[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with the Amplatzer PFO occluder (Amplatzer) or the PFO STAR device (STAR) in patients with presumed paradoxical embolism.
Implantation characteristics, procedural complications, residual shunt, and recurrence of thromboembolic events were recorded prospectively in 100 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous PFO closure with the STAR (n = 50) or Amplatzer (n = 50) devices between 1998 and 2001. The study was not randomised. Device implantation was successful in all cases.
There were more procedural complications in the STAR than in the Amplatzer group (8/50 v 1/50, p = 0.01). More than one device placement attempt was an independent predictor of procedural complications (odds ratio (OR) 8.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 55.8; p = 0.03). A residual shunt six months after PFO closure, assessed by transoesophageal contrast echocardiography, occurred more often in the STAR than the Amplatzer group (17/50 v 3/50, p = 0.004), and was predicted in the STAR group by the use of a device with a 5 mm as opposed to a 3 mm disc connector (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 34.0; p = 0.04). The actuarial risk of recurrent thromboembolic events after 3.5 years was 16.8% (95% CI 7.6% to 34.6%) in the STAR and 2.7% (95% CI 0.4% to 17.7%) in the Amplatzer group after three years (p = 0.08).
Percutaneous PFO closure with the Amplatzer PFO occluder had fewer procedural complications and was more likely to be complete than with the STAR device. These findings underline the importance of device design for successful percutaneous PFO closure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been a continuous increase in the frequency of stenting, with recent reports suggesting performing stenting in all coronary angioplasty interventions. The aim of this retrospective investigation was to study the in-hospital and 1-year event rates of the most and the least avid stent user (both highly experienced) at our institution.
A total of 322 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angioplasty at our institution were retrospectively studied. Post-intervention CK, CK-MB and troponin T values and information of major in-hospital cardiac events were obtained from the charts. Events during a 1-year follow-up were collected. Comparisons were made between patients treated by the most generous (operator 1: 71% stenting) and the most frugal (operator 2: 49% stenting) stent user.
The 2 groups were comparable. Post-intervention CK max (418+/- 744 versus 427+/- 1250; p = 0.33), CK-MB (105+/- 159 versus 239+/-263; p = 0.07) and troponin T (149+/-326 versus 282+/- 380; p = 0.3) values were similar in both groups. In-hospital (2% versus 1.8%; p = 1) and 1-year follow-up cardiac events (21% versus 18%; p = 0.58) between both groups were also comparable.
Stenting is a useful tool for selected patients. However, a higher frequency of stenting does not beneficially influence in-hospital or 1-year cardiac events. These findings recommend provisional stenting rather then elective stenting.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · The Journal of invasive cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we sought to assess safety of symptom-limited exercise stress tests the day after coronary stenting.
Isolated cases of coronary stent thrombosis have been linked to early exercise stress testing, thereby questioning the safety of unrestricted physical activity after the coronary procedure.
At a single center, 1,000 patients were randomized to a symptom-limited stress test the day after coronary stenting or no stress test. The antiplatelet regimen consisted of acetylsalicylic acid and postprocedural ticlopidine or clopidogrel. The primary end point of the study was the incidence of clinical stent thrombosis at 14 days. The secondary end point was the occurrence of access site complications.
Clinical stent thrombosis occurred in five patients (1%) undergoing stress test and in five patients (1%) randomized to no stress test (p = 1.0). Access site complications were detected in 4% and 5.2% of cases, respectively (p = 0.37).
Symptom-limited exercise stress testing the day after coronary stenting does not increase the risk of clinical stent thrombosis or access site complications. Further investigations on safety of early vigorous exercise after coronary stenting in a non-supervised setting are warranted.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 50 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty because of chronic angina pectoris, a collateral flow index (CFI) was determined at the start and the end of two 1-min coronary occlusions, randomly accompanied by a resting state or a 3-min dynamic handgrip exercise (DHE). CFI expressing collateral flow relative to normal antegrade flow was determined by simultaneous coronary occlusive pressure, mean aortic pressure and central venous pressure measurements. When comparing CFI without and with DHE at the start as well as at the end of balloon occlusions, a significant increase was observed with DHE (overall p < 0.0001); start: 0.18 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.13, respectively (p = 0.01); end of occlusion: 0.21 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.14, respectively (p = 0.007).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A randomized study was conducted to assess the feasibility of 4 Fr catheters for diagnostic coronary angiograms. A total of 1,114 consecutive patients were randomized to 4 or 5 Fr catheters. Ease of use of catheters was subjectively assessed by the primary operator and the picture quality was assessed by two independent observers with a good interobserver variability (r = 0.94; P < 0.001). Predischarge local complications were recorded by the attending physician. No statistically significant difference was observed in the picture quality for the left coronary artery, right coronary artery, aorta, left ventricle, venous grafts, or renal arteries between the two groups. Fluoroscopy time (7.1 +/- 5.6 for 4 Fr vs. 6.7 +/- 5.7 min for 5 Fr) and contrast quantity (140 +/- 58 vs. 144 +/- 57 ml) were comparable between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference in favor of the 5 Fr group as regards maneuverability of catheters (93% vs. 79%; P < 0.001), and 5 Fr pigtail catheters crossed the aortic valve easier than the 4 Fr pigtail catheters (91% vs. 81%; P < 0.001). Crossover to the other catheter size or a larger sheath was more frequent with 4 Fr catheters (33/522 vs. 3/592; P < 0.001). Median time to hemostasis was 9 min for 4 Fr and 14 min for 5 Fr (P < 0.001). Of the 4 Fr patients, 84% could be mobilized at 1 hr and 86% of 5 Fr patients at 2 hr. Significant hematomas were observed in 2% with 4 Fr or 5 Fr and small hematomas in 10% and 16%, respectively (P = NS). Time to discharge was comparable in both groups (4.0 +/- 3.2 with 4 Fr vs. 4.3 +/- 3.7 hr with 5 Fr). The 4 Fr catheters are a good alternative for diagnostic coronary angiograms. The increased difficulty in maneuverability and a need for catheter changes in 70% are compensated for in part by easier hemostasis. With increasing use and finesse of these catheters, the difficulty in maneuverability are likely to be overcome.
No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to its role in the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) may be involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. We studied 362 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 134 control subjects free of CAD, both groups investigated by angiography. TAFI antigen levels were determined in venous and intracoronary plasma samples and were related to metabolic and hemostatic risk factors and extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Venous TAFI levels tended to be higher in CAD patients compared to controls, whereas this difference was significant in intracoronary samples. A subgroup of patients who had not experienced acute myocardial infarction or undergone previous cardiac interventions showed significantly higher TAFI levels in both venous and intracoronary plasma samples. TAFI levels correlated with acute phase reactants indicating a role for TAFI in inflammation. However, TAFI levels did not correlate with extent of coronary atherosclerosis and among the classical cardiovascular risk factors TAFI levels only correlated with total cholesterol and fibrinogen concentration. Our results suggest that TAFI might be a risk factor for the development of CAD.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wide range of closure devices for arterial access sites still leaves room for improvement.
We report our initial experience with a novel, cost-effective, suture-mediated device (6 French X-PRESS device, X-SITE Medical, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania) for closure of the arterial access site after both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A total of 51 consecutive patients are reported. The closure was performed immediately after the procedure. No patient had more than 5,000 U heparin administered during the procedure. The closure device was used in 36 patients (73%) after diagnostic angiography and in 15 patients (27%) after therapeutic intervention. The device could be successfully deployed in 48 patients (94%). In the remaining 3 cases (6%), hemostasis was achieved with standard manual compression without any further event. Immediate total hemostasis was achieved with the device in 44 of 48 patients (92%). Four devices (8%) could not be deployed correctly due to technical problems and the patients needed additional manual compression. The average time to achieve complete hemostasis was 5.5 +/- 3.5 minutes (range, 3-26 minutes). The patients were ambulated after a period of 1.3 +/- 0.4 hours of bedrest (range, 0.8-3.5 hours). Time to possible discharge was 4.2 +/- 3.4 hours (range, 0.9-12.5 hours). One patient experienced a minor complication (hematoma < 6 cm) and was treated with manual compression without clinical sequelae. Telephone follow-up was carried out 2 weeks after deployment and revealed no sequelae.
The 6 French X-PRESS device is safe and effective in providing rapid hemostasis following interventional or diagnostic catheterization procedures. Use of the device is associated with a low rate of complications and facilitates quick hemostasis, mobilization and discharge.
No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · The Journal of invasive cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the pathogenetic predictors of collateral channels in a large cohort of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
The frequency distribution of collateral flow in patients with CAD is unknown. Only small qualitative studies have investigated which factors influence the development of collateral channels.
In 450 patients with one- to three-vessel CAD undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), collateral flow was measured. A collateral flow index (CFI; no unit) expressing collateral flow relative to normal anterograde flow was determined using coronary wedge pressure or Doppler measurements through sensor-tipped PTCA guide wires. Frequency distribution analysis of CFI and univariate and multivariate analyses of 32 factors, including gender, age, patient history, cardiovascular risk factors, medication and coronary angiographic data, were performed.
Two-thirds of the patients had a CFI < 0.25 and approximately 40% of patients had a CFI < 0.15, but only approximately 10% of the patients had a recruitable CFI > or =0.4. By univariate analysis, the following were predictors of CFI > or =0.25: high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the absence of previous non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, angina pectoris during an exercise test, angiographic indicators of severe CAD and the left circumflex or right coronary artery as the collateral-receiving vessel. Percent diameter stenosis of the lesion undergoing PTCA was the only independent predictor of a high CFI.
This large clinical study of patients with CAD in whom collateral flow was quantitatively assessed reveals that two-thirds of the patients do not have enough collateral flow to prevent myocardial ischemia during coronary occlusion, and that coronary lesion severity is the only independent pathogenetic variable related to collateral flow.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology