[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding among men who have sex with men (MSM). As independent risk factors of HIV infection, the epidemics of Chlamydia (CT) and Gonorrhea (NG) in MSM were not well studied, particular for the risk factors of these infectious. The objectives of current reported study were to understand the dynamics of HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM in Jiangsu, China, and to measure factors that correlated with STIs.
In order to gain more participants, a multisite cross-sectional study design was used in our study, by using convenience-sampling to recruit MSM in two Changzhou and Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, between the July and October of 2009.
In this comprehensive survey involving MSM in two cities of Jiangsu province of China, the prevalence of STIs of CT (6.54%), NG (3.63%), syphilis (20.34%) and HIV (11.62%) were measured. Overall, the STIs prevalence (CT, NG or syphilis) for the participants in our study was 26.39%, meanwhile, 3.4% (14 out of the 413) participants had at least two kinds of STIs. Meeting casual partners at parks, public restrooms or other public areas, having had anal sex with men in the past six months, having had STI symptoms in the past year were positively correlated with STIs positive, with adjusted ORs of 4.61(95%CI 1.03-20.75), 1.91(95%CI 1.14-3.21) and 2.36(95%CI 1.07,5.24).
Our study findings reiterate the fact that Chinese MSM are highly susceptible to acquiring syphilis, CT, NG and HIV, and there is an urgent need for intervention targeted towards this population. Behavioral measures should constitute an important part of the targeted intervention. Furthermore, the already implemented preventive and diagnostic services for HIV should be expanded to include syphilis CT and NG, too.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The aim of this study was to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the expression of KIR3DL1 receptor on natural killer (NK) cells, in order to promote the ability of NK cells to destroy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells and thus prevent failure of siRNA therapy targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus among HIV-1 infected patients in vitro.
A siRNA targeting KIR3DL1 was synthesized and then modified with cholesterol, methylene, and sulfate. The inhibitory action of the siRNAs on primary cultured NK cells was detected. The amount of IFN-γ and TNF-α secretions in NK cells was measured. The intended functions of NK cells in vitro were analyzed by CFSE and PI methods.
There were no significant differences in inhibiting the expression of KIR3DL1 on NK cells between the modified and unmodified siRNAs, while inhibition by each of them differed significantly from controls. The amount of IFN-γ and TNF-α secretions in the NK cells was abundant due to unsuccessful expression of KIR3DL1 on NK cells, which further promoted function of the NK cells.
The siRNA against KIR3DL1 could enhance the ability of the NK cells to kill the HIV-1 infected cells in vitro and successfully prevented the failure of siRNA therapy targeting the HIV-1 virus. Therefore, it can act as a potential gene therapeutic agent among HIV-1 infected people.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections with their potential correlates.
A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted.
185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou), aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG.
Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI) were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG.
Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are immune effector cells characterized by co-expression of CD3 and CD56 molecules. We examined the quantities of CIK cells and the changes of these cell expressing NK cell receptors in HIV-1-positive children infected via mother-to-child transmission. The percentage of CIK cells was quantified and the changes in the surface cell receptor profiles in 18 HIV-1-infected children were examined. We found that CIK cell percentages were dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected children. Furthermore, the expressions of CD16, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80 and CD244 on CIK cells were decreased, while the expressions of KIR3DL1 and NKG2D on CIK cells were increased in HIV-1-infected children. However, the expressions of KIR2D and NTB-A on CIK cells did not change in the HIV-1-infected children. CIK cells possessed the characteristics of promoting the maturation of dendritic cells and killing functions in HIV-1-infected children. Moreover, serum concentrations of IL-4 and IFN-γ were significantly increased in HIV-1-infected children compared with the HIV-negative controls. These changes likely occurred as a protective mechanism against transmission of maternal HIV-1 virus and thereby helped to limit viral spread, eliminate infected cells and help HIV-1-infected patients to slow the progression to AIDS.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · International Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate infections of syphilis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachomatis and the related risk factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jiangsu province.
A total of 400 MSM were enrolled by Snowball Sampling Method from August to October in 2010 and then 328 cases were surveyed by a questionnaire and collected serum sample 5 ml per person as well as rectal swab on the spot; all of the serum samples were tested for syphilis by ELISA and TRUST, and all of the rectal swabs were tested for neisseria gonorrhoeae or chlamydia trachomatis. The influencing factors of syphilis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachomatis were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.
The 328 MSM were (32.46 ± 9.72) years old, 59.15% (194/328) were unmarried.75.00% (246/328) MSM had rectal sex with men in the past 3 months, and condom use rate for recent sex was 56.71% (186/328), while 53.05% (174/328) MSM didn't have sex with women in the last 3 months. The syphilis infection rate among MSM was 13.41% (44/328), the neisseria gonorrhoeae infection rate was 3.66% (12/328), and the chlamydia trachomatis rate was 11.59% (38/328). The number of sex partners was the key factor that influenced syphilis infections (OR = 4.213, 95%CI: 1.133 - 15.656).
The prevalence of syphilis and chlamydia trachomatis was high in MSM in Jiangsu, while risk behavior rate were high in the MSM and then should be intervened.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are believed to play a role in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) disease, and NK cell levels are reduced in individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection. To assess the effects on quantity of NK cells and the changes of NK cell receptors in HIV-1 infected children via mother-to-child transmission, the percentage of NK cells is quantified and the changes in the NK cell receptor profiles in 20 HIV-1 infected children who are not progressing into AIDS were examined. The results showed that NK cell percentage was decreased in the HIV-1 infected children. The expression of NKp30 on NK cells was increased, while the expressions of CD16, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, NTB-A, CD244, KIR2D, KIR3DL1 and NKG2D on NK cells were decreased in the HIV-1 infected children. NK cell cytolytic activity was elevated in HIV-1 infected children. These results indicate that the acute changes in NK cell percentage and NK cell receptors in HIV-1 infected children are different from the HIV-1 infected adult individuals. Moreover, serum concentrations of IL-18 were elevated in HIV-infected children compared to HIV-uninfected controls. These differences probably play a role in protecting against transmission of maternal HIV-1 virus and guiding the therapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infected children.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Cellular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are believed to play a role in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) disease progression, and NK cell levels are reduced in individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we compared the frequency and phenotype of peripheral blood CD3-CD56+ NK cells in HIV-1 infected patients in China who were infected through different routes of transmission, including heterosexual and homosexual sexual contact, and blood transmission through injection drug use or importation of blood or blood products. The results showed significantly reduced numbers of CD3-CD56+ NK cells with no association with route of transmission. The expression of CD16 on CD3-CD56+ NK cells in HIV-1 infected patients was similar to that in healthy controls. Among the examined receptor (KIR3DL1, NKp80, NKp44, CD244, NKG2D, and NTBA) expressions, only KIR3DL1 and NKp80 expressions on CD3-CD56+ NK cells were suppressed in HIV-1-infected patients compared to healthy controls, and no significant difference was observed between patients upon comparison of different routes of transmission. A subset of CD3(dim)/CD56+ cells was dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected patients. This study suggests that changes in NK cell count and receptors are not related to the route of HIV-1 transmission. A new subset of CD3(dim)/CD56+ cells emerged only in HIV-1-infected patients, and may play a role in limiting viral spread, eliminating infected cells, and slowing the progression from HIV-1 infection to AIDS.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Viral immunology