[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim:
The impact of any injury prevention programme is a function of the programme and its implementation. However, real world implementation of injury prevention programmes is challenging. Lower limb injuries (LLIs) are common in community Australian football (community-AF) and it is likely that many could be prevented by implementing exercise-based warm-up programmes for players. This paper describes a systematic, evidence-informed approach used to develop the implementation plan for a LLI prevention programme in community-AF in Victoria, Australia.
An ecological approach, using Step 5 of the Intervention Mapping health promotion programme planning protocol, was taken.
An implementation advisory group was established to ensure the implementation plan and associated strategies were relevant to the local context. Coaches were identified as the primary programme adopters and implementers within an ecological system including players, other coaches, first-aid providers, and club and league administrators. Social Cognitive Theory was used to identify likely determinants of programme reach, adoption and implementation among coaches (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment). Diffusion of Innovations theory, the Implementation Drivers framework and available research evidence were used to identify potential implementation strategies including the use of multiple communication channels, programme resources, coach education and mentoring.
A strategic evidence-informed approach to implementing interventions will help maximise their population impact. The approach to implementation planning described in this study relied on an effective researcher-practitioner partnership and active engagement of stakeholders. The identified implementation strategies were informed by theory, evidence and an in-depth understanding of the implementation context.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Injury Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Globally, injury is a major cause of death and disability. Improvements in trauma care have been driven by trauma registries. The capacity of a trauma registry to inform improvements in the quality of trauma care is dependent upon the quality of data. The literature on data quality in disease registries is inconsistent and ambiguous; methods used for classifying, measuring, and improving data quality are not standardised. The aim of this study was to review the literature to determine the methods used to classify, measure and improve data quality in trauma registries.
A scoping review of the literature was performed. Databases were searched using the term "trauma registry" and its synonyms, combined with multiple terms denoting data quality. There was no restriction on year. Full-length manuscripts were included if the classification, measurement or improvement of data quality in one or more trauma registries was a study objective. Data were abstracted regarding registry demographics, study design, data quality classification, and the reported methods used to measure and improve the pre-defined data quality dimensions of accuracy, completeness and capture.
Sixty-nine publications met the inclusion criteria. Four publications classified data quality. The most frequently described methods for measuring data accuracy (n=47) were checks against other datasets (n=18) and checks of injury coding (n=17). The most frequently described methods for measuring data completeness (n=47) were the percentage of included cases, for a given variable or list of variables, for which there was an observation in the registry (n=29). The most frequently described methods for measuring data capture (n=37) were the percentage of cases in a linked reference dataset that were also captured in the primary dataset being evaluated (n=24). Most publications dealing with the measurement of a dimension of data quality did not specify the methods used; most publications dealing with the improvement of data quality did not specify the dimension being targeted.
The classification, measurement and improvement of data quality in trauma registries is inconsistent. To maintain confidence in the usefulness of trauma registries, the metrics and reporting of data quality need to be standardised.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To describe the long-term outcomes of major trauma patients and factors associated with the rate of recovery.
As injury-related mortality decreases, there is increased focus on improving the quality of survival and reducing nonfatal injury burden.
Adult major trauma survivors to discharge, injured between July 2007 and June 2012 in Victoria, Australia, were followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury to measure function (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended) and return to work/study. Random-effects regression models were fitted to identify predictors of outcome and differences in the rate of change in each outcome between patient subgroups.
Among the 8844 survivors, 8128 (92%) were followed up. Also, 23% had achieved a good functional recovery, and 70% had returned to work/study at 24 months. The adjusted odds of reporting better function at 12 months was 27% (adjusted odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.36) higher compared with 6 months, and 9% (adjusted odds ratio 1.09, 95% CI, 1.02-1.17) higher at 24 months compared with 12 months. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of returning to work was 14% higher at 12 months compared with 6 months (adjusted RR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.12-1.16) and 8% (adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI, 1.06-1.10) higher at 24 months compared with 12 months.
Improvement in outcomes over the study period was observed, although ongoing disability was common at 24 months. Recovery trajectories differed by patient characteristics, providing valuable information for informing prognostication and service planning, and improving our understanding of the burden of nonfatal injury.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The involvement of the orthopaedic trauma patient in the decision-making regarding discharge destination from the acute hospital and their perception of the care following discharge are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate orthopaedic trauma patient experiences of discharge from the acute hospital and transition back into the community. Methods: Qualitative study using in depth interviews, undertaken between October 2012 and November 2013, of patients aged 18-64 with lower limb trauma. Thematic analysis was used to derive important themes. Results: Ninety four patients were interviewed, including 35 discharged to inpatient rehabilitation. Key themes that emerged include variable involvement in decision-making regarding discharge, lack of information and follow up care on discharge, and varying opinions regarding inpatient rehabilitation. Readiness for discharge from inpatient rehabilitation also differed widely amongst patients, with compensable patients often reporting being ready for discharge prior to the planned discharge date and feeling frustration at the need to stay in inpatient care. There was also a difference in patientsâ perception of the factors leading to recovery with patients discharged to rehabilitation more commonly reporting external factors such as rehabilitation providers and physiotherapy. Conclusion: The insights provided by our participants will help us improve our discharge practice, especially the need to address the concerns of inadequate information provision regarding discharge and the role of inpatient rehabilitation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.
Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk–outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990–2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.
All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8–58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1–43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5–89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.
Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country.
Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures.
In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries.
Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Injury Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparing health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes between studies is difficult due to the wide variety of instruments used. Comparing study outcomes and facilitating pooled data analyses requires valid "crosswalks" between HRQL instruments. Algorithms exist to map 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) responses to EQ-5D item responses and preference weights, but none have been validated in populations where disability is prevalent, such as injury.
Data were extracted from the Validating and Improving injury Burden Estimates Study (Injury-VIBES) for 10,166 adult, hospitalized trauma patients, with both the three-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L) and SF-12 data responses at six and 12-months postinjury. Agreement between actual (patient-reported) and estimated (mapped from SF-12) EQ-5D-3L item responses and preference weights was assessed using Kappa, Prevalence-Adjusted Bias-Adjusted Kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots.
Moderate agreement was observed for usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Agreement was substantial for mobility and self-care items. The mean differences in preference weights were -0.024 and -0.012 at six and 12 months (p < 0.001), respectively. The Bland-Altman plot limits of agreement were large compared to the range of valid preference weight values (-0.56 to 1.00). Estimated EQ-5D-3L responses under-reported disability for all items except pain/discomfort.
Caution should be taken when using EQ-5D-3L responses mapped from the SF-12 to describe patient outcomes or when undertaking economic evaluation, due to the underestimation of disability associated with mapped values. The findings from this study could be used to adjust expected EQ-5D-3L preference weights when estimated from SF-12 item responses when combining data from studies that use either instrument.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Population Health Metrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development.
We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time.
Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries.
Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition-in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden-is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To establish the association between the patient's perception of fault for the crash and 12-month outcomes after non-fatal road traffic injury.
Two adult major trauma centres, one regional trauma centre and one metropolitan trauma centre in Victoria, Australia.
2605 adult, orthopaedic trauma patients covered by the state's no-fault third party insurer for road traffic injury, injured between September 2010 and February 2014.
EQ-5D-3L, return to work and functional recovery (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score of upper good recovery) at 12 months postinjury.
After adjusting for key confounders, the adjusted relative risk (ARR) of a functional recovery (0.57, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.69) and return to work (0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99) were lower for the not at fault compared to the at fault group. The ARR of reporting problems on EQ-5D items was 1.20-1.35 times higher in the not at fault group.
Patients who were not at fault, or denied being at fault despite a police report of fault, experienced poorer outcomes than the at fault group. Attributing fault to others was associated with poorer outcomes. Interventions to improve coping, or to resolve negative feelings from the crash, could facilitate better outcomes in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Incorporating routine and standardised collection of long term outcomes following burn into burn registries would improve the capacity to quantify burn burden and evaluate care.
To evaluate methods for collecting the long term functional and quality of life outcomes of burns patients and establish the feasibility of implementing these outcomes into a multi-centre burns registry.
Five Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ) centres participated in this prospective, longitudinal study. Patients admitted to the centres between November 2009 and November 2010 were followed-up at 1, 6, 12 and 24-months after injury using measures of burn specific health, health status, fatigue, itch and return to work. Participants in the study were compared to BRANZ registered patients at the centres over the study timeframe to identify participation bias, predictors of successful follow-up were established using a Generalised Estimating Equation model, and the completion rates by mode of administration were assessed.
463 patients participated in the study, representing 24% of all BRANZ admissions in the same timeframe. Compared to all BRANZ patients in the same timeframe, the median %TBSA and hospital length of stay was greater in the study participants. The follow-up rates were 63% at 1-month, 47% at 6-months; 40% at 12-months, and 21% at 24-months after injury, and there was marked variation in follow-up rates between the centres. Increasing age, greater %TBSA and opt-in centres were associated with greater follow-up. Centres which predominantly used one mode of administration experienced better follow-up rates.
The low participation rates, high loss to follow-up and responder bias observed indicate that greater consideration needs to be given to alternative models for follow-up, including tailoring the follow-up protocol to burn severity or type.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care.
Methods and analysis
All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care.
Ethics and dissemination
The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Prognostic models are commonly used in the clinical setting. The objective of the study is to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the Rapid Emergency Medical Score (REMS) or alternate models.MethodsA retrospective cohort study of critical care patients who underwent retrieval service transfer to an ICU in a single state-wide service in Victoria, Australia. All patients aged 18 years and over transferred to an ICU between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013. Retrieval and ICU datasets were probabilistically linked. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to investigate the capacity of physiological markers and patient characteristics to predict in-hospital mortality in the ICU population. The prediction performance was evaluated using measures of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow [H-L statistic] ).ResultsThere were 1776 ICU patients who were transferred and 1749 (98.5%) had complete data. Of the 1749 patients with complete data, 257 (14.7%) died in-hospital. The REMS calculated at the time of retrieval referral demonstrated borderline predictive capability (C-statistic 0.69, 95% CI 0.62–0.76). Following logistic regression analysis of the REMS components, final variables included in the Retrieval REMS model were age, mean arterial pressure and Glasgow Coma Scale score. This model demonstrated acceptable predictive capability (C-statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.64–0.79). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) Retrieval REMS for survivors and non-survivors, respectively, were 7 (5, 10) and 9 (7, 11), P < 0.01.Conclusions
The availability of a validated tool such as Retrieval REMS assists recognition of high-risk patients and consideration of this risk in retrieval mission planning and response.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Emergency medicine Australasia: EMA
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
Data from sports injury surveillance systems are a prerequisite to the development and evaluation of injury prevention strategies. This review aimed to identify ongoing sports injury surveillance systems and determine whether there are gaps in our understanding of injuries in certain sport settings. A secondary aim was to determine which of the included surveillance systems have evaluated the quality of their data, a key factor in determining their usefulness.
A systematic search was carried out to identify (1) publications presenting methodological details of sports injury surveillance systems within clubs and organisations; and (2) publications describing quality evaluations and the quality of data from these systems. Data extracted included methodological details of the surveillance systems, methods used to evaluate data quality, and results of these evaluations.
Following literature search and review, a total of 15 sports injury surveillance systems were identified. Data relevant to each aim were summarised descriptively. Most systems were found to exist within professional and elite sports. Publications concerning data quality were identified for seven (47 %) systems. Validation of system data through comparison with alternate sources has been undertaken for only four systems (27 %).
This review identified a shortage of ongoing injury surveillance data from amateur and community sport settings and limited information about the quality of data in professional and elite settings. More surveillance systems are needed across a range of sport settings, as are standards for data quality reporting. These efforts will enable better monitoring of sports injury trends and the development of sports safety strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Trampoline-related injuries in adults are uncommon. Participation in trampolining is increasing following its admission as a sport in the Olympics and the opening of local recreational trampoline centres. The aim of this study was to assess the number and outcomes of adult trampoline-related orthopaedic injuries presenting to four trauma hospitals in Victoria.
A cohort study was performed for the period 2007-2013. Adult patients registered by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) who had sustained a trampolining related injury were included in this study. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the patient population, the injuries sustained and their in-hospital and 6-month outcomes.
There was an increase in trampolining injuries from 2007 (n=3) to 2012 (n=14) and 2013 (n=18). Overall, fifty patients with a median age of 25 (range 16-66) were identified. Thirty-five patients (70%) had lower limb injuries, 20 patients (40%) had spinal injuries and one patient had an upper limb injury. Thirty-nine patients (78%) required surgery. Fractures of the tibia (n=13), ankle fractures (n=12) and cervical spine injuries (n=7) were the most common injuries; all of which required surgery. Complications included death, spinal cord injuries, compartment syndrome and open fractures. At 6 months post injury, more than half (52%) of the patients had not achieved a good recovery, 32% had some form of persistent disability, 14% did not get back to work and overall physical health for the cohort was well below population norms for the SF-12.
Adult trampoline-related injuries have increased in the last few years in this cohort identified through VOTOR. Lower limb and spinal injuries are most prevalent. Public awareness and education are important to reduce the risk for people participating in this activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the introduction of an integrated adult critical care patient retrieval system in Victoria, Australia, on early clinical outcomes for major trauma patients who undergo interhospital transfer. The secondary aims were to examine the impact on quality and process measures for interhospital transfers in this population, and on longer-term patient-reported outcomes.
This is a cohort study using data contained in the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) for major trauma patients >18 years of age between 2009 and 2013 who had undergone interhospital transfer. For eligible patients, data items were extracted from the VSTR for analysis: demographics, injury details, hospital details, transfer details, Adult Retrieval Victoria (ARV) coordination indicator and transfer indicator, key clinical observations and outcomes.
There were 3009 major trauma interhospital transfers in the state with a transfer time less than 24 h. ARV was contacted for 1174 (39.0%) transfers. ARV-coordinated metropolitan transfers demonstrated lower adjusted odds of inhospital mortality compared with metropolitan transfers occurring without ARV coordination (OR 0.39, 0.15 to 0.97). Adjusting for destination hospital type demonstrates that this impact was principally due to ARV facilitation of a Major Trauma Service as the destination for transferred patients (OR 0.41, 0.16 to 1.02). The median time spent at the referral hospital was lower for ARV-coordinated transfers (5.4 h (3.8 to 7.5) vs 6.1 (4.2 to 9.2), p<0.0001).
In a mature trauma system, an effective retrieval service can further reduce mortality and improve long-term outcomes.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Emergency Medicine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the present study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of trauma service funding enhancements at an inner city major trauma centre.Methods The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis using retrospective trauma registry data of all major trauma patients (injury severity score >15) presenting after road trauma between 2001 and 2012. The primary outcome was cost per life year gained associated with the intervention period (2007-12) compared with the pre-intervention period (2001-06). Incremental costs were represented by all trauma-related funding enhancements undertaken between 2007 and 2010. Risk adjustment for years of life lost was conducted using zero-inflated negative binomial regression modelling. All costs were expressed in 2012 Australian dollar values.Results In all, 876 patients were identified during the study period. The incremental cost of trauma enhancements between 2007 and 2012 totalled $7.91 million, of which $2.86 million (36%) was attributable to road trauma patients. After adjustment for important covariates, the odds of in-hospital mortality reduced by around half (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27, 0.82; P = 0.01). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was A$7600 per life year gained (95% CI A$5524, $19333).Conclusion Trauma service funding enhancements that enabled a quality improvement program at a single major trauma centre were found to be cost-effective based on current international and Australian standards.What is known about this topic? Trauma quality improvement programs have been implemented across most designated trauma hospitals in an effort to improve hospital care processes and outcomes for injured patients. These involve a combination of education and training, the use of audit and key performance indicators.What does this paper add? A trauma quality improvement program initiated at an Australian Major Trauma Centre was found to be cost-effective over 12 years with respect to years of life saved in road trauma patients.What are the implications for practitioners? The results suggest that adequate resourcing of trauma centres to enable quality improvement programs may be a cost-effective measure to reduce in-hospital mortality following road trauma.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This appendix provides further methodological detail, supplemental figures, and more detailed results for incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability. The appendix is organised in broad sections following the structure of the main paper.