H. Pathak

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Dilli, NCT, India

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Publications (178)218.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted growing maize (Zea mays L.) in open top chambers (OTCs) to determine the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature on growth, yield, yield attributes and grain quality of maize. Maize (var. PEHM 5) was grown with two levels of carbon dioxide i.e., ambient (400ppm) and elevated (550±20ppm) and three levels of temperature i.e., ambient, ambient +1.5°C and ambient +3.0°C during kharif (July-October) seasons of 2013 and 2014 in New Delhi, India. Elevated CO2 increased grain yield of maize by 53.7% and harvest index (HI) by 2.9% compared to ambient CO2. Stover yield and yield attributes such as cob length, cob diameter, grain weightcob-1, number of grainscob-1 and 100 grain weight also increased with elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 decreased N concentrations in grain by 11.0% and P content by 19.0% but increased K content by 5.0% over ambient CO2. Elevated temperature by 1.5°C and 3.0°C decreased grain yield by 4.9% and stover yield by 37.0% but increased HI by 6.0% compared to ambient temperature. Elevated temperature levels positively affected grain N, P and K concentrations in grain. Simultaneous elevation of CO2 and temperature increased leaf area index, number of grainsrow-1, grain yield and harvest index but decreased days to 50% tasseling, cob length, cob diameter, grain weightcob-1 and crude protein content in grain. Test weight, stover yield and total biomass increased at elevated CO2 with ambient +1.5°C temperature but decreased at elevated CO2 with ambient +3.0°C temperature. The results indicated that elevated CO2 had positive effects whereas elevated temperature had negative effects on growth and yield of maize. With elevation of both CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 reduced the negative effects of elevated temperature on yield and yield components of maize.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment
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    ABSTRACT: In search of a suitable resource conservation technology under pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)–wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the effects of conservation agriculture (CA) on crop productivity and water-use efficiency (WUE) were evaluated during a 3-year study. The treatments were: conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (ZT) with planting on permanent narrow beds (PNB), PNB with residue (PNB + R), ZT with planting on permanent broad beds (PBB) and PBB + R. The PBB + R plots had higher pigeonpea grain yield than the CT plots in all 3 years. However, wheat grain yields under all plots were similar in all years except for PBB + R plots in the second year, which had higher wheat yield than CT plots. The contrast analysis showed that pigeonpea grain yield of CA plots was significantly higher than CT plots in the first year. However, both pigeonpea and wheat grain yields during the last 2 years under CA and CT plots were similar. The PBB + R plots had higher system WUE than the CT plots in the second and third years. Plots under CA had significantly higher WUE and significantly lower water use than CT plots in these years. The PBB + R plots had higher WUE than PNB + R and PNB plots. Also, the PBB plots had higher WUE than PNB in the second and third years, despite similar water use. The interactions of bed width and residue management for all parameters in the second and third years were not significant. Those positive impacts under PBB + R plots over CT plots were perceived to be due to no tillage and significantly higher amount of estimated residue retention. Thus, both PBB and PBB + R technologies would be very useful under a pigeonpea–wheat cropping system in this region.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Agricultural Science
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    ABSTRACT: Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    N S Abeysingha · Man Singh · V K Sehgal · Manoj Khanna · Himanshu Pathak
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    ABSTRACT: Trend analysis of hydro-climatic variables such as streamflow, rainfall, and temperature provides useful information for effective water resources planning, designing, and management. Trends in observed streamflow at four gauging stations in the Gomti River basin of North India were assessed using the Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope for the 1982 to 2012 period. The relationships between trends in streamflow and rainfall were studied by correlation analyses. There was a gradual decreasing trend of annual, monsoonal, and winter seasonal streamflow (p<0.05) from the midstream to the downstream of the river and also a decreasing trend of annual streamflow for the 5-year moving averaged standardized anomalies of streamflow for the entire basin. The declining 26 trend in the streamflow was attributed partly to the increased water withdrawal, to increased air temperature, to higher population, and partly to significant reducing trend of post monsoon rainfall especially at downstream. Upstream gauging station showed a significant increasing trend of streamflow (1.6 m3/s/year) at annual scale, and this trend was attributed to the significant increasing trend of catchment rainfall(9.54 mm/year). It was further evident in the significant coefficient of positive correlation (ρ=0.8) between streamflow and catchment rainfall. The decreasing trend in streamflow and post-monsoon rainfall especially towards downstream area with concurrent increasing trend of temperature indicates a drying tendency of the Gomti River basin over the study period. The results of this study may help stakeholders to design streamflow restoration strategies for sustainable water management planning of the Gomti River basin.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Theoretical and Applied Climatology
  • H Pathak · B Chakrabarti

    No preview · Book · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Wheat is a staple food worldwide and provides 40% of the calories in the diet. Climate change and global warming pose a threat to wheat production, however, and demand a deeper understanding of how heat stress might impact wheat production and wheat biology. However, it is difficult to identify novel heat stress associated genes when the genomic information is not available. Wheat has a very large and complex genome that is about 37 times the size of the rice genome. The present study sequenced the whole transcriptome of the wheat cv. HD2329 at the flowering stage, under control (22° ± 3°C) and heat stress (42°C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina HiSeq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms. We assembled more than 26.3 and 25.6 million high-quality reads from the control and HS-treated tissues transcriptome sequences respectively. About 76,556 (control) and 54,033 (HS-treated) contigs were assembled and annotated de novo using different assemblers and a total of 21,529 unigenes were obtained. Gene expression profile showed significant differential expression of 1525 transcripts under heat stress, of which 27 transcripts showed very high (>10) fold upregulation. Cellular processes such as metabolic processes, protein phosphorylation, oxidations-reductions, among others were highly influenced by heat stress. In summary, these observations significantly enrich the transcript dataset of wheat available on public domain and show a de novo approach to discover the heat-responsive transcripts of wheat, which can accelerate the progress of wheat stress-genomics as well as the course of wheat breeding programs in the era of climate change.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Omics: a journal of integrative biology
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    ABSTRACT: High temperature reduces the growth and yield of most of the agriculturally important crops. Elicitors have been reported to modulate the thermotolerance of crops under abiotic stresses. Here, we studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on thermotolerance level of C306 (thermotolerant) and PBW343 (thermosusceptible) wheat cultivars grown under heat stress. Pilot experiment confirmed spraying of 100 mM SA prior to heat stress (38 °C, 2 h) as the most effective treatment. Numerous protein spots were observed in C306 under SA + HS compared to PBW343 during post-anthesis stage by 2-DE. Differentially expressed proteins were identified as signaling molecule, heat-responsive transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) using MALDI-TOF–TOF/MS analysis. Abundance of transcripts of HSFs, HSPs, CDPK, SOD, RCA, etc. was observed in C306 in response to SA + HS, as compared to PBW343. C306 showed better accumulation of transcript of SAGs, osmolyte and total antioxidant capacity under SA treatment compared to PBW343. SA was observed to reduce the detrimental effect of HS on soluble starch synthase (SSS) activity as well as synthesis of starch granules in both the cultivars. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Acta Physiologiae Plantarum
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015
  • D K Gupta · A Bhatia · A Kumar · B Chakrabati · N Jain · H Pathak
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    ABSTRACT: The Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of India are dominated by rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system (RWCS). Soil, climate, intensity and methods of rice and wheat cultivation differ in different parts of the IGP. So, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) will also differ. Present study quantified GHG emission and global warming potential (GWP) of RWCS of Haryana (Upper-IGP) and Bihar (Middle-IGP). A survey of rice-wheat growing farmers in three districts of Haryana (Kaithal, Karnal and Kurukshetra) and Bihar (Begusarai, Bhagalpur and Khagaria) was conducted. The survey data was used as inputs in InfoRCT model to simulate GHG emission in rice-wheat systems of different districts. The selected areas in the IGP significantly differed in nitrogen, water and tillage inputs resulting in differences in emission of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and the GWP. The simulated average GWP of conventional RWCS was 4268±179 kg CO2 equivalent/ha in Middle-IGP (Bihar) and 10605±680 kg CO2 equivalent/ha in the Upper-IGP (Haryana). However, with use of resource conserving technologies (RCTs) such as system of rice intensification (SRI), direct-seeded rice (DSR) and zero tillage wheat (ZTW), there was lowering in GWP than conventional puddled transplanted rice and tilled wheat. Rice had higher contribution than wheat towards GWP in both the states. The continuous flooded puddled transplanted rice (CFTPR), use of electric pump for irrigation and application of high amount of nitrogenous fertilizer were identified as main contributors of GWP. The site-specific intervention of RCTs may be recommended to reduce the emission of GHG in the RWCS in the IGP.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract— The paper describes design, development and application of a web enabled spatial decision support system (SDSS) for near real time crop monitoring at district level and making the information available to different stakeholders for building resilience of agriculture to climate/weather variability. The system uses direct-broadcast remote sensing data available in public domain and free web enabled open source software (FOSS) technologies for building spatial decision support application. The system uses multi-temporal remote sensing images received at IARI satellite ground station from Terra/Aqua MODIS sensor. Regular real-time satellite derived parameters of rainfall, day and night land surface temperature (LST), and crop vigour index of NDVI are generated for crop pixels and aggregated at district level for 579 districts of the country. Using historical values (2000-2014), Weekly anomaly indices of standardized precipitation index (SPI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Crop Condition Index (CCI) are generated for each districts of India for current period. The historical and real-time basic parameters and anomaly indices are archived in a database and are made available on a web portal. Three-tier architecture is implemented on web-portal using open source Web GIS – the data is imported and stored in PostGIS/PostgreSQL in tabular form. The server-tier includes Apache web server, PHP and Geoserver. Open layer is used for visualization of geospatial data for client application. This Geo-portal allows visualization of SPI, VCI and TCI as categorized maps for current period and over the crop season. Besides, for a selected district, it shows the temporal profile of parameters for current year and its comparison with that of previous year and long term average in graphical and tabular format. This prototype SDSS allow researchers, farmers, stakeholders and policy makers to explore and benefit from visualizing and analyzing current weather and agricultural situation. It is expected that such a system will help in managing the agricultural weather uncertainties at the level of decision-makers in federal and provincial government departments and also at farmer's level, thus building resilience of agricultural systems to climate variability at multiple levels.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Heat stress adversely affects growth, development, and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Plants have, however, evolved mechanisms to adapt to such conditions mainly by the expression of stress-associated chaperones, the heat shock proteins (HSPs), for modulating the tolerance level. Here, we report cloning of cytosolic putative HSP70 of 1678 bp from a thermotolerant cultivar (C306) of wheat (T. aestivum). A BLASTn search showed maximum homology with the predicted HSP70 protein reported from Hordeum vulgare (accession no AK354795.1). In silico characterization showed the presence of a nucleotide-binding domain of the sugar kinase/HSP70/actin superfamily in the sequence. Putative HSP70 showed temporal and spatial variations in the expression under heat stress (HS). We observed the abundance of HSP70 protein, H2O2, proline, and guaiacol peroxidase activity during the seed-hardening stage under HS; accumulation was, however, higher in the thermotolerant C306 than in thermosusceptible HD2329 cultivar. A gradual decrease in cell membrane stability (CMS) and an increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were observed in both the cultivars at the different stages of growth. The expression of HSP70 showed a negative correlation with CMS and a positive correlation with TAC under HS; changes were less pronounced in C306 than in HD2329 at all the stages of growth studied. HSP70 seems to play diverse roles associated with thermotolerance, and partially protect wheat from terminal HS. Being the important member of family of the HSPs, HSP70 needs to be studied in detail, to be used for developing climate-smart wheat crops, through genetic engineering/breeding approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Plant Growth Regulation
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    ABSTRACT: Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the water yield and evapotranspiration for the Gomti River basin, India for over a period of 25 years (1985–2010). Streamflow calibration and validation of results showed satisfactory performance (NSE: 0.68– 0.51; RSR: 0.56–0.68; |PBIAS|: 2.5–24.3) of the model. The water yield was higher in the midstream sub-basins compared to upstream and downstream sub-basins whereas evapotranspiration per unit area decreased from upstream to the downstream. Both evapotranspiration and water yield at upstream and midstream sub-basins increased from 1985 to 2010, whereas water yield at downstream decreased from 1985 to 2010. We found that the spatial and temporal patterns of evapotranspiration and water yield were closely linked to climatic conditions and irrigation in the basin. The long-term trends in water yield point to a drying tendency of downstream sub-basin covering the districts of Jaunpur and Varanasi.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Current science
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    ABSTRACT: One of the important paradigms of climate smart agriculture (CSA) is building resilience of agricultural systems to climate variability at multiple levels. The paper describes design, development and application of a web enabled decision support system (DSS) for real time crop monitoring at district level and making the information available to different stakeholders for building resilience of agriculture to weather variability. The system uses multi-temporal remote sensing images received at our satellite ground station from different satellite constellations. Regular real-time satellite derived parameters of rainfall, day and night land surface temperature (LST), and crop vigour index of NDVI are generated for crop pixels and aggregated at district level. Using historical values, weekly anomaly indices of standardized precipitation index (SPI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Crop Condition Index (CCI) are generated for each of the 579 districts of India. The historical and real-time basic parameters and anomaly indices are archived in a database and can be accessed through a public web portal http://creams.iari.res.in. The portal allows visualization of SPI, VCI and TCI as categorized maps for current period and over the crop season. Besides, for a selected district, it shows the temporal profile of parameters for current year and its comparison with that of previous year and long term average in graphical and tabular format. The parameter database is kept updated with new real time data and the system is under use since 2013-14 season. As a pilot study, the information generated through the system has been extended to regularly generate agro-advisories for the farmers of National Capital Region by dovetailing it with weather forecast and involving expertise of subject matter specialists. The agro-advisory is disseminated to registered farmers through SMS service in English and local language. It is expected that such a system will help in managing the agricultural weather uncertainties at the level of decision-makers in federal and provincial government departments and also at farmer’s level.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium acts as a signaling molecule and plays very important role in plants-tolerance to the abiotic stresses including the heat stress. We studied the effect of exogenous Ca2+ (10 mM) prior to the heat stress (42 °C, 2 h) on different molecular and biochemical parameters associated with thermotolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We could observe 64 and 52 unique protein spots in HD2967 (thermotolerant) and HD2329 (thermosusceptible) cultivars under normal and heat stress condition. Similarly, 13 and 9 (HD2967) and 19 and 9 proteins (HD2329) were observed to be up-regulated and down-regulated in response to HS. MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS characterization identified the differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots as calcium dependent protein kinase (CDPK), oxygen evolving enhancer protein, HSP17, HSP70, Rubisco activase etc. Transcript profiling of identified stress-associated genes (SAGs) showed very high expression of CDPK, HSFA4a, HSP17, SOD and APX in response to Ca2+ + HS in HD2967 compared to HD2329 cultivars of wheat. Similarly accumulation of signaling molecules (H2O2 and CDPK) as well as osmolyte was observed maximum in response to Ca2+ + HS in HD2967 compared to HD2329 cultivars. Very high activities of guaiacol-peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in Ca-treated HD2967 compared to HD2329 when exposed to HS. It is the abundance of these chaperones and antioxidant enzymes in thermotolerant cultivar which limit the accumulation of H2O2 in response to Ca2+ and HS. Exogenous Ca2+ application showed negative correlation with lipid peroxidation and positive correlation with total antioxidant capacity of the cell system under the elevated temperature. Alteration in Ca2+ efflux triggers the activities of kinases and peroxidases more in tolerant compared to susceptible cultivars which regulate the accumulation of ROS inside the cell and attenuate the lipid peroxidation process. Ultimately, it enhances the total antioxidant capacity and thermotolerance of the plants under the heat stress.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology

  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
  • H Pathak · Bidisha Chakrabarti

    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Global warming refers to the current rise in the average temperature of earth's atmosphere and oceans owing to transmission of incoming shortwave radiation from the sun and absorbance of outgoing long-wave radiation from the earth. This has been aggravated by the building up of some gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (Table 1), which are collectively called greenhouse gases (GHGs). They inhibit the outgoing radiations from the earth and upset earth's heat balance. The accumulation of GHGs in atmosphere and the consequent rise in earth's temperature is termed as " greenhouse effect ". Greenhouse effect is a process in which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. It was proposed by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. According to the world agency, InterGovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the global mean annual temperature at the end of the 20th century was recorded to be higher by 0.40–0.76°C than that at the end of the 19th century (IPCC 2007), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Scientists are certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of GHGs produced by human activities. IPCC has projected a rise of 1.1–6.4°C in temperature by the end of the twenty-first century. 18.2 ENHANcED GREENHOUSE EffEct Owing to the greenhouse effect, warming of the lower atmosphere and surface of a planet takes place by a complex process involving sunlight, gases, and particles in the atmosphere. All bodies absorb as well as transmit energy. Radiations from the sun and earth closely resemble blackbody radiations. The earth's surface radiates most intensely near 10 µm at a mean surface temperature of 15°C. GHGs in the air can temporarily absorb thermal infrared light of specific wavelengths;
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that have been shown to play regulatory role by negatively affecting the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level. Information of miRNAs on some important crops like soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice, etc. are available, but no study on heat-responsive novel miRNAs has yet been reported in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, a popular wheat cultivar HD2985 was used in small RNA library construction and Illumina HiSeq 2000 was used to perform high-throughput sequencing of the library after cluster generation; 110,896,604 and 87,743,861 reads were generated in the control (22 °C) and heat-treated (42 °C for 2 h) samples, respectively. Forty-four precursor and mature miRNAs were found in T. aestivum from miRBase v 19. The frequencies of the miRNA families varied from 2 (tae-miR1117) to 60,672 (tae-miR159b). We identify 1052 and 902 mature miRNA sequences in HD2985 control and HS-treated samples by mapping on reference draft genome of T. aestivum. Maximum identified miRNAs were located on IWGSC_CSS_3B_scaff (chromosome 3B). We could identify 53 and 46 mature miRNA in the control and HS samples and more than 516 target genes by mapping on the reference genome of Oryza sativa, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor. Using different pipelines and plant-specific criteria, 37 novel miRNAs were identified in the control and treated samples. Six novel miRNA were validated using qRT-PCR to be heat-responsive. A negative correlation was, however, observed between the expression of novel miRNAs and their targets. Target prediction and pathway analysis revealed their involvement in the heat stress tolerance. These novel miRNAs are new additions to miRNA database of wheat, and the regulatory network will be made use of in deciphering the mechanism of thermotolerance in wheat.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Functional and Integrative Genomics

Publication Stats

4k Citations
218.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000-2016
    • Indian Agricultural Research Institute
      • • Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture CESCRA
      • • Division of Biochemistry
      • • Water Technology Centre
      • • Division of Agricultural Physics
      • • Nuclear Research Laboratory
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2013
    • Indian Council of Agricultural Research
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2007-2012
    • Central Rice Research Institute
      Каттаке, Odisha, India
  • 2001-2009
    • International Rice Research Institute
      • Crop and Environmental Sciences Division
      Лос-Баньос, Calabarzon, Philippines
  • 1999
    • University of Essex
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Colchester, England, United Kingdom