Belinda J Gabbe

Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom

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Publications (274)1178.53 Total impact

  • Article: Clinicians
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the perceptions of consultant surgeons, allied health clinicians and rehabilitation consultants regarding discharge destination decision making from the acute hospital following trauma.Methods A qualitative study was performed using individual in-depth interviews of clinicians in Victoria (Australia) between April 2013 and September 2014. Thematic analysis was used to derive important themes. Case studies provided quantitative information to enhance the information gained via interviews.Results Thirteen rehabilitation consultants, eight consultant surgeons and 13 allied health clinicians were interviewed. Key themes that emerged included the importance of financial considerations as drivers of decision making and the perceived lack of involvement of medical staff in decisions regarding discharge destination following trauma. Other themes included the lack of consistency of factors thought to be important drivers of discharge and the difficulty in acting on trauma patients' requests in terms of discharge destination. Importantly, as the complexity of the patient increases in terms of acquired brain injury, the options for rehabilitation become scarcer.Conclusions The information gained in the present study highlights the large variation in discharge practises between and within clinical groups. Further consultation with stakeholders involved in the care of trauma patients, as well as government bodies involved in hospital funding, is needed to derive a more consistent approach to discharge destination decision making.What is known about the topic? Little is known about the drivers for referral to, or acceptance at, in-patient rehabilitation following acute hospital care for traumatic injury in Victoria, Australia, including who makes these decisions of behalf of patients and how these decisions are made.What does this paper add? This paper provides information regarding the perceptions of acute hospital consultant surgeons and allied health, as well as rehabilitation clinicians, in terms of discharge destination decision making from the acute hospital following trauma. The use of case studies further highlights differences between, and within, these specialities with regard to this decision making. This research also highlights the importance of financial considerations as drivers of decision making, and the lack of consistency of the factors thought to be important drivers of discharge between these different clinical groupings.What are the implications for practitioners? This research shows that financial factors are significant drivers of discharge destination decision making for trauma patients. The present study highlights opportunities to engage with stakeholders (acute care, rehabilitation, administration, government and patients) to develop more consistent discharge processes that optimise the use of rehabilitation resources for those patients who could benefit from in-patient rehabilitation.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association
  • Article: Clinicians.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To explore whether older adults with isolated hip fractures benefit from treatment in high-volume hospitals. Design Population-based observational study. Setting All acute hospitals in California, USA. Participants All individuals aged ≥65 that underwent an operation for an isolated hip fracture in California between 2007 and 2011. Patients transferred between hospitals were excluded. Primary and secondary outcomes Quality indicators (time to surgery) and patient outcomes (length of stay, in-hospital mortality, unplanned 30-day readmission, and selected complications). Results 91 401 individuals satisfied the inclusion criteria. Time to operation and length of stay were significantly prolonged in low-volume hospitals, by 1.96 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.73) and 0.70 (0.38 to 1.03) days, respectively. However, there were no differences in clinical outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, 30-day re-admission, and rates of pneumonia, pressure ulcers, and venous thromboembolism. Conclusions These data suggest that there is no patient safety imperative to limit hip fracture care to high-volume hospitals.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · BMJ Open
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Implementation of effective population-level injury prevention interventions requires broad multiagency partnerships. Different stakeholders address this from varying perspectives, and potential conflicts in priorities need to be addressed for such partnerships to be effective. The researcher-led National Guidance for Australian football Partnerships and Safety (NoGAPS) project involved the engagement and participation of seven non-academic partners, including government health promotion and safety agencies; peak sports professional and advocacy bodies and health insurance organisations. Design: The partnership's ongoing development was assessed by each partner completing the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation Partnership Analysis Tool (VPAT) annually over 2011-2015. Changes in VPAT scores were compared through repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Overall, mean total VPAT scores increased significantly over the 5-year period (125.1-141.2; F5,30=4.61, p=0.003), showing a significant improvement in how the partnership was functioning over time. This was largely driven by significant increases in several VPAT domains: 'determining the need for a partnership' (F5,30=4.15, p=0.006), 'making sure the partnership works' (F5,30=2.59, p=0.046), 'planning collaborative action' (F5,30=5.13, p=0.002) and 'minimising the barriers to the partnership' (F5,30=6.66, p<0.001). Conclusion: This is the first study to assess the functioning of a multiagency partnership to address sport injury prevention implementation. For NoGAPS, the engagement of stakeholders from the outset facilitated the development of new and/or stronger links between non-academic partners. Partners shared the common goal of ensuring the real-world uptake of interventions and research evidence-informed recommendations. Effective multiagency partnerships have the potential to influence the implementation of policies and practices beyond the life of a research project.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Injury Prevention
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Analysis of data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ) to determine the extent of variation between participating units in treatment and in specific outcomes during the first 4 years of its operation. Design: BRANZ, an initiative of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association, is a clinical quality registry developed in accordance with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare national operating principles. Setting: Patients with burn injury who fulfil pre-defined criteria are transferred to and managed in designated burn units. There are 17 adult and paediatric units in Australia and New Zealand that manage almost all patients with significant burn injury. Twelve of these units treat adult patients. Participants: Data on 7184 adult cases were contributed by ten acute adult burn units to the registry between July 2010 and June 2014.Major outcomes: In-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, skin grafting rates, and rates of admission to intensive care units. Results: Considerable variations in unit profiles (including numbers of patients treated), in treatment and in outcomes were identified. Conclusions: Despite the highly centralised delivery of care to patients with severe or complex burn injury, and the relatively small number of specialist burn units, we found significant variation between units in clinical management and in outcomes. BRANZ data from its first 4 years of operation support its feasibility and the value of further development of the registry. Based on these results, the focus of ongoing research is to improve understanding of the reasons for variations in practice and of their effect on outcomes for patients, and to develop evidence-informed clinical guidelines for burn management in Australia and New Zealand.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · The Medical journal of Australia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Analysis of data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ) to determine the extent of variation between participating units in treatment and in specific outcomes during the first 4 years of its operation. Design: BRANZ, an initiative of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association, is a clinical quality registry developed in accordance with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare national operating principles. Setting: Patients with burn injury who fulfil pre-defined criteria are transferred to and managed in designated burn units. There are 17 adult and paediatric units in Australia and New Zealand that manage almost all patients with significant burn injury. Twelve of these units treat adult patients. Participants: Data on 7184 adult cases were contributed by ten acute adult burn units to the registry between July 2010 and June 2014. Major outcomes: In-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, skin grafting rates, and rates of admission to intensive care units. Results: Considerable variations in unit profiles (including numbers of patients treated), in treatment and in outcomes were identified. Conclusions: Despite the highly centralised delivery of care to patients with severe or complex burn injury, and the relatively small number of specialist burn units, we found significant variation between units in clinical management and in outcomes. BRANZ data from its first 4 years of operation support its feasibility and the value of further development of the registry. Based on these results, the focus of ongoing research is to improve understanding of the reasons for variations in practice and of their effect on outcomes for patients, and to develop evidence-informed clinical guidelines for burn management in Australia and New Zealand. © 2016 AMPCo Pty Ltd. Produced with Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigate reliability of shoulder internal and external rotation (IR, ER), abduction in internal rotation (ABIR) and combined elevation (CE) range of motion tests in competitive swimmers.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Physical Therapy in Sport
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: In this study, we aimed to determine whether designation as a major trauma centre (MTC) affects the quality of care for patients with a fracture of the hip. Patients and methods: All patients in the United Kingdom National Hip Fracture Database, between April 2010 and December 2013, were included. The indicators of quality that were recorded included the time to arrival on an orthopaedic ward, to review by a geriatrician, and to operation. The clinical outcomes were the development of a pressure sore, discharge home, length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and re-operation within 30 days. Results: There were 289 466 patients, 49 350 (17%) of whom were treated in hospitals that are now MTCs. Using multivariable logistic and generalised linear regression models, there were no significant differences in any of the indicators of the quality of care or clinical outcomes between MTCs, hospitals awaiting MTC designation and non-MTC hospitals. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the regionalisation of major trauma in England did not improve or compromise the overall care of elderly patients with a fracture of the hip. Take home message: There is no evidence that reconfiguring major trauma services in England disrupted the treatment of older adults with a fracture of the hip. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:414-19.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Bone and Joint Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The involvement of orthopaedic trauma patients in the decision-making regarding discharge destination from the acute hospital and their perceptions of the care following discharge are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate orthopaedic trauma patient experiences of discharge from the acute hospital and transition back into the community.Methods The present qualitative study performed in-depth interviews, between October 2012 and November 2013, with patients aged 18-64 years with lower limb trauma. Thematic analysis was used to derive important themes.Results Ninety-four patients were interviewed, including 35 discharged to in-patient rehabilitation. Key themes that emerged include variable involvement in decision-making regarding discharge, lack of information and follow-up care on discharge and varying opinions regarding in-patient rehabilitation. Readiness for discharge from in-patient rehabilitation also differed widely among patients, with patients often reporting being ready for discharge before the planned discharge date and feeling frustration at the need to stay in in-patient care. There was also a difference in patients' perception of the factors leading to recovery, with patients discharged to rehabilitation more commonly reporting external factors, such as rehabilitation providers and physiotherapy.Conclusion The insights provided by the participants in the present study will help us improve our discharge practice, especially the need to address the concerns of inadequate information provision regarding discharge and the role of in-patient rehabilitation.What is known about the topic? There is no current literature describing trauma patient involvement in decision-making regarding discharge from the acute hospital and the perception of how this decision (and destination choice; e.g. home or in-patient rehabilitation) affects their outcome.What does this paper add? The present large qualitative study provides information on patients' opinion of discharge from the acute hospital following trauma and how this could be improved from their perception. Patients are especially concerned with the lack of information provided to them on discharge, their lack of involvement and understanding of the choices made with regard to their discharge and describe concerns regarding their follow-up care. There is also a feeling from the patients that they are ready to leave rehabilitation before their actual planned discharge date, a concept that needs further investigation.What are the implications for practitioners? The patient insights gained by the present study will lead to a change in discharge practice, including increased involvement of the patient in the decision-making in terms of discharge from both the acute and rehabilitation hospitals and a raised awareness of the need to provide written information and follow-up telephone calls to patients following discharge. Further research into many aspects of patient discharge from the acute hospital should be considered, including the use of rehabilitation prediction tools to ensure patient involvement in decision-making and a discharge and/or follow-up coordinator to ensure patients are aware of how to access information after discharge.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The classification of proximal humeral fractures remains challenging. The two main classification systems used, the Neer and the AO classification, have both been shown to have less than ideal interobserver agreement. Agreement in classification is required, however, to guide fracture management. Method: Data from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were collected and the X-rays of 104 proximal humeral fractures were reviewed by three orthopaedic consultants. They classified the fractures according to the Neer and AO classifications, as well as their simplified versions. Interobserver agreement was then assessed using kappa statistics. Results: Interobserver agreement was better overall in the Neer classification, which was moderate (kappa = 0.40-0.58), than the AO classification, which was fair to moderate (kappa = 0.31-0.54). When simplified, the Neer and AO classification interobserver agreement remained similar. Conclusion: The classification of proximal humeral fractures with both the Neer and the AO systems remains difficult with minimal improvements seen when reducing the number of categories in each classification system. From these results, the Neer classification system would appear slightly more useful in clinical practice to guide treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · ANZ Journal of Surgery
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim: The impact of any injury prevention programme is a function of the programme and its implementation. However, real world implementation of injury prevention programmes is challenging. Lower limb injuries (LLIs) are common in community Australian football (community-AF) and it is likely that many could be prevented by implementing exercise-based warm-up programmes for players. This paper describes a systematic, evidence-informed approach used to develop the implementation plan for a LLI prevention programme in community-AF in Victoria, Australia. Methods: An ecological approach, using Step 5 of the Intervention Mapping health promotion programme planning protocol, was taken. Results: An implementation advisory group was established to ensure the implementation plan and associated strategies were relevant to the local context. Coaches were identified as the primary programme adopters and implementers within an ecological system including players, other coaches, first-aid providers, and club and league administrators. Social Cognitive Theory was used to identify likely determinants of programme reach, adoption and implementation among coaches (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment). Diffusion of Innovations theory, the Implementation Drivers framework and available research evidence were used to identify potential implementation strategies including the use of multiple communication channels, programme resources, coach education and mentoring. Conclusions: A strategic evidence-informed approach to implementing interventions will help maximise their population impact. The approach to implementation planning described in this study relied on an effective researcher-practitioner partnership and active engagement of stakeholders. The identified implementation strategies were informed by theory, evidence and an in-depth understanding of the implementation context.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Injury Prevention
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Globally, injury is a major cause of death and disability. Improvements in trauma care have been driven by trauma registries. The capacity of a trauma registry to inform improvements in the quality of trauma care is dependent upon the quality of data. The literature on data quality in disease registries is inconsistent and ambiguous; methods used for classifying, measuring, and improving data quality are not standardised. The aim of this study was to review the literature to determine the methods used to classify, measure and improve data quality in trauma registries. Methods: A scoping review of the literature was performed. Databases were searched using the term "trauma registry" and its synonyms, combined with multiple terms denoting data quality. There was no restriction on year. Full-length manuscripts were included if the classification, measurement or improvement of data quality in one or more trauma registries was a study objective. Data were abstracted regarding registry demographics, study design, data quality classification, and the reported methods used to measure and improve the pre-defined data quality dimensions of accuracy, completeness and capture. Results: Sixty-nine publications met the inclusion criteria. Four publications classified data quality. The most frequently described methods for measuring data accuracy (n=47) were checks against other datasets (n=18) and checks of injury coding (n=17). The most frequently described methods for measuring data completeness (n=47) were the percentage of included cases, for a given variable or list of variables, for which there was an observation in the registry (n=29). The most frequently described methods for measuring data capture (n=37) were the percentage of cases in a linked reference dataset that were also captured in the primary dataset being evaluated (n=24). Most publications dealing with the measurement of a dimension of data quality did not specify the methods used; most publications dealing with the improvement of data quality did not specify the dimension being targeted. Conclusion: The classification, measurement and improvement of data quality in trauma registries is inconsistent. To maintain confidence in the usefulness of trauma registries, the metrics and reporting of data quality need to be standardised.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Injury
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the long-term outcomes of major trauma patients and factors associated with the rate of recovery. Background: As injury-related mortality decreases, there is increased focus on improving the quality of survival and reducing nonfatal injury burden. Methods: Adult major trauma survivors to discharge, injured between July 2007 and June 2012 in Victoria, Australia, were followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury to measure function (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended) and return to work/study. Random-effects regression models were fitted to identify predictors of outcome and differences in the rate of change in each outcome between patient subgroups. Results: Among the 8844 survivors, 8128 (92%) were followed up. Also, 23% had achieved a good functional recovery, and 70% had returned to work/study at 24 months. The adjusted odds of reporting better function at 12 months was 27% (adjusted odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.36) higher compared with 6 months, and 9% (adjusted odds ratio 1.09, 95% CI, 1.02-1.17) higher at 24 months compared with 12 months. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of returning to work was 14% higher at 12 months compared with 6 months (adjusted RR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.12-1.16) and 8% (adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI, 1.06-1.10) higher at 24 months compared with 12 months. Conclusions: Improvement in outcomes over the study period was observed, although ongoing disability was common at 24 months. Recovery trajectories differed by patient characteristics, providing valuable information for informing prognostication and service planning, and improving our understanding of the burden of nonfatal injury.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Annals of surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The involvement of the orthopaedic trauma patient in the decision-making regarding discharge destination from the acute hospital and their perception of the care following discharge are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate orthopaedic trauma patient experiences of discharge from the acute hospital and transition back into the community. Methods: Qualitative study using in depth interviews, undertaken between October 2012 and November 2013, of patients aged 18-64 with lower limb trauma. Thematic analysis was used to derive important themes. Results: Ninety four patients were interviewed, including 35 discharged to inpatient rehabilitation. Key themes that emerged include variable involvement in decision-making regarding discharge, lack of information and follow up care on discharge, and varying opinions regarding inpatient rehabilitation. Readiness for discharge from inpatient rehabilitation also differed widely amongst patients, with compensable patients often reporting being ready for discharge prior to the planned discharge date and feeling frustration at the need to stay in inpatient care. There was also a difference in patients’ perception of the factors leading to recovery with patients discharged to rehabilitation more commonly reporting external factors such as rehabilitation providers and physiotherapy. Conclusion: The insights provided by our participants will help us improve our discharge practice, especially the need to address the concerns of inadequate information provision regarding discharge and the role of inpatient rehabilitation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Methods Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk–outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990–2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. Findings All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8–58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1–43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5–89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Interpretation Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Lancet
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This appendix provides further methodological detail, supplemental figures and more detailed results for the comparative risk assessment.
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results: In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions: Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Injury Prevention
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparing health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes between studies is difficult due to the wide variety of instruments used. Comparing study outcomes and facilitating pooled data analyses requires valid "crosswalks" between HRQL instruments. Algorithms exist to map 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) responses to EQ-5D item responses and preference weights, but none have been validated in populations where disability is prevalent, such as injury. Data were extracted from the Validating and Improving injury Burden Estimates Study (Injury-VIBES) for 10,166 adult, hospitalized trauma patients, with both the three-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L) and SF-12 data responses at six and 12-months postinjury. Agreement between actual (patient-reported) and estimated (mapped from SF-12) EQ-5D-3L item responses and preference weights was assessed using Kappa, Prevalence-Adjusted Bias-Adjusted Kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots. Moderate agreement was observed for usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Agreement was substantial for mobility and self-care items. The mean differences in preference weights were -0.024 and -0.012 at six and 12 months (p < 0.001), respectively. The Bland-Altman plot limits of agreement were large compared to the range of valid preference weight values (-0.56 to 1.00). Estimated EQ-5D-3L responses under-reported disability for all items except pain/discomfort. Caution should be taken when using EQ-5D-3L responses mapped from the SF-12 to describe patient outcomes or when undertaking economic evaluation, due to the underestimation of disability associated with mapped values. The findings from this study could be used to adjust expected EQ-5D-3L preference weights when estimated from SF-12 item responses when combining data from studies that use either instrument.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Population Health Metrics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This appendix provides two supplementary figures and ten supplementary tables.
    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries. Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition-in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden-is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,178.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Swansea University
      • College of Medicine
      Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2002-2015
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2009
    • Alfred Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2006
    • University of Vic
      Vic, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000
    • University of Victoria
      Victoria, British Columbia, Canada