[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined serum cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and their association with neonatal birth weight in obese pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI>30 kg/m2) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland. GDM was determined from the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum samples were collected at six time-points, one in each trimester of pregnancy and at 6 weeks, and 6 and 12 months postpartum. Analysis of cholesterol precursors, cholestanol and plant sterols by GLC revealed that in the first trimester subjects with GDM (n=22) had higher serum Δ8-cholestenol concentration and lathosterol/sitosterol ratio (P<0.05) than the controls (n=30). The ratio of squalene to cholesterol (100 x µmol/mmol of cholesterol) was higher in subjects with GDM in the second (11.5± 0.5 vs. 9.1±0.5, p<0.01) and third (12.1±0.8 vs. 10.0±0.7, p<0.05) trimester. In GDM, the second trimester maternal serum squalene concentration correlated with neonatal birth weight (r = 0.70, p<0.001). In conclusion, in obesity, GDM associated with elevated serum markers of cholesterol synthesis. Correlation of maternal serum squalene with neonatal birth weight suggests potential contribution of maternal cholesterol synthesis to newborn weight in GDM.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inhibition of cholesterol absorption with large doses of plant stanol esters (staest) alters profoundly cholesterol metabolism, but it is unknown how an acute inhibition with a large staest dose alters the postprandial serum and lipoprotein cholesterol precursor, plant sterol, and sitostanol contents.
Hypercholesterolemic subjects, randomly and double-blind divided into control (n = 18) and intervention groups (n = 20), consumed experimental diet without and with staest (plant stanols 8.8 g/day) for 10 weeks. Next morning after a fasting blood sample (0 h), the subjects had a breakfast without or with staest (4.5 g of plant stanols). Blood sampling was repeated 4 h later. Lipoproteins were separated with ultracentrifugation, and sterols were measured with gas-liquid chromatography.
In 0-h chylomicrons and VLDL, plant sterols were lower in staest than in controls. Postprandially, cholestenol (cholesterol synthesis marker) was reduced in chylomicrons in staest compared with controls (-0.13 ± 0.04 μg/dL vs. 0.01 ± 0.08 μg/dL, P < 0.05). Staest decreased postprandially avenasterol in chylomicrons (P < 0.05 from 0 h). Sitostanol was high at 0 h by chronic staest in serum and VLDL but not in chylomicrons. Postprandial sitostanol was increased by staest in VLDL only.
Chronic cholesterol absorption inhibition with large amount of plant stanol esters decreases plant sterols in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Acute plant stanol ester consumption increases sitostanol content in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins but suggests to decrease the risk of plant sterol and plant stanol accumulation into vascular wall by chylomicrons.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study if gene alterations affecting renal sodium reabsorption associate with susceptibility to licorice-induced hypertension.
Finnish subjects (n = 30) with a previously documented incident of licorice-induced hypertension were recruited for the study using a newspaper announcement. Their previous clinical and family histories as well as serum electrolyte levels were examined. DNA samples from all individuals were screened for variants of the genes encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC).
Upon licorice predisposition, the patients had a mean blood pressure of 201/118 mmHg. Circulating potassium, renin, and aldosterone levels were low. No significant DNA variations were identified in the 11betaHSD2 gene. Four subjects were heterozygous for beta- and gammaENaC variants previously shown to be associated with hypertension. Furthermore, a novel G insertion (2004-2005insG) in the SCNN1A gene encoding the alphaENaC was identified in two subjects. The frequency of these ENaC variants was significantly higher in subjects with licorice-induced hypertension (6/30 i.e. 20%) than in blood donors (11/301 i.e. 3.7%, P = 0.002).
Defects of the 11betaHSD2 gene do not constitute a likely cause for licorice-induced hypertension. Variants of the ENaC subunits may render some individuals sensitive to licorice-induced metabolic alterations and hypertension.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Annals of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individual blood pressure responses to antihypertensive therapy are difficult to predict. To improve optimization of antihypertensive therapy, we analyzed correlations of relevant laboratory tests with blood pressure responses to four antihypertensive monotherapies.
In the GENRES study, 208 Finnish men aged 35-60 years with moderate hypertension used amlodipine 5 mg, bisoprolol 5 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg and losartan 50 mg daily, each for 4 weeks as a monotherapy in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study; that is, each subject received each type of monotherapy in a random order. The treatment periods were preceded and separated by 4-week placebo periods. Ambulatory 24-h and office blood pressure measurements were carried out after all study periods. Data from several biochemical tests were correlated to antihypertensive drug responses.
Serum total calcium concentration was negatively correlated with blood pressure responses to amlodipine (P values 0.001-0.002). Plasma renin activity was positively correlated with blood pressure responses to losartan (P values 0.001-0.005) and bisoprolol (P values 0.03-0.17), and negatively with blood pressure responses to hydrochlorothiazide (P values 0.01-0.07). Daily urinary excretion of sodium was negatively correlated with ambulatory blood pressure responses to amlodipine (P values 0.001-0.01).
In this carefully controlled study, marked individual variations in antihypertensive drug responsiveness were found to correlate to several baseline laboratory parameters. The negative correlation between serum calcium levels and amlodipine responses is intriguing and suggests an underlying mechanistic association. Collectively, our data imply that laboratory tests may have some value in prediction of the efficacy of various antihypertensive drug therapies, although great patient-to-patient variation remains an obstacle for exact predictive classification.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only a minority of hypertensive individuals is adequately controlled for their hypertension, partially because reliable predictors for efficient antihypertensive drug therapy are lacking.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study (The GENRES Study), 208 moderately hypertensive Finnish men (aged 35 to 60 years) were treated for 4 weeks with antihypertensive drugs from four different classes: amlodipine (5 mg), bisoprolol (5 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg), or losartan (50 mg) daily. Each individual received each of the four monotherapies in a randomized order. Four-week placebo periods were included before and between drug treatment periods. Antihypertensive responses were assessed with 24-h ambulatory and office measurements and analyzed according to age, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio, duration of hypertension, number of previous antihypertensive drugs, number of affected parents, and blood pressure (BP) levels, and profiles during placebo periods.
The median BP responses in 24-h ambulatory recordings (systolic/diastolic) were 11/8 mm Hg for bisoprolol, 9/6 mm Hg for losartan, 7/5 mm Hg for amlodipine, and 5/2 mm Hg for hydrochlorothiazide. The highest pairwise within-subject correlations in BP responses were seen for the combinations of bisoprolol-losartan and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide. The BP responses to bisoprolol and losartan did not vary according to the variables. Amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide responses were positively correlated with age, placebo BP level, and lower night-time dipping on placebo.
Baseline clinical and BP parameters may be used to predict the efficacy of antihypertensive therapies. The GENRES Study material should provide an excellent platform for future pharmacogenetic analyses of antihypertensive drug responsiveness.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · American Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion-deletion (I/D) and angiotensinogen (AGT) m235t polymorphisms in cardiovascular diseases have been investigated extensively during the past decade but results have been inconsistent. A sex-specific association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and systolic blood pressure (BP) was seen among Finnish children and adolescents previously. We investigated if these polymorphisms associate with the BP and carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) in the same cohort during their adulthood. IMT data were available for 224 ACE I/D genotyped individuals and 202 AGT m235t genotyped individuals. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values did not differ between ACE and AGT genotypes. Age and BMI adjusted mean IMT was 0.02 (95% CI: -0.05 to 0.02, p=0.33) and 0.03 mm (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.001, p=0.06) lower among the ID and DD genotype groups, respectively, compared to the II genotype group. MT and TT genotype groups had 0.02 mm (95% CI: -0.01 to 0.05, p=0.17) higher and 0.01 mm (95% CI: -0.04 to 0.02, p=0.59) lower mean IMT, respectively, compared to the MM genotype group. We conclude that ACE I/D and AGT m235t polymorphisms are not associated with carotid IMT in healthy young Finnish adults.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rare mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) result in the monogenic hypertension form of Liddle's syndrome. We decided to screen for common variants in the ENaC beta and gamma subunits in patients with essential hypertension and to relate their occurrence to the activity of circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Initially, DNA samples from 27 patients with low renin/low aldosterone hypertension were examined. The DNA variants were subsequently screened for in 347 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, 175 male subjects with documented long-lasting normotension and 301 healthy Plasma renin and aldosterone levels were measured under baseline conditions and during postural and captopril challenge tests.
Two commonly occurring betaENaC variants (G589S and a novel intronic i12-17CT substitution) and one novel gammaENaC variant (V546I) were detected. One of these variants occurred in a heterozygous form in 32 patients, a prevalence (9.2%) significantly higher than that in normotensive males (2.9%, p = 0.007) and blood donors (3.0%, p = 0.001). betaENaC i12-17CT was significantly more prevalent in the hypertension group than in the two control groups combined (4.6% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.001). When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, neither of the two ENaC amino acid-changing variants showed a significant difference in activity compared with ENaC wild-type. No direct evidence for a mRNA splicing defect could be obtained for the betaENaC intronic variant. The ratio of daily urinary potassium excretion to upright and mean (of supine and upright values) plasma renin activity was higher in variant allele carriers than in non-carriers (p = 0.034 and p = 0.048).
At least 9% of Finnish patients with hypertension admitted to a specialized center carry genetic variants of beta and gammaENaC, a three times higher prevalence than in the normotensive individuals or in random healthy controls. Patients with the variant alleles showed an increased urinary potassium excretion rate in relation to their renin levels.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because cholesterol is a precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones, steroidogenic tissues have evolved multiple pathways to ensure adequate supplies of cholesterol. These include synthesis, storage as cholesteryl esters, and import from lipoproteins. In addition to endocytosis via members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily, steroidogenic cells acquire cholesterol from lipoproteins by selective lipid uptake. This pathway, which does not involve lysosomal degradation of the lipoprotein, is mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). SR-BI is highly expressed in steroidogenic cells, where its expression is regulated by various trophic hormones, as well as in the liver. Studies of genetically manipulated strains of mice have established that SR-BI plays a key role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol transport to steroidogenic tissues and to the liver for biliary secretion. In addition, analysis of SR-BI-deficient mice has shown that SR-BI expression is important for alpha-tocopherol and nitric oxide metabolism, as well as normal red blood cell maturation and female fertility. These mouse models have also revealed that SR-BI can protect against atherosclerosis. If SR-BI plays similar physiological and pathophysiological roles in humans, it may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular and reproductive diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice with homozygous null mutations in the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B, type I) and apolipoprotein E genes fed a low-fat diet exhibit a constellation of pathologies shared with human atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD): hypercholesterolemia, occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial infarctions, cardiac dysfunction (heart enlargement, reduced systolic function and ejection fraction, and ECG abnormalities), and premature death (mean age 6 weeks). They also exhibit a block in RBC maturation and abnormally high plasma unesterified-to-total cholesterol ratio (0.8) with associated abnormal lipoprotein morphology (lamellar/vesicular and stacked discoidal particles reminiscent of those in lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and cholestasis). Treatment with the lipid-lowering, antiatherosclerosis, and antioxidation drug probucol extended life to as long as 60 weeks (mean 36 weeks), and at 5-6 weeks of age, virtually completely reversed the cardiac and most RBC pathologies and corrected the unesterified to total cholesterol ratio (0.3) and associated distinctive abnormal lipoprotein morphologies. Manipulation of the timing of administration and withdrawal of probucol could control the onset of death and suggested that critical pathological changes usually occurred in untreated double knockout mice between approximately 3 (weaning) and 5 weeks of age and that probucol delayed heart failure even after development of substantial CHD. The ability of probucol treatment to modulate pathophysiology in the double knockout mice enhances the potential of this murine system for analysis of the pathophysiology of CHD and preclinical testing of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2003 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-four Finnish families with 2 or more glioma patients were identified through questionnaires sent to 369 consecutive glioma patients receiving surgery at Tampere University Hospital during 1983-94. To explore whether unusual cancer susceptibility is involved, the cancer risk of 2,664 family members was estimated using population-based data from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Among the total cohort of relatives, 88 cancers were observed during 1953-97. The overall cancer risk among 12 families with juvenile onset gliomas was significantly decreased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.9). Among 12 families with adult onset gliomas, the overall cancer risk was equal to that of the reference population (SIR 1.1, 95% CI: 0.8-1.4) whereas the risk of skin melanoma (SIR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.5-8.8) and meningioma (SIR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.1-16) were significantly increased. Several other tumors, including those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, tuberous sclerosis and Li-Fraumeni and Turcot syndromes were surveyed, but no elevated risks were observed. In conclusion, the presence of meningiomas and skin melanomas in glioma families may indicate a novel association as a cancer susceptibility trait.
No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian female fertility depends on complex interactions between the ovary and the extraovarian environment (e.g., the hypothalamic-hypophyseal ovarian axis). The role of plasma lipoproteins in fertility was examined using HDL-receptor SR-BI knockout (KO) mice. SR-BI KO females have abnormal HDLs, ovulate dysfunctional oocytes, and are infertile. Fertility was restored when the structure and/or quantity of abnormal HDL was altered by inactivating the apoAI gene or administering the cholesterol-lowering drug probucol. This suggests that abnormal lipoprotein metabolism can cause murine infertility--implying a functional hepatic-ovarian axis--and may contribute to some forms of human female infertility.
Preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the novel tissue microarray technique, we studied immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle regulators p53, p21, pRb in 42 grade II oligodendrogliomas, 16 grade III anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 10 primary and 4 recidive grade II oligoastrocytomas, 10 grade III oligoastrocytomas and 2 other grade II mixed gliomas. The p53 immunopositivity associated with malignant histology of the tumor (p = 0.01, Mann–Whitney test) and high pRb expression (p = 0.015). The p21 score associated strongly with histological grade (p 0.001). The immunopositive tumors had a significantly higher rate of proliferation (p = 0.021). The p21 immunopositivity correlated positively with p53 immunopositivity: among the 33 p21 immunopositive tumors 30 (91%) were p53 immunopositive and only 3 were p53 immunonegative (p = 0.017). Patients with p21 immunonegative primary tumors had significantly better prognosis: among them 42 of the 46 (91%) survived, whereas only 18 of the 30 patients (60%) with p21 immunopositive primary tumors survived until the follow-up date (p = 0.0017). Statistical significance was reached in multivariate analysis as well (p = 0.01, exp(B) = 5.5). The pRb immunopositive tumors had higher proliferation rate than immunonegative tumors (p = 0.002). In multivariate variance analysis, comparing the effects of different regulatory proteins on cell proliferation, only the amount of pRb expression reached statistical significance (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the expression of p21 in oligodendrocytic tumors seems to be upregulated by p53 expression which rises with cell proliferation and malignancy as in attempt to halt cell cycle but seems to be overrun by other factors. The amount of p21 expression has independent prognostic significance and could be used in diagnosis to help the difficult evaluation of the malignancy potential of oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), which is expressed in the liver and intestine, plays a critical role in cholesterol metabolism in rodents. While hepatic SR-BI expression controls high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol metabolism, intestinal SR-BI has been proposed to facilitate cholesterol absorption. To evaluate further the relevance of SR-BI in the enterohepatic circulation of cholesterol and bile salts, we studied biliary lipid secretion, hepatic sterol content and synthesis, bile acid metabolism, fecal neutral sterol excretion, and intestinal cholesterol absorption in SR-BI knockout mice. SR-BI deficiency selectively impaired biliary cholesterol secretion, without concomitant changes in either biliary bile acid or phospholipid secretion. Hepatic total and unesterified cholesterol contents were slightly increased in SR-BI-deficient mice, while sterol synthesis was not significantly changed. Bile acid pool size and composition, as well as fecal bile acid excretion, were not altered in SR-BI knockout mice. Intestinal cholesterol absorption was somewhat increased and fecal sterol excretion was slightly decreased in SR-BI knockout mice relative to controls. These findings establish the critical role of hepatic SR-BI expression in selectively controlling the utilization of HDL cholesterol for biliary secretion. In contrast, SR-BI expression is not essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial occurrence of gliomas, in the absence of well-defined hereditary multisystem disorders, is reported occasionally. We describe 17 families that have been afflicted with two or more gliomas but do not raise suspicion of other inheritable syndromes. The families were identified among 369 consecutive glioma patients operated at the Tampere University Hospital during 1983-1994. We applied comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis on 21 gliomas occurring in these 17 families. The most frequent genetic alterations, detected in over 20% of the tumors, were losses of 6q, 10, 4q, 9p and gains of 7, 19, 20q, 1p. We compared the chromosomal alterations detected in the familial gliomas to those reported previously on 209 sporadic gliomas in nine different CGH studies. In this comparison, the familial gliomas more often showed losses of chromosome arms 4q and 6q and gains of 1p and 22q. The most frequent losses (9/21 tumors) in the familial gliomas resided on chromosome arm 6q (P = 0.005, Fisher's exact test; with Bonferroni correction, P = 0.04). The loss of 6q was also the most common intrafamilial aberration, present in four separate gliomas belonging to two families. The minimal common area of loss on this chromosome resided at 6q14-16. In conclusion, we have found several characteristic aberrations by CGH in the familial gliomas and we present new chromosomal regions possibly involved in the familial predisposition to gliomas.
No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of molecular markers predicting the prognosis and the selection of patients for further adjuvant therapies is not well established in oligodendroglioma patients. A potential prognostic as well as a therapeutically predictive factor, topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha), is a molecular target for certain cytotoxic drugs. Its expression has been shown to correlate with the prognosis in a number of different cancers and with the chemosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro. The expression of topoIIalpha was evaluated immunohistochemically in 59 oligodendrogliomas and in 29 mixed gliomas with a predominating oligodendroglioma component by the use of a tissue microarray technique. In the gliomas, the percentage of topoIIalpha immunopositive cells protein expression varied from 0.0 to 49.1% (5.2 +/- 8.3%, mean+/- SD). In oligoastrocytomas, the mean topoIIalpha score was significantly higher in the oligodendroglioma than in the astrocytoma component of the tumour (5.37 +/- 5.58% vs. 1.89 +/- 2.49%, P = 0.018). A significant association was found between the high proportion of topoIIalpha positive cells and high grade of the tumour (P < 0.0001), high tumour proliferation rate (P < 0.0001), p53 overexpression (P = 0.01) and high expression of tumour suppressing retinoblastoma protein (P = 0.023). TopoIIalpha expression was not associated with the age or sex of patient, and the rate of apoptosis. TopoIIalpha expression associated highly significantly with patient prognosis; a significantly higher proportion of patients with low rather than with high topoIIalpha score was alive at the end of the 5-year follow-up (P = 0.03). Cox analysis was used to demonstrate that topoIIalpha had an independent prognostic value for survival (P = 0.034). In conclusion, high topoIIalpha expression characterizes oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas which are poorly differentiated, have high proliferation rate, and has prognostic value for overall survival of these patients. Therefore, topoIIalpha may be a useful marker for better targeted selection of poor prognosis oligodendroglioma patients for adjuvant therapy.
No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier epidemiologic studies have yielded inconsistent results on the extent and timing of the blood pressure (BP) increase in offspring of hypertensive parents. We hypothesized that a familial influence on the BP of the offspring exists from birth on, but becomes significant only later in childhood. We studied the influence of familial occurrence of hypertension on the BP of 3596 children aged 6 to 18 years during a 6-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the possible associations of BP variations with polymorphisms of two candidate genes for hypertension, ie, those coding for the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and those coding for angiotensinogen. A positive family history of hypertension was reflected as the occurrence of higher systolic BP values from the age of 9 years and upward among the females and from the age of 12 years and upward among the males. The mean differences in BP varied from 3.2 to 5.8 mm Hg (systolic) and 2.1 to 5.9 mm Hg (diastolic) between the female offspring of normotensive and hypertensive parents and grandparents. The systolic BP values were significantly higher among females with a hypertensive history in two generations in comparison with females from normotensive families. Among the male offspring of hypertensive and normotensive families, the BP differences were inconsistent. The deletion/deletion males had higher systolic BP values than those with other ACE genotypes. In contrast, variation at the angiotensinogen gene locus was not significantly associated with BP. We conclude that parental history of hypertension is a risk factor for high blood pressure among the offspring from the ages of 9 to 12 years and upward, and hypertension within two generations may enhance this effect. Although the common genetic variation of ACE may influence blood pressure in male children and adolescents, our data do not suggest a role for the common variation of the angiotensinogen gene as a BP regulator during childhood.
No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · American Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type I) mediates the selective uptake of plasma HDL cholesterol by the liver and steroidogenic tissues. As a consequence, SR-BI can influence plasma HDL cholesterol levels, HDL structure, biliary cholesterol concentrations, and the uptake, storage, and utilization of cholesterol by steroid hormone-producing cells. Here we used homozygous null SR-BI knockout mice to show that SR-BI is required for maintaining normal biliary cholesterol levels, oocyte development, and female fertility. We also used SR-BI/apolipoprotein E double homozygous knockout mice to show that SR-BI can protect against early-onset atherosclerosis. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of SR-BI loss on reproduction and atherosclerosis have not been established, potential causes include changes in (i) plasma lipoprotein levels and/or structure, (ii) cholesterol flux into or out of peripheral tissues (ovary, aortic wall), and (iii) reverse cholesterol transport, as indicated by the significant reduction of gallbladder bile cholesterol levels in SR-BI and SR-BI/apolipoprotein E double knockout mice relative to controls. If SR-BI has similar activities in humans, it may become an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in a variety of diseases.
Full-text · Article · Sep 1999 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor (CDKN2/p16) is a cell cycle regulatory protein that has been demonstrated to be inactivated by mutations, deletions or transcriptional silencing during pathogenesis of a variety of human malignancies. We studied the correlation of CDKN2/p16 expression with cell proliferation activity and patient survival in 42 oligodendrogliomas and 36 astrocytomas. CDKN2/p16 expression was frequently decreased in grade II and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (17/42) where lack of CDKN2/p16 protein predicted poor survival (p=0.0045). In astrocytomas low CDKN2/p16 expression was associated with high histologic malignancy grade (p=0.002): CDKN2/p16 protein level was decreased in 9 out of 10 glioblastomas, in 5 out of 9 anaplastic astrocytomas, in 3 out of 10 grade II astrocytomas and in none of pilocytic astocytomas (0/7). Low CDKN2/p16 expression was also associated with high cell proliferation activity (MIB-1 immunocytochemistry: p=0.004; mitotic index: p=0.007) and poor patient survival (p=0.025) in astrocytomas. Low CDKN2/p16 mRNA expression had the same topographic distribution as nuclear CDKN2/p16 immunoreactivity proving for reliability of the immunocytochemical findings. Our results are in agreement with earlier studies demonstrating CDKN2/p16 inactivation during tumorigenesis of astrocytic tumors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that loss of CDKN2/p16 expression may also play an important role in the progression of oligodendrogliomas. According to our findings CDKN2/p16 immunocytochemistry could be used as a tool to identify those oligodendrogliomas and low grade astrocytomas that are likely to progress and have poor outcome, and thus would need more aggressive therapy.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology