Bernhard Henkelmann

Helmholtz Zentrum München, München, Bavaria, Germany

Are you Bernhard Henkelmann?

Claim your profile

Publications (131)378.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Persistent and emerging organic pollutants were sampled in September 2012 and 2013 at a sampling site in front of the Three Gorges Dam near Maoping (China) in a water depth between 11 and 61 m to generate a depth profile of analytes. A novel compact water sampling system with self-packed glass cartridges was employed for the on-site enrichment of approximately 300 L of water per sample to enable the detection of low analytes levels in the picogram per liter-scale in the large water body. The overall performance of the sampling system was acceptable for the qualitative detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), perfluoroalkylic acids (PFAAs), pharmaceutical residues and polar pesticides. Strongly particle-associated analytes like PAHs and PCBs resided mainly in the glass wool filter of the sampling system, whereas all other compounds have mainly been enriched on the XAD-resin of the self-packed glass cartridges. The sampling results revealed qualitative information on the presence, depth distribution and origin of the investigated compounds. Although the depth profile of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PFAAs appeared to be homogeneous, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides were detected in distinct different patterns with water depth. Source analysis with diagnostic ratios for PAHs revealed their origin to be pyrogenic (burning of coal, wood and grass). In contrast, most PCBs and OCPs had to be regarded as legacy pollutants which have been released into the environment in former times and still remain present due to their persistence. The abundance of emerging organic pollutants could be confirmed, and their most abundant compounds could be identified as perfluorooctanoic acid, diclofenac and atrazine among investigated PFAAs, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulated by semipermeable membrane device (SPMD)-based virtual organisms (VOs) and local feral fish were studied in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. VOs were deployed at seven sites in TGR for two periods in 2009 and 5 species of fish with different living habitats and feeding habits collected in the same periods from two counties in TGR. The concentration and profile of PAHs and PCBs in fish were quite different fromthose in VOs. Most high-molecular-weight-PAHswere detected in VOs, while theywere undetected in fish.Most PCBs were undetected inVOs,whilemost of them were detected in fish. Low-molecular-weight-PAHs were predominant contaminants of PAHs and nondioxin-like-PCBs were the main PCBs in fish. The levels of PAHs and PCBs in the few fish samples were low and were not of concern based on chemical contaminant limits of non-carcinogenic effect.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The EROD assay is one of the most widely used bioassays for biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in food, feed and environmental samples. Commonly dioxins and PCB contaminations in samples are quantified by a standard curve based on either 2,3,7,8-TCDD or beta-naphtoflavone. By using a standard curve approach for quantification of the sample, the unknown sample concentration is interpolated from the known concentration of the standard curve. This means the measuring properties of the standard curve should also apply to the measurement of the unknown sample to enable reliable quantification. However, in biomonitoring it is common sense that there are matrix effects present, which can significantly influence sample quantification. Therefore using a standard curve for quantification may neglect matrix effects present from diverse sample origins. To address these challenges in biomonitoring we investigated the applicability of the standard addition method for the quantification of dioxins by the EROD assay.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are widely distributed environmental pollutants. Due to their persistence and toxicity, it is important to know their fluxes and spatial and temporal distribution in the environment. In this study, a new procedure to estimate OCP concentration based on a set of performance reference compounds (PRCs) was used. Their occurrence and mass fluxes were assessed on a regional scale ranging from Chonqging to Maoping in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) as part of Yangtze River. The results are based on three sampling campaigns in 2009 (twice) and 2011. Due to different factors, the measured concentrations varied from 410 to 1418 pg/L. The highest total OCP concentration was localized in Wanzhou while the lowest was downstream Maoping near the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The highest load of OCP mass fluxes was observed at Wanhzou with 9.6 mg/s and the lowest load at Maoping with 2.97 mg/s. Studies at Maoping show an increase in OCP water concentration from 2009 to 2012. Comparison between free dissolved OCP water concentration and total OCP water concentration in TGR 2009, 2011 and 2012 show a slight variation, indicating the important role of dilution in the OCP removal process in TGR.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Chemosphere
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endosulfan - an agricultural insecticide and banned by Stockholm Convention - is produced as a 2:1 to 7:3 mixture of isomers endosulfan I (ESI) and endosulfan II (ESII). Endosulfan is transformed under aerobic conditions into endosulfan sulfate (ESS). The study shows for 76 sampling locations in German forests that endosulfan is abundant in all samples with an opposite ratio between the ESI and ESII than the technical product, where the main metabolite ESS is found with even higher abundance. The ratio between ESI/ESII and ESS show clear dependence on the type of stands (coniferous vs. deciduous) and humus type and increases from deciduous via mixed to coniferous forest stands. The study argues for a systematic monitoring of ESI, ESII, and ESS and underlines the need for further research, specifically on the fate of endosulfan including biomagnifications and bioaccumulation in soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Environmental Pollution
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Even early life in utero cannot provide a safe place for newborns. The first acquaintance with chemicals takes place in utero and/or with mother's milk after delivery. Besides legislations and bans to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), these chemicals are still affecting the general population especially the children as they are one of the populations most susceptible to chemicals, and also the health problems may arise in the future. Our objective is to collect the first data in newborns in Turkey to determine baseline levels of POPs in the general population and estimate the potential cancer risk related to exposure. Twenty-nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in blood samples of newborn boys (0-1 month old) who were born in İstanbul, Turkey, in 2010-2012 were evaluated with high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds are as follows: hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) 1828 ± 3650 pg/g lipid, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) 10,000 ± 15,398 pg/g lipid, and ΣPCB 1068 ± 1823 pg/g lipid. 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene, and PCB 138 and 153 are the major contaminants. New POPs as lindane 61 ± 268 pg/g lipid, pentachlorobenzene 13 ± 74 pg/g lipid, and endosulfan 29 ± 106 pg/g lipid are also detected in blood. Estimated total risk for lifetime PCB exposure is less than 1 × 10(-5), an acceptable risk. Blood concentration levels will be important base data in the assessment of health concerns of newborns as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including 28 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) congeners in lichen, moss and soil collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. This allows research provides insight into elevation gradient distributions and possible cold trapping effects of SVOCs in this high mountain area, and compares lichens and mosses as air passive samplers for indicating SVOC occurrences. DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene predominated in all of the samples. Source analysis indicted that there were fresh inputs of DDTs and HCHs in the sampling region. Lichens and mosses shared commonalities in revealing the profiles and levels of SVOCs based on their lipid-content-normalized concentrations. The concentrations of 12 OCPs and 14 PCBs in lichens were significantly linearly correlated with altitudes, whereas the correlations for mosses and soil with altitudes were insignificant. Both a frequency distribution diagram and the Mountain Contamination Potential Model indicated that SVOCs with specific values of log KOA (8-11) and log KWA (2-4) had relative high mountain contamination potential on the Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, sediment samples were collected from Aliağa Shipbreaking Yard which is located at the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea. To investigate the effect of shipbreaking to the marine environment, organic pollutant levels were determined in the collected samples. 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 18 polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and 28 organochlorine pesticides were analysed. PAH, PCB and OCP concentrations changed between 585-25000, 17-847 and 11-118 µg/kg dry weight sediment, respectively. The concentrations were compared with sediment guideline values for the prediction of toxicity and also evaluated by some diagnostic indices for source identification. High concentrations of organic pollutants were measured at the sampling stations. Possible source of PAH compounds were determined as incomplete combustion which indicates that the pollution is mostly due to the shipbreaking activities.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To contribute to the use of the tropical brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel species for organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the present study reports data on the toxicokinetics of these compounds in P. perna. Specifically, the authors present data on OCP and PCB bioaccumulation for eight sampling months from three bays (SE Brazil) and two transplant experiments (each 1 month long). Although seasonality is observed in the total lipid content of the whole soft tissue, with summer samples showing higher values, no such seasonality is observed in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the mussel P. perna. Because no seasonal effect is observed in the annual OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by P. perna, the use of this species as a sentinel organism to monitor organochlorinated compounds is encouraged. One month of transplantation is not enough to allow the transplanted specimens to reach the concentrations observed in animals reared at the destination site. Nevertheless, P. perna showed a clear tendency to depurate the DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE after 1 month of transplantation.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Source
    Jingxian Wang · Wei Liang · Bernhard Henkelmann · Gerd Pfister · Karl-Werner Schramm
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accumulated by semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) -based virtual organisms (VOs) and local feral fish were studied in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. VOs were deployed at seven sites in TGR for two periods in 2009 and 5 species of fish with different living habitats and feeding habits collected in the same periods from two counties in TGR. 28 OCPs were analyzed and the concentration and profile of OCPs in fish were quite different from those in VOs. The lipid-based concentrations of OCPs in fish ranged from 225.7 ng/g lw to 1996.4 ng/g lw which were much higher than those in VOs which ranged from 17.3 to 112.4 ng/g lw. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the prevalent OCPs in the investigated fish, while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was the dominant compound in VOs. DDT in the few fish sample analyzed was not of concern based on chemical contaminant limits of non-carcinogenic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Environmental Pollution
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ∑PCB 2682 ± 3300 pg/g lipid; ∑DDT 25,938 ± 28,644 pg/g lipid; and ∑HCH 2930 ± 2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ∑WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in rainwater samples collected in relation to a contaminated site in Kibaha district, Tanzania were investigated. The compounds detected in the samples by GC–MS and isotope dilution methodology included DDT, DDE, DDD, HCHs, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, endrin and hexachlorobenzene. The concentrations of total DDT and total HCH ranged 0.005–3200 μg L−1 and 0.01–170 μg L−1, respectively and they indicated input of significantly non-degraded technical mixtures. The highest concentrations for other compounds ranged 0.001–1.3 μg L−1. The highest concentrations were found in samples collected in the vicinity of the contaminated site and the concentrations at other points showed a general even distribution suggesting repeated volatilization and deposition mechanisms. The strong positive correlations in the concentrations of the compounds indicated a common source. A decrease in concentrations with time was indicated, although the decrease was not significant during the period of sampling. The findings indicate risks and concerns for public and environmental health.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Chemosphere

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Aerosol and Air Quality Research

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and butyl rubber (BR) based sorbents were employed as passive samplers in 14 coastal stations of Turkey including shipyards and marinas to characterize time-integrated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their relationship to potential pollution sources. Passive samplers of SPMDs and BR sorbents were deployed for 30 days in the spring of 2012. The maximum concentrations of total PAH and PCB compounds sequestered by SPMDs were 3338 ng g− 1 SPMD and 4247 pg g− 1 SPMD. (END)-I and DDT-related compounds were dominant OCP compounds for most of the sites in passive samplers. Total PAH concentrations in SPMDs were found 1.2 to 8 times higher than the concentrations in BRs. However, BR sorbents were able to sample some PAHs which could not be sampled by SPMDs. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs in BRs were similar or higher than SPMDs. SPMD-data were used to estimate the average ambient water concentrations of the contaminants. Two existing theoretical approaches have been used to derive the concentrations of hydrophobic pollutants in the ambient waters. The results were found very similar and range from 7318 to 183864 pg L− 1 for PAHs, from 2 to 186 pg L− 1 for PCBs, and from 98 to 848 pg L− 1 for OCPs. Furthermore, a simple numerical model was designed to estimate the boat-related water concentrations in marinas by using the seawater data supplied by SPMDs. The model was mainly built on the water concentration and the capacities of a particular marina and then applied to two sites in the second marina. A good correlation was found between the model outputs and SPMD-water data.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Environment International
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For evaluating the brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel organism regarding environmental concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the present study reports original data on the relationship between the concentrations of these chemicals in bottom surface sediments, suspended solids (SS) and concentrations bioaccumulated by this bivalve. Three P. perna cultivation areas, located at three bays in southeastern Brazil were used in this study. The three estuaries are under different degrees of environmental impact. Variations in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the bivalves tended to be similar to those observed in the sediment, but differed from those found in SS. This latter difference might suggest that the SS trapping apparatuses should have been left in place for approximately 60days (not only 15days). This longer period would allow the integration of the environmental variability of the OCP and PCB burden adsorbed to this compartment. Authors encourage future studies to evaluate P. perna exposure to OCPs and PCBs through the evaluation of sediment concentrations.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Chemosphere
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bulk deposition samples were collected at three elevated summits in different parts of the Alps from 2005 to 2010. Deposition samples were analyzed for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). HCHs, DDT, DDD, DDE, chlordanes, cis-heptachlor, HCB, dieldrin and endrin were found in all samples, only aldrin was found less frequently.Differences in the mean deposition rates between the three sites reflect the different amounts of precipitation at these sites. At the northern edge of the Alps with the highest annual total precipitations, mean annual deposition rates were at least twice those at the Swiss site for most of the investigated OCP. Average annual deposition of α-HCH amounted to 602, 461 and 216 ng m−2 year−1, the sum of DDT, DDD and DDE to 579, 210 and 144 ng m−2 year−1 and the sum of trans- and cis-chlordane to 35, 47, 16 ng m−2 year−1 at Zugspitze, Sonnblick, and Weissfluhjoch, respectively.A quite distinct seasonal pattern of OPC deposition was observed at all three locations. For most of the HCH isomers, higher deposition rates were observed in summer than in winter at all three sites, which may be caused by enhanced re-volatilization due to higher summer temperatures and the ongoing application of HCH-containing products in some regions as well. For the other investigated OCPs, higher summer deposition rates were found only at Weissfluhjoch. This site is more often affected by air masses crossing the river Po basin than the other two sites, an area exhibiting higher summer temperatures compared to other regions adjacent to the Alps.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Atmospheric Environment
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Toxicology Letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Halogenated carbazoles have recently been detected in soil and water samples, but their environmental effects and fate are unknown. Eighty-four soil samples obtained from a site with no recorded history of pollution were used to assess the persistence and dioxin-like toxicity of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles in soil under controlled conditions for 15 months. Soil samples were divided into two temperature conditions, 15 and 20 °C, both under fluctuating soil moisture conditions comprising 19 and 44 drying-rewetting cycles, respectively. This was characterized by natural water loss by evaporation and rewetting to -15 kPa. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and cleanup were performed after incubation. Identification and quantification were done using high-resolution gas chromatogram/mass spectrometer (HRGC/MS), while dioxin-like toxicity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in H4IIA rat hepatoma cells assay and multidimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (mQSAR) modelling. Carbazole, 3-chlorocarbazole and 3,6-dichlorocarbazole were detected including trichlorocarbazole not previously reported in soils. Carbazole and 3-chlorocarbazole showed significant dissipation at 15 °C but not at 20 °C incubating conditions indicating that low temperature could be suitable for dissipation of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles. 3,6-Dichlorocarbazole was resistant at both conditions. Trichlorocarbazole however exhibited a tendency to increase in concentration with time. 3-Chlorocarbazole, 3,6-dibromocarbazole and selected soil extracts exhibited EROD activity. Dioxin-like toxicity did not decrease significantly with time, whereas the sum chlorocarbazole toxic equivalence concentrations (∑TEQ) did not contribute significantly to the soil assay dioxin-like toxicity equivalent concentrations (TCDD-EQ). Carbazole and chlorocarbazoles are persistent with the latter also toxic in natural conditions.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The levels, compositions and distributions of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were determined in soil samples collected 5-14years after clean-up was carried out at seven contaminated sites in Tanzania. Samples were collected from various depths (5-10cm, 30cm, and 50cm for most sites and up to 300cm for one site. Determination of the analytes was performed using a high resolution GC-MS and isotope dilution technology. DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfans, chlordanes and heptachlor were the major compounds detected. The concentrations of total DDT and total HCH were up to 250000 and 164000mgkg(-1), respectively, while the highest concentrations for other compounds ranged from 29 to 3300mgkg(-1). The results indicated that there were no significant degradations/transformations of the pesticides for most of the sites. The highest concentrations of the compounds were mostly found in surface soil samples and there were variations in distribution among the sampling depths. The results indicate risks and concerns for public health and the environment.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Chemosphere

Publication Stats

2k Citations
378.47 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2015
    • Helmholtz Zentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2009-2014
    • Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung
      • Department of Ecological Chemistry
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2005
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Graduate School
      Peping, Beijing, China