[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An innate immune response to bacterial components is speculated to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Recently, CD4-positive T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, characterized by the secretion of interleukin (IL)-17, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Human Th17 cells are generated from Th0 cells by IL-6 and IL-1 beta and maintained by IL-23. In this study, the role of IL-17 in PBC and its association with biliary innate immunity were examined. Using cultured human biliary epithelial cells (BECs), the expression of Th17-related cytokines and chemokines and changes therein on treatment with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and IL-17 were examined. Immunohistochemistry for IL-17 and Th17-related cytokines was performed using tissue samples of human liver. Consequently, the expression of IL-6, IL-1 beta, IL-23p19 and IL-23/IL-12p40 mRNAs, and their up-regulation by PAMPs, were found in BECs. Moreover, BECs possessed IL-17-receptors and stimulation with IL-17 induced production of IL-6, IL-1 beta, IL-23p19 and chemokines. Several IL-17-positive cells had infiltrated damaged bile ducts and the expression of IL-6 and IL-1 beta was enhanced in the bile ducts of PBC patients. In conclusion, IL-17-positive cells are associated with the chronic inflammation of bile ducts in PBC which is associated causally with the biliary innate immune responses to PAMPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycomb group protein EZH2 and Bmi1 are reportedly involved in the progression of malignant tumours. We examined the participation of EZH2 in multi-step cholangiocarcinogenesis in hepatolithiasis with respect to tumour suppressor gene p16 INK4a. We examined 20 hepatolithiatic livers with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and 10 histologically normal livers. Neoplastic biliary lesions were classified into biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN-1, 2 and 3) and invasive carcinoma. We selected 15 foci of invasive carcinoma, 8 BilIN-3 (carcinoma in situ), 12 BilIN-2 (high-grade dysplasia), 32 BilIN-1 (low-grade dysplasia) and 37 non-neoplastic biliary epithelia from these livers. Expression of p16 INK4a, EZH2 and Bmi1 were surveyed in these foci. P16 INK4a promoter methylation was examined in microdissected tissues. Taking advantage of two cell lines of CC (HuCTT-1 and TFK-1) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), the effects of the knockdown of EZH2 on p16 INK4a methylation of CC cells were examined. Expression of p16 INK4a, which was frequent in BilIN1, was decreased in BilIN-2/3 and invasive carcinoma, while EZH2 expression showed step-wise increase from BilIN-1, -2 and -3 to invasive carcinoma (p < 0.01). P16 INK4a promoter hypermethylation was related to aberrant expression of EZH2. The knockdown of EZH2 in cultured CC cells decreased p16 INK4a methylation and decreased binding of EZH2 to the p16 INK4a gene promoter. The latter suggested that direct binding of EZH2 is involved in the regulation of the p16 INK4a gene. Our data suggest that over-expression of EZH2 may induce hypermethylation of p16 INK4a promoter followed by decreased expression of p16 INK4a in the multi-step cholangiocarcinogenesis through intraepithelial neoplasm in hepatolithiasis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · The Journal of Pathology