetic information (70%), in order to calculate the risk, did not seem to be a major issue. Furthermore, 87% would agree to get screened more often if identified with a high risk, whereas, if identified with a low risk, only 27% would agree to get screened less often. Finally, although a consultation with a physician seemed to be the preferred way to communicate the risk, a majority would agree to receive it via a letter or a phone call. Conclusion. Risk-stratified screening has the possibility to be accepted by the general public. Knowledge about interest and acceptability of the prospect of risk-stratified screening for breast and prostate cancer will help when implementing new screening strategies.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
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    ABSTRACT: Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will experience indolent disease; hence, discovering genetic variants that distinguish aggressive from nonaggressive prostate cancer is of critical clinical importance for disease prevention and treatment. In a multistage, case-only genome-wide association study of 12,518 prostate cancer cases, we identify two loci associated with Gleason score, a pathological measure of disease aggressiveness: rs35148638 at 5q14.3 (RASA1, P=6.49 × 10(-9)) and rs78943174 at 3q26.31 (NAALADL2, P=4.18 × 10(-8)). In a stratified case-control analysis, the SNP at 5q14.3 appears specific for aggressive prostate cancer (P=8.85 × 10(-5)) with no association for nonaggressive prostate cancer compared with controls (P=0.57). The proximity of these loci to genes involved in vascular disease suggests potential biological mechanisms worthy of further investigation.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Nature Communications

Publication Stats

13k Citations
1,844.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002-2015
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1992-2014
    • Umeå University
      • Department of Radiation Sciences
      Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
  • 2011
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Translational Genomics Research Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2003
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      • Nephrology Section
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2002-2003
    • Helsingborgs Lasarett
      Hälsingborg, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1998
    • Norrlands universitetssjukhus
      Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden