[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yogurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 (LG21) on autonomic nerve activities, peripheral blood flow, skin condition (skin pigmentations and moisture), saliva s-IgA and examination of quality of life (QOL). 20 healthy female volunteers (yogurt containing LG21 group: 10 people, yogurt containing Bifidobacterium (Bif) group: 10 people) were examined. The subjects ingested 100 g of yogurt twice daily for 4 weeks. Analysis was before and after 4 weeks dosage. By the effects for the autonomic nervous activity, parasympathetic increase was observed in the LG21 yogurt group, but was not significant increase. The LG21 yogurt was significantly increased on the peripheral blood flow. The LG21 yogurt was significantly increased on saliva s-IgA. The LG21 yogurt and Bif yogurt were significantly decrease on skin pigmentation. Also, LG21 yogurt was significantly increased on skin moisture. As a result of QOL questionnaire, incomplete evacuation, lower abdominal fullness, cold extremities and pimply or rough skin improved in LG21 yogurt and Bif yogurt after the administration period. These results suggest that the improvement effects of LG21 yogurt may be related to the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While target training goal achievement levels have remained unchanged, clinical training systems have been revised to enable residents in their second training year to participate in training programs they select in consideration of their career paths since 2010. This study examined the influences of revision on residents’ career choice process, based on the results of a questionnaire survey.The majority of the residents began to consider their careers < during the first half of their second training year > , similarly to before the revision. On the other hand, the rate of those making decisions on their careers < during the second half of their second training year > decreased by 10%, suggesting that the career decision-making period may have been brought slightly forward. The influences of initial residency may be marked even after the revision of clinical training systems, as approximately 90% of the respondents answered < Influenced > . In this respect, in more than 40% of those who answered < Influenced > , they changed their career choices within a short period of time. In the present study, < clinical training experience > , < job satisfaction > , and < intellectual curiosity > were the 3 most frequent reasons for career choices, confirming that the residents selected medical departments based on their clinical training experience.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate plays an important role in skin barrier signaling. In our previous study, Yokukansan (YKS) affected glutamate receptors in NC/Nga mice and was ameliorated in atopic dermatitis lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of YKS on skin and cultured human keratinocytes. Glutamate concentrations in skin of YKS-treated and nontreated NC/Nga mice were measured. Then, glutamate release from cultured keratinocytes was measured, and extracellular glutamate concentrations in YKS-stimulated cultured human keratinocytes were determined. The mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor 2D (NMDAR2D) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) were also determined in YKS-stimulated cultured keratinocytes. The glutamate concentrations and dermatitis scores increased in conventional mice, whereas they decreased in YKS-treated mice. Glutamate concentrations in cell supernatants of cultured keratinocytes increased proportionally to the cell density. However, they decreased dose-dependently with YKS. YKS stimulation increased NMDAR2D in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, GLAST decreased in response to YKS. Our findings indicate that YKS affects peripheral glutamate signaling in keratinocytes. Glutamine is essential as a transmitter, and dermatitis lesions might produce and release excess glutamate. This study suggests that, in keratinocytes, YKS controls extracellular glutamate concentrations, suppresses N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and activates glutamate transport.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yokukansan (YKS) has been used in Japan as a remedy for neurosis, insomnia, and children with night crying. Recently, many studies on the central nervous system (CNS) in terms of the effect of YKS have been reported in Japan. Here, we introduce our studies of YKS effects in the dermatological field. Our first study showed that YKS controls scratching behaviors and inhibits the development of AD-like lesions in isolated NC/Nga mice. In the second study, we compared the efficacy of YKS and fexofenadine (anti-allergic drug) using the same experimental system. Both YKS and fexofenadine inhibit aggravation of AD-like symptoms in socially isolated NC/Nga mice with respect to TEWL and dermatitis scores. However, YKS decreases the scratching and grooming behaviors in socially isolated NC/Nga mice. Thus, we speculate that YKS inhibits the aggravation of AD-like skin lesions in isolated NC/Nga mice due to mechanisms different from fexofenadine. From the results for the central nervous system, we focused on glutamate signaling to evaluate the effect of YKS in the epidermis. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression was increased in the skin of conventional control mice and was decreased in YKS-treated mice. Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) mRNA levels were decreased in the skin of conventional control mice and were increased in YKS-treated mice. The results indicate that YKS ameliorates AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice through a mechanism distinct from that of fexofenadine. Our latest experiment showed that the extracellular concentrations of glutamate increased as the cell density increased in cultured keratinocytes. We speculate that this increase originated from an outflow of glutamate from the keratinocytes. Furthermore, the effects of YKS are suggested to regulate epidermal glutamate signaling, notably NMDA receptors, in the epidermis.