[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Acute gastroenteritis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Children under 5 years of age are more commonly affected, while 80% of deaths occur in children under 2 years of age. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. are the most common causative bacterial pathogens. Since the summer of 2014, a large number of Salmonella and Shigella gastroenteritis cases have occurred in our region, which is considered as a small local outbreak. We aim to report the features and antibiotic susceptibility of microorganism isolates obtained during this epidemic. Material and Methods: Between July and September 2014, patients who were admitted to pediatric clinics and emergency services on account of acute gastroenteritis lasted less than 15 days were included in this retrospective study. Stool microscopy, stool cultures, and blood cultures were performed. Salmonella and Shigella strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results: A total of 2425 patients were admitted because of acute gastroenteritis during the study period. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were isolated in 113 children. The mean age of the children was 91.5±60.3 months (4-213 months). Of the 113 patients, 56% were male and 44% were female. Shigella spp. were found in 77 patients (3.2%), and Salmonella spp. were found in 36 patients (1.5%). Salmonella enteritidis was detected in 29 patients (80.5%), whereas Salmonella typhimurium was detected in 3 patients (8.3%). In addition, Shigella sonnei was identified in 63 patients (81.8%) and Shigella flexneri in 8 patients (10.3%). In contrast to ceftriaxone susceptibility in Salmonella strains, 9.1% of Shigella strains were found to be resistant to ceftriaxone. Ciprofloxacin resistancewas found in 5.6% and 1.3% strains of Salmonella and Shigella spp. respectively. Although the ampicillin resistance values of 2 strains were close, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP) resistance was found in 89.6% Shigella strains. Conclusion: Salmonella and Shigella are common bacterial pathogens. Resistance patterns must be known to select the most effective treatment. According to our study, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin appear to be the first choice of empirical treatment for acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Additionally, if the resistance states of ampicillin and TMP are known, these drugs can also be used as empirical treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program.
Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR.
RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G-P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P and P) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P (21.6%), G2P (9.3%), G2P (6.5%), G3P (3.5%), and finally, G4P (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%.
The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1-G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses are the most frequently detected etiologic agents of gastroenteritis seen in small children. In addition to classical gastroenteritis viruses namely rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus type 40/41, astrovirus and sapovirus, some novel picornaviruses (Aichi virus, parechovirus, enterovirus) that have been identified in parallel to the developments in molecular diagnostic methods, thought to be associated with diarrhea in humans. However, the data are not enough to prove their actual roles in the pathogenesis of gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus and enterovirus in the stool samples of children with diarrhoea by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 50 samples from children admitted to our hospital with diarrhoea between June-December 2012 were included in the study. All the patients were under 5 years of age. Routine bacteriological and parasitological examinations of the patients' stool samples were negative. Total RNAs were extracted from each of the samples and cDNAs were obtained by reverse transcription. All cDNAs were investigated first with the internal control (IC) using PCR. Thirty-one of the 50 cDNAs (62%) were found IC positive. Those 31 samples were further investigated in terms of rotavirus group A and C, norovirus (NoV) genogroup GI and GII, sapovirus, astrovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus and enterovirus by PCR using specific primer pairs. The predicted sized PCR products obtained were cloned into the pBSK cloning vector and were sequenced. Sequences obtained were subjected to a BLAST search with registered sequences in the GenBank database for the confirmation of the PCR product. Out of 31 RNA positive stool specimens, 12 (38.7%) were found positive for five types of the target viruses. NoV GII (6/31, 19.3%) were detected as the most prevalent virus, followed by NoV GI (2/31, 6.5%), rotavirus group A (2/31, 6.5%), astrovirus (1/31, 3.2%) and sapovirus (1/31, 3.2%). The results of this study revealed that the most frequently detected agents were noroviruses (8/50, 16%) followed by rotavirus (2/50, 4%), astrovirus (1/50, 2%) and sapovirus (1/50, 2%). It was concluded that RT-PCR performed with the primers used in this study could be applied effectively for the molecular epidemiological analysis of RNA viruses leading to gastroenteritis. Larger scale studies conducted in different areas for longer time periods and with a larger population size will provide data for the epidemiological properties of agents of viral gastroenteritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aim The aim of this study, the frequency of catheter associated blood stream infection (CA-BSI) and its effect to mortality and length stay (LOS) of hospital.
Methods This study was conducted between November 1, 2010 and February 29 2012, and it is prospective and observational.
Results During study period, 275 patients admitted to PICU. Fifty-six percent of all patients were girl and their mean age were 87±87.4 months. There was CVC in 107(38.9%) patients. Also, there were CVC at vena jugularis interna (VJI) in 48.9%, femoral in 46.7% and subclavian in 4.3% of patients with CVC. There were 23 times CA-BSI in 16 (14.8%) patients. Totaly CVC use day was 1589 days and CA-BSI was 14 attack/1000 days within study period. The agents of CA-BSI were A. Baumannii (26%), MR-Coagulase Neagative Staphylococcus (21.7%), ESBL (+) Kl. Pneumonia (21.7%), VRE (8.6%), P. Aeruginosa (8.6%). There were 169 patients without CVC and 4 (2.4%) of them BSI. CA-BSI weas 85% of all BSI. The LOS of PICU was 43.7±63.7 days in patients with CA-BSI and 11±11.4 days in patients without CA-BSI in patients with CVC (p=0.005). The LOS of PICU in patients without CVC; 29.7±16.1 days in BSI group and 5.1±5.7 days in without BSI group (p=0.001). During study period, 36 (13%) patients died and 5 of them were related CA-BSI.
Conclusion CVC use is severe risk factor for CA-BSI, LOS of PICU and mortality.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid detection of micro-organisms from blood is one of the most critical functions of a diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Automated blood-culture systems reduce the time needed to detect positive cultures, and reduce specimen handling. The false-positive rate of such systems is 1-10%. In this study, the presence of pathogens in 'false-positive' bottles obtained from BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson) and BacT/Alert (Biomérieux) systems was investigated by eubacterial and fungal PCR. A total of 169 subculture-negative aerobic blood-culture bottles (104 BacT/Alert and 65 BACTEC) were evaluated. Both fungal and eubacterial PCRs were negative for all BACTEC bottles. Fungal PCR was also negative for the BacT/Alert system, but 10 bottles (9.6%) gave positive results by eubacterial PCR. Sequence analysis of the positive PCR amplicons indicated the presence of the following bacteria (number of isolates in parentheses): Pasteurella multocida (1), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2), Staphylococcus hominis (1), Micrococcus sp. (1), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1), Corynebacterium spp. (2), Brachibacterium sp. (1) and Arthrobacter/Rothia sp. (1). Antibiotic usage by the patients may be responsible for the inability of the laboratory to grow these bacteria on subcultures. For patients with more than one false-positive bottle, molecular methods can be used to evaluate the microbial DNA in these bottles. False positives from the BACTEC system may be due to elevated patient leukocyte counts or the high sensitivity of the system to background increases in CO(2) concentration.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terbinafine is an antifungal drug known to have also antibacterial activity against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It seems that antibacterial and antifungal activity of terbinafine may have an advantage in the treatment of mixed fungal and bacterial superficial skin infections. Nevertheless, clinical relevance of the antibacterial part of its action has not been investigated efficiently. To compare the efficacy and safety of terbinafine with those of mupirocin, which has already proven antibacterial action, in the treatment of impetigo.
Children clinically diagnosed as having impetigo were treated with topical mupirocin or topical terbinafine in a randomized fashion. Patients' lesions were examined clinically on days 0, 4, 7, 10 and bacteriologic cultures were obtained on days 0 and 10.
A total of 62 patients were included in the study. Forty-eight of these patients were eligible for the efficacy and safety analysis. Twenty-five and 23 patients were treated with mupirocin and terbinafine, respectively. The clinical cure rates were 100% for the mupirocin group and 70% for the terbinafine group (p < 0.05). The bacteriological eradication rate for mupirocin-treated children was 100% and that for terbinafine-treated children was 78% (p < 0.05). Presence of bullous lesions appeared to be a factor for poor clinical outcome in the terbinafine group. Mild local adverse effects were noted in a small percentage of patients in each group.
Antibacterial activity of terbinafine is not strong enough to be an alternative in the treatment of impertigo. It is advisable that terbinafine could be used in combination with an antibacterial drug for superficial skin infections caused by both fungi and bacteria.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · The Indian Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida dubliniensis is one of the Candida species which was first recognized in 1995. The yeast was misidentified because of its phenotypic similarities with Candida albicans. In this study, blood samples of patients from various departments at Ankara University Medical Faculty between January 1996 and September 2000 were investigated for distribution of Candida spp. and presence of C. dubliniensis. Ninety-eight culture positive fungi were included in the study. Phenotypic tests for identification of C. dubliniensis and tests for differentiation of the yeast from C. albicans, such as colony morphology on Staib agar, growth at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, beta-glucosidase activity and carbohydrate assimilation, were carried out. Sixty-four of the isolates produced germ tubes and chlamydospores, and none of them had the phenotypic characteristics of C. dubliniensis. Further large-scale studies of specific patient groups are necessary to reveal the etiologic importance of this yeast.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 160 Salmonella strains were isolated from children at the paediatrics department of Ankara University. 48.1% of the isolates were Salmonella enteritidis, 41.9% Salmonella typhimurium and 10% other serotypes. For the analysis of data, the study period was divided into 2 periods: 1993-95 and 1996-99. A decline in the isolation rate of S. typhimurium (from 63.1% to 30.1%) and rapid rise in S. enteritidis (from 31.6% to 57.3) was observed during the review period. However, for S. typhimurium isolates, the 5-drug (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline and sulfonamides) pattern of resistance was increased from 13.5% to 38.7% in the second period. Since S. enteritidis and 5-drug-resistant S. typhimurium have also increased in other countries, their pandemic spread in humans indicates the continuing importation and exportation of these pathogens.
No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 289 Shigella strains were isolated from children at the paediatrics department of Ankara University. 75% of the isolates were S. sonnei and 24.8% were S. flexneri. Each strain was tested for resistance to 9 antimicrobial agents. 79% of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin (S), 56% to tetracycline (T), 55.7% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), 27.7% to ampicillin (Am) and 19.7% to chloramphenicol (C). None of the isolates was resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin, ampicillin-sulbactam and ceftriaxone. 56% of the isolates were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequent pattern of resistance of S. sonnei and S. flexneri strains was SXT, T, S (39.6%) and Am, SXT, T, S, C (48.6%), respectively (p < 0.0001). These results demonstrate that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should not be used in the treatment of shigellosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Infectious Diseases