Heinz Feldmann

National Institutes of Health, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (375)2413.94 Total impact

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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Emerging infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid sequencing of RNA/DNA from pathogen samples obtained during disease outbreaks provides critical scientific and public health information. However, challenges exist for exporting samples to laboratories or establishing conventional sequencers in remote outbreak regions. We successfully used a novel, pocket-sized nanopore sequencer at a field diagnostic laboratory in Liberia during the current Ebola virus outbreak. © 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Emerging infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Emerging infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in a human with severe pneumonia in 2012. Since then, infections have been detected in >1500 individuals, with disease severity ranging from asymptomatic to severe, fatal pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus and investigate mechanisms underlying disease severity variation in the absence of autopsy data, a rhesus macaque and common marmoset model of MERS-CoV disease were analyzed. Rhesus macaques developed mild disease, and common marmosets exhibited moderate to severe, potentially lethal, disease. Both nonhuman primate species exhibited respiratory clinical signs after inoculation, which were more severe and of longer duration in the marmosets, and developed bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In marmosets, the pneumonia was more extensive, with development of severe airway lesions. Quantitative analysis showed significantly higher levels of pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and higher amounts of pulmonary viral antigen in marmosets. Pulmonary expression of the MERS-CoV receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, was similar in marmosets and macaques. These results suggest that increased virus replication and the local immune response to MERS-CoV infection likely play a role in pulmonary pathology severity. Together, the rhesus macaque and common marmoset models of MERS-CoV span the wide range of disease severity reported in MERS-CoV-infected humans, which will aid in investigating MERS-CoV disease pathogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal Of Pathology
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    Joseph Prescott · Heinz Feldmann

    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. LASV is endemic in several West African countries with sporadic cases and prolonged outbreaks observed most commonly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Additionally several cases of Lassa fever have been imported into North America, Europe and Asia making LASV a global threat to public health. Despite this, currently no approved therapeutic or vaccine exists to treat or prevent LASV infections. Here, using a passaged strain of LASV that is uniformly lethal in Hartley guinea pigs, we demonstrate that favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and leading treatment option for influenza, has potent activity against LASV infection. In this model, once daily treatment with favipiravir significantly reduced viral titers in tissue samples and reduced mortality rates when compared with animals receiving vehicle-only or ribavirin, the current standard of care for Lassa fever. Favipiravir remained highly effective against lethal LASV infection when treatments were initiated nine days post-infection, a time when animals were demonstrating advanced signs of disease. These results support the further preclinical evaluation of favipiravir for Lassa fever and other VHFs.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: In late 2013, the largest documented outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever started in Guinea and has since spread to neighboring countries, resulting in almost 27,000 cases and >11,000 deaths in humans. In March 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV) was identified as the causative agent. This study compares the pathogenesis of a new EBOV strain, Makona, which was isolated in Guinea in 2014 with the prototype strain from the 1976 EBOV outbreak in the former Zaire. Both strains cause lethal disease in cynomolgus macaques with similar pathologic changes and hallmark features of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. However, disease progression was delayed in EBOV-Makona-infected animals, suggesting decreased rather than increased virulence of this most recent EBOV strain.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Emerging infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Henipaviruses are zoonotic viruses that can cause severe and acute respiratory diseases and encephalitis in humans. To date, no vaccine or treatments are approved for human use. The presence of neutralizing antibodies is a strong correlate of protection against lethal disease in animals. However, since RNA viruses are prone to high mutation rates, the possibility that these viruses will escape neutralization remains a potential concern. In the present study, we generated neutralization-escape mutants, using 6 different monoclonal antibodies, and studied the effect of these neutralization-escape mutations on in vitro and in vivo fitness. These data provide a mechanism for overcoming neutralization escape by use of cocktails of cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize residues within the glycoprotein that are important for virus replication and virulence.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: First identified in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is caused by an emerging human coronavirus, which is distinct from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and represents a novel member of the lineage C betacoronoviruses. Since its identification, MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been linked to more than 1372 infections manifesting with severe morbidity and, often, mortality (about 495 deaths) in the Arabian Peninsula, Europe, and, most recently, the United States. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, with nosocomial transmission appearing to be an important route of infection. The recent increase in cases of MERS in the Middle East coupled with the lack of approved antiviral therapies or vaccines to treat or prevent this infection are causes for concern. We report on the development of a synthetic DNA vaccine against MERS-CoV. An optimized DNA vaccine encoding the MERS spike protein induced potent cellular immunity and antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, macaques, and camels. Vaccinated rhesus macaques seroconverted rapidly and exhibited high levels of virus-neutralizing activity. Upon MERS viral challenge, all of the monkeys in the control-vaccinated group developed characteristic disease, including pneumonia. Vaccinated macaques were protected and failed to demonstrate any clinical or radiographic signs of pneumonia. These studies demonstrate that a consensus MERS spike protein synthetic DNA vaccine can induce protective responses against viral challenge, indicating that this strategy may have value as a possible vaccine modality against this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Science translational medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The latest Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic spread rapidly through Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, creating a global public health crisis and accelerating the assessment of experimental therapeutics and vaccines in clinical trials. One of those vaccines is based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (VSV-EBOV), a live-attenuated vector with marked preclinical efficacy. Here, we provide the preclinical proof that VSV-EBOV completely protects macaques against lethal challenge with the West African EBOV-Makona strain. Complete and partial protection was achieved with a single dose given as late as 7 and 3 days before challenge, respectively. This indicates that VSV-EBOV may protect humans against EBOV infections in West Africa with relatively short time to immunity, promoting its use for immediate public health responses. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: The current Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of both its size and duration, and there has been speculation and concern regarding the potential for EBOV to increase in virulence as a result of its prolonged circulation in humans. Here we investigate the relative potency of the interferon (IFN) inhibitors encoded by EBOVs from West Africa, since an important EBOV virulence factor is inhibition of the antiviral IFN response. Based on this work we show that, in terms of IFN antagonism, the West African viruses display no discernible differences from the prototype Mayinga isolate, which corroborates epidemiological data suggesting these viruses show no increased virulence compared with those from previous outbreaks. This finding has important implications for public health decisions, since it does not provide experimental support for theoretical claims that EBOV might gain increased virulence due to the extensive human-to-human transmission in the on-going outbreak.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Importance: The VP40 matrix protein is a key structural protein critical for Ebola virus budding. Physical and functional interactions between VP40 and host proteins such as Tsg101 and Nedd4 facilitate efficient release of VLPs and infectious virus. We reported that host TLR4 is a sensor for Ebola GP on VLPs, and that resultant TLR4 signaling pathways lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Host SOCS3 regulates the innate immune response by controlling and limiting the proinflammatory response through negative-feedback inhibition of cytokine receptors. We present evidence that Ebola virus VLPs stimulate induction of SOCS3 as well as proinflammatory cytokines, and that expression of human SOCS3 enhances budding of Ebola VLPs and infectious virus via a mechanism linked to the host ubiquitinylation machinery.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: The current outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection in West Africa is unprecedented, with nearly 26 000 confirmed cases and >10 000 deaths. Comprehensive data on the pathogenesis of EBOV infection are lacking; however, recent studies suggested that fatal EBOV infections are characterized by dysregulation of the innate immune response and a subsequent cytokine storm. Specifically, several studies suggested that hypersecretion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) correlates with lethal EBOV infections. To examine the significance of IL-1Ra in EBOV infections, we infected mice that lack the gene encoding IL-1Ra, Il1rn (IL-1RN-KO), and mice with wild-type Il1rn (IL-1RN-WT) with a mouse-adapted EBOV (MA-EBOV). Infected IL-1RN-KO mice lost more weight and had a lower survival rate than IL-1RN-WT mice infected with MA-EBOV. In addition, IL-1RN-KO mice infected with wild-type EBOV, which does not cause lethal infection in adult immunocompetent mice, such as C57BL/6 mice, experienced greater weight loss than IL-1RN-WT mice infected with wild-type EBOV. Further studies revealed that the levels of 6 cytokines in spleens-IL-1α, IL-1β, interleukin 12p40, interleukin 17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted-were significantly different between IL-1RN-KO mice and IL-1RN-WT mice infected with MA-EBOV. Collectively, our data suggest that IL-1Ra may have a protective effect upon EBOV infection, likely by damping an overactive proinflammatory immune response. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Ebola virus (EBOV) protein 24 antagonizes the host interferon (IFN) response by hijacking select nuclear importin-α isoforms. Thereby, it blocks STAT1-mediated IFN-α/β and IFN-γ synthesis. However, owing to the lack of importin-α knockout animal models in the past, their role in EBOV pathogenesis remained largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that importin-α7 is involved in the formation of EBOV inclusion bodies and replication. However, deletion of the gene encoding importin-α7 was not sufficient to increase survival rates among mice infected with EBOV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) pseudotypes expressing Ebolavirus glycoproteins (GPs) in place of the VSV G protein demonstrated protection of nonhuman primates from lethal homologous Ebolavirus challenge. Those pseudotype vectors contained no additional attenuating mutations in the rVSV genome. Here we describe rVSV vectors containing a full complement of VSV genes and expressing the Ebola virus (EBOV) GP from an additional transcription unit. These rVSV vectors contain the same combination of attenuating mutations used previously in the clinical development pathway of an rVSV/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. One of these rVSV vectors (N4CT1-EBOVGP1), which expresses membrane-anchored EBOV GP from the first position in the genome (GP1), elicited a balanced cellular and humoral GP-specific immune response in mice. Guinea pigs immunized with a single dose of this vector were protected from any signs of disease following lethal EBOV challenge, while control animals died in 7-9 days. Subsequently, N4CT1-EBOVGP1 demonstrated complete, single-dose protection of 2 macaques following lethal EBOV challenge. A single sham-vaccinated macaque died from disease due to EBOV infection. These results demonstrate that highly attenuated rVSV vectors expressing EBOV GP may provide safer alternatives to current EBOV vaccines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
  • Thomas W Geisbert · James E Strong · Heinz Feldmann
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    ABSTRACT: The filoviruses, Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs), with case-fatality rates ranging from 23% to 90%. The current outbreak of Ebola virus infection in West Africa, with >26 000 cases, demonstrates the long-underestimated public health danger that filoviruses pose as natural human pathogens. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. Licensure of any medical countermeasure may require demonstration of efficacy in the gold standard cynomolgus or rhesus macaque models of filovirus infection. Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in characterizing the filovirus NHP models. However, there is considerable debate over a variety of experimental conditions, including differences among filovirus isolates used, routes and doses of exposure, and euthanasia criteria, all of which may contribute to variability of results among different laboratories. As an example of the importance of understanding these differences, recent data with Ebola virus shows that an addition of a single uridine residue in the glycoprotein gene at the editing site attenuates the virus. Here, we draw on decades of experience working with filovirus-infected NHPs to provide a perspective on the importance of various experimental conditions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been suggested as a treatment for Ebola virus infection. Chloroquine inhibited virus replication in vitro, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. In mouse and hamster models, treatment did not improve survival. Chloroquine is not a promising treatment for Ebola. Efforts should be directed toward other drug classes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ebola virus (EBOV) is a lethal pathogen that causes up to 90% mortality in humans, whereas H5N1 avian influenza has a 60% fatality rate. Both viruses are considered pandemic threats. The objective was to evaluate the protective efficacy of a bivalent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine expressing both the A/Hanoi/30408/2005 H5N1 hemagglutinin and the EBOV glycoprotein (VSVΔG-HA-ZGP) in a lethal mouse model of infection. Methods: Mice were vaccinated 28 days before or 30 minutes after a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted EBOV or selected H5N1 influenza viruses from clades 0, 1, and 2. Animals were monitored for weight loss and survival, in addition to humoral and cell-mediated responses after immunization. Results: A single VSVΔG-HA-ZGP injection was efficacious when administered 28 days before a homologous H5N1 and/or mouse-adapted EBOV challenge, as well as a heterologous H5N1 challenge. Postexposure protection was only observed in vaccinated animals challenged with homologous H5N1 and/or mouse-adapted EBOV. Analysis of the adaptive immune response postvaccination revealed robust specific T- and B-cell responses, including a potent hemagglutinin inhibition antibody response against all H5N1 strains tested. Conclusions: The results highlight the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored vaccines to rapidly confer protection against 2 unrelated pathogens and stimulate cross-protection against H5N1 influenza viruses.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Stat1 (-/-) mice lack a response to interferon α, β, and γ, allowing for replication of nonadapted wild-type (wt) Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus. We sought to establish a mouse model for efficacy testing of live attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based filovirus vaccine vectors using wt Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus challenge strains. While infection of immunocompetent mice with different rVSV-based filovirus vectors did not cause disease, infection of Stat1 (-/-) mice with the same vectors resulted in systemic infection and lethal outcome for the majority of tested rVSVs. Despite differences in viral loads, organ tropism was remarkably similar between rVSV filovirus vaccine vectors and rVSVwt, with the exception of the brain. In conclusion, Stat1 (-/-) mice are not an appropriate immunocompromised mouse model for efficacy testing of live attenuated, replication-competent rVSV vaccine vectors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: As of 25 March 2015, the largest recorded outbreak of Ebola virus infection is ongoing, with almost 25 000 cases and >10 000 deaths. There are 5 genetically and antigenically distinct species within the genus Ebolavirus. Limited cross-reactivity and protection is observed between these 5 Ebolavirus species, which complicates vaccine development. However, on the basis of sequence homology between the 5 Ebolavirus species, we hypothesize that conserved epitopes are present on the viral glycoprotein (GP), which can be targeted by antibodies. In the current study, a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies was isolated and characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine cross-reactivity, avidity, and competition for epitope binding; Western blot analysis was also performed. Four monoclonal antibodies were identified by ELISA as cross-reacting with the GPs of all 5 Ebolavirus species. The identification of cross-reactive antibodies that bind the GPs of all known Ebolavirus species will give us important insight into the presence of conserved epitopes on the viral GP. These data will be crucial for the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostic assays. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Publication Stats

16k Citations
2,413.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Virology (LV)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2003-2015
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Immunology
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1992-2015
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • The University of Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2010-2013
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
      Hamilton, Ohio, United States
    • National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002-2013
    • National Microbiology Laboratory, Canada
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2012
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kansas State University
      • Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology
      Манхэттен, Kansas, United States
  • 1991-2012
    • Philipps-Universität Marburg
      • Institut für Virologie
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002-2011
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Pathobiological Sciences
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2001-2010
    • Robert Koch Institut
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Carl Gustav Carus-Institut
      Pforzheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007
    • The Academy of Sciences of Islamic Republic of Iran
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2002-2007
    • Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2005
    • Public Health Agency of Canada
      • Special Pathogens Program
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Institute of Physiology
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2004
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Sweden
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1993-1995
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 1994
    • National Treatment Centers for Environmental Disease
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1988
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      • Institut für Virologie
      Gieben, Hesse, Germany