Gisela Kobelt

Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (110)313.95 Total impact

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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Joint Bone Spine
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on career, productivity, and employability. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012-2013 in France among patients with RA who were younger than 60 years of age and employed or unemployed. Patients were either recruited during a rheumatologist visit or among members of a nationwide patient-support organization (ANDAR). They completed a questionnaire on the functional impact of RA evaluated by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and on the impact of their disease on work ability. Of 488 surveyed patients, 364 (74.6%) were actively employed, 31 (6.4%) were job seekers, and 93 (19.1%) had left the workforce. In the employed group, mean age was 48.9 years; 82.1% of patients were women; mean RA duration was 11.6 years; and the HAQ score correlated strongly with various markers for decreased productivity including sick leaves, temporary or permanent work discontinuation, and having unwillingly downgraded from a full-time to a part-time work schedule or changed to a different job. Among job seekers, 54% had lost their previous job because of their RA. RA is associated with various forms of work disability, which are directly related to the severity of disease-related functional impairments. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Joint, bone, spine: revue du rhumatisme
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    ABSTRACT: Étudier les conséquences de la polyarthrite rhumatoïde (PR) sur la trajectoire professionnelle des patients, l’employabilité et la productivité.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: While advances in medicine, technology and healthcare services offer promises of longevity and improved quality of life (QoL), there is also increasing reliance on a patient׳s skills and motivation to optimize all the benefits available. Patient engagement in their own healthcare has been described as the 'blockbuster drug of the century'. In multiple sclerosis (MS), patient engagement is vital if outcomes for the patient, society and healthcare systems are to be optimized. The MS in the 21st Century Steering Group devised a set of themes that require action with regard to patient engagement in MS, namely: 1) setting and facilitating engagement by education and confidence-building; 2) increasing the importance placed on QoL and patient concerns through patient-reported outcomes (PROs); 3) providing credible sources of accurate information; 4) encouraging treatment adherence through engagement; and 5) empowering through a sense of responsibility. Group members independently researched and contributed examples of patient engagement strategies from several countries and examined interventions that have worked well in areas of patient engagement in MS, and other chronic illnesses. The group presents their perspective on these programs, discusses the barriers to achieving patient engagement, and suggests practical strategies for overcoming these barriers. With an understanding of the issues that influence patient engagement in MS, we can start to investigate ways to enhance engagement and subsequent health outcomes. Engaging patients involves a broad, multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
  • Gisela Kobelt
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    ABSTRACT: Background Current management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) focuses on inducing remission as early as possible to avoid lasting joint damage, and maintenance of remission has become important. A 12-month clinical trial in 834 patients with moderate RA investigated whether etanercept 50 mg/wk could be reduced to half dose or discontinued in patients who achieved low disease activity after 36 weeks. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the three maintenance strategies. Methods A Markov model integrated the three strategies from the clinical trial and extrapolated to 10 years using data from the Swedish RA registry. Assumed treatment strategies after the trial were similar in all three arms, with patients failing to maintain remission on half-dose etanercept or methotrexate alone switching to the full dose of etanercept and patients maintaining remission on full-dose etanercept allowed switching to half dose. Resource use and utilities were taken from an observational study. Results are presented as cost/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) (both discounted 3%) in the societal perspective. Results The cost/QALY gained with half-dose etanercept versus methotrexate ranged from €14,000 to €29,000: Longer simulations result in a higher cost/QALY, as the acquisition cost of etanercept increases. Half-dose etanercept technically dominates the full dose (lower costs [€−3000 to 6300] and similar effectiveness [0.007–0.011]). Conclusions Although ultimately all three strategies explored achieve a similar outcome as all three continuously manage patients to maintain remission, it appears that a dose reduction is the most advantageous strategy in patients with moderate disease activity.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Value in Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background Few studies have analyzed the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on workplace insertion and occupation of patients in France. However, the overall negative impact of RA on work capacity has been shown previously. Objectives To investigate the contribution of different socio-economic and clinical factors to absenteeism and loss of work capacity in a population of RA patients below 60 years of age in France in 2012. Methods A national retrospective survey was conducted in a population of patients recruited by rheumatologists practising in hospitals or private practices during a visit, and/or were members of a patients association (ANDAR). The patients responded to a structured telephone interview with an investigator. The data collected included the current employment situation and its history, the functional impact of RA (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ] score), the frequency of flares, work stoppages and disability allowance. Results 503 patients agreed to participate, and 488 were interviewed (97%). In this study population (mean age 49.5±7.7 years and 84.4% women), the disease duration of RA was 12.2 (±9.2) years. 364 patients (74.6%) were employed, 31 (6.4%) unemployed and 93 (19.1%) were out of the labor market. For the 31 unemployed patients, the impact of RA occured as a factor of loss of employment and restriction of access to the labor market. For the 93 patients out of the labor market, discontinuation of professional activity was due to RA for three quarters of them (73%), explained by fatigue (75%), pain or stiffness (25%), or difficulty in moving (25%). The main results of the group of 364 patients in employment according to the HAQ score are shown below. The mean HAQ score was low (0.8) and the mean disease duration was 11.6 years. The proportion of patients receiving biological treatment was very high (60.4%), compared with 24.8% of patients under 60 years of age in the French national representative claims database (“Echantillon Généraliste des Bénéficiaires”) in 2011. This high proportion may also explain the low HAQ. With a HAQ score equal or greater than 1.5, 68.4% of patients reported at least one work stoppage in the last 12 months for an average of 91.6 days; this proportion was 48.3% for all active employees (p<0.0001). Regression analyses suggest that the HAQ score is the major factor contributing to absenteeism, regardless of patients' socio-economic characteristics. Conclusions The impact of RA on work capacity is important, affecting work stoppages, loss of employment and part-time work. Lost productivity associated with RA is related to the level of HAQ, which suggests that better control of the disease would reduce this loss of productivity. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge Costello Medical Consulting for editorial assistance which was funded by UCB Pharma. Disclosure of Interest P. Bertin: None declared, F. Fagnani Grant/research support: UCB Pharma, Consultant for: CEMKA-EVAL, A. Duburcq Grant/research support: UCB Pharma, Consultant for: CEMKA-EVAL, A. Woronoff: None declared, P. Chauvin: None declared, G. Cukierman Employee of: UCB Pharma, S. Tropé-Chirol: None declared, J.-M. Joubert Employee of: UCB Pharma, G. Kobelt: None declared DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-eular.2361
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • Gisela Kobelt
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in research and better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases have resulted in an increase in the number of available health interventions that compete for finite public resources. Explicit choices must therefore be made about funding.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the precision of the predictive cost-effectiveness assessment based on a phase 3 clinical trial with infliximab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Swedish clinical practice. Three patient cohorts were identified: the patients included in the infliximab trial (ATTRACT), patients initially treated with infliximab from a Swedish registry (STURE), a subset of these registry patients meeting inclusion criteria for the ATTRACT trial was the third patient cohort; two sets of assumptions in relation to the efficacy data were evaluated: "ATTRACT" (efficacy data over the duration of the trial) and "STURE" (effectiveness data over 10 years). In addition, the impact of including the placebo effect for the comparator was evaluated as a basis for the calculation of cost-effectiveness by using a modeling approach. A health economic model was utilized to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The results for the three patient cohorts ranged from cost saving to a cost per QALY gained of €2,400 and €24,900 to €26,000 when the ATTRACT and STURE assumptions were used, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the inclusion of placebo effect had the largest effect on the results, increasing the cost per QALY gained to approximately €50,000 for all patient cohorts. The treatment effect of infliximab measured in clinical trials and clinical practice results in comparable cost-effectiveness ratios, as calculated by using a modeling approach, whereas the assumptions made in relation to the effectiveness data and the chosen comparator have a large impact on the results. This reinforces the value of early modeling studies based on randomized clinical trial data, but assumptions made need to be carefully assessed.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Value in Health
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the annual direct medical cost of managing adult systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active autoantibody positive disease in Europe. Methods: A 2-year, retrospective, multicentre, observational study was conducted in five countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK). Data included patients' characteristics, disease activity and severity, flare assessments and health resource use (eg, laboratory tests, medications, specialist visits and hospitalisations). Costs were assessed from the public payers' perspective. Cost predictors were estimated by multivariate regression models. Results: Thirty-one centres enrolled 427 consecutive eligible patients stratified equally by disease severity. At baseline, mean (SD) age was 44.5 (13.8) years, 90.5% were women and mean (SD) SLE duration was 10.7 (8.0) years. The SELENA-SLEDAI (11.2 vs 5.3) and SLICC/ACR index (1.0 vs 0.7) scores were higher in severe patients. Over the study period, patients experienced on average 1.02 (0.71) flares/year. The mean annual direct medical cost was higher in severe compared to non-severe patients (€4748 vs €2650, p<0.001). Medication costs were €2518 in severe versus €1251 in non-severe patients (p<0.001). Medications represented 53% and 47% of the total cost for severe and non-severe patients, respectively, primarily due to immunosuppressants and biologics. Flares, especially severe flares, were identified as the major cost predictor, with each flare increasing the annual total cost by about €1002 (p<0.001). Conclusions: The annual direct medical cost of SLE patients in Europe is related to disease severity and flares. Medical treatments were the main cost drivers. Severe flares and major organ involvement were identified as important cost predictors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
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    A. Lang · A. Tuomari · G. Kobelt · P. Lindgren

    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Value in Health
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of TNF-inhibitors for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Swedish clinical practice, both as a first and second biological treatment, with or without the combination of conventional DMARDs. Further sub-group analysis of etanercept treatment was performed. Methods and materials: Patient level data were obtained from three regions of the Swedish Rheumatology Registers. The dataset contained 2,558 patients who had started TNF-inhibitor treatment, 1,049 with etanercept as their first biological treatment. A total of 819 patients had switched to a second TNF-inhibitor, of which 425 to etanercept. A Markov cohort model was used in which health states of disease severity were classified according to HAQ and DAS28. Disease progression and discontinuation rates of TNF-inhibitors were based on the registry and for the comparator on published literature. Mortality, costs and utilities were based on Swedish data. The main analysis had a societal perspective over 20 years and efficacy was measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results: TNF-inhibitor treatment was associated with an increase in QALYs and an incremental cost compared to no biological treatment. The cost per QALY gained with the three TNF-inhibitors ranged from euro 50,000 to euro 120,000, with lower estimates for TNF-inhibitors used in combination with MTX and as a first biologic. At a progression of 0.045 for the comparator, most values remain within the accepted range for cost-effectiveness. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the cost per QALY for TNF-inhibitors was higher than in previous assessments based on registry data and that the results were sensitive to the HAQ progression of the comparator.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · The European Journal of Health Economics
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    ABSTRACT: Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on patients’ sexuality and identify disease and other factors such as fatigue that most influence sexual relationships. Methods A specific pretested questionnaire was sent to all members of a French patient association (ANDAR). Questions related to demographics, disease status, quality of life (utility, EQ-5D), pain, psychological status (mood), fatigue and emotional and sexual relationships. To isolate the impact of RA, an attempt was made to include a matched sample from the general population. Results The analysis included 1271 patients, but only 70 controls agreed to participate and comparisons should therefore be considered with caution. The two groups were similar in terms of age, gender distribution, living conditions and diseases other than RA. However, patients scored worse for global health, mood, fatigue, had a lower utility (0.55 versus 0.65). Controls were more active sexually (69% versus 63%), in particular women (71% versus 60%). Age, gender, living alone, physical function and mood were significant predictors for being sexually active for patients; for controls, age and overall quality of life (utility) were significant predictors. Conclusions While it is known that RA has a negative impact on patients’ sexuality, there have been few attempts to quantify the problem. Our study highlights the negative impact of RA on patients’ sexuality, and triggers the question how to include this aspect into care.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe treatment patterns among patients with central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO or BRVO) in France, Germany, and Italy, and to estimate retinal vein occlusion (RVO)-related direct medical costs. Methods: We used a retrospective chart review to determine 18-month RVO-related resource utilization and calculate 12-month health care costs. Country-specific unit costs (€) were assigned to each resource from the perspective of the health care payer. Costs for France and Germany were based on 2005, and for Italy on 2007 values. Results: Data from a total of 109 BRVO and 119 patients with CRVO were used in the analysis. Laser therapy was the most commonly used intervention in Germany, for both CRVO and patients with BRVO (95%-98% of treatments), while patients in France with either condition had triamcinolone injections most often (63%-67% of treatments). Injections were also administered frequently in Italy and were the most common treatment for CRVO (50%), whereas patients with BRVO used laser therapy most often (41%). Inpatient treatment was most common in Germany (42% of CRVO and 34% of patients with BRVO), and did not occur at all in Italy except for day admissions. Total costs were higher for patients with CRVO in all countries. Most costs in Italy and France were attributable to outpatient treatment. In Germany, hospitalization made up the largest proportion of costs (80%), although more patients used outpatient services. Conclusions: Approaches to treating BRVO and CRVO vary across European countries. Development of agreed-upon guidelines would support consistency in patient care and reimbursement policy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · European journal of ophthalmology
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · European Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: In 2005, we presented for the first time overall estimates of annual costs for brain disorders (mental and neurologic disorders) in Europe. This new report presents updated, more accurate, and comprehensive 2010 estimates for 30 European countries. One-year prevalence and annual cost per person of 19 major groups of disorders are based on 'best estimates' derived from systematic literature reviews by panels of experts in epidemiology and health economics. Our cost estimation model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euros (€), imputing cost for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity-adjusted estimates of the total cost of brain disorders in Europe in 2010. Total European 2010 cost of brain disorders was €798 billion, of which direct health care cost 37%, direct non-medical cost 23%, and indirect cost 40%. Average cost per inhabitant was €5.550. The European average cost per person with a disorder of the brain ranged between €285 for headache and €30 000 for neuromuscular disorders. Total annual cost per disorder (in billion € 2010) was as follows: addiction 65.7; anxiety disorders 74.4; brain tumor 5.2; child/adolescent disorders 21.3; dementia 105.2; eating disorders 0.8; epilepsy 13.8; headache 43.5; mental retardation 43.3; mood disorders 113.4; multiple sclerosis 14.6; neuromuscular disorders 7.7; Parkinson's disease 13.9; personality disorders 27.3; psychotic disorders 93.9; sleep disorders 35.4; somatoform disorder 21.2; stroke 64.1; and traumatic brain injury 33.0. Our cost model revealed that brain disorders overall are much more costly than previously estimated constituting a major health economic challenge for Europe. Our estimate should be regarded as conservative because many disorders or cost items could not be included because of lack of data.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · European Journal of Neurology
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    Gisela Kobelt

    Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Information about cost of multiple sclerosis (MS) is available from a number of European countries, but no data from the Czech Republic have been published so far. The objective of this study was to establish the cost of MS in the Czech Republic, overall and by level of disease severity. Data on demographics, disease history, resource consumption and production losses were collected from 909 patients recruited in 7 MS centres in the Czech Republic. Annual costs were estimated in the societal perspective, using 2007 unit costs. To evaluate the relationship between disability and costs, patients were stratified into those with mild (67%), moderate (27%) and severe (10%) disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Mean total annual costs per patient were €12,272, of which 51% were direct medical costs, 4% direct non-medical costs and 45% indirect costs. The average annual costs in patients with mild, moderate and severe disability amounted to €9905, €14,064 and €22,880, respectively. The total costs of MS in the Czech Republic are estimated at €208.6 million per year. Consistent with other studies, the costs increase significantly with the severity of MS.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Multiple Sclerosis
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    ABSTRACT: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people. To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country. The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US. This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges. Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the cost-effectiveness of early biologic treatment, followed by dose-reduction in the case of remission, of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), compared with standard treatment with methotrexate (MTX) in Sweden. Effectiveness (function, disease activity, erosions) in early RA for both alternatives was taken from a clinical trial comparing etanercept (ETA) combined with MTX to MTX alone. Patients discontinuing treatment can switch to another or their first biologic treatment. For patients in remission (Disease Activity Score [DAS28] < 2.6), ETA is reduced to half the dose. Return to full dose occurs when DAS28 reaches ≥ 3.2 again. Costs and utilities by level of functional capacity from an observational study are used. The model is analyzed as a micro-simulation and results are presented from the societal perspective for Sweden, for 10 years; costs (€2008) and effects are discounted at 3 percent. Sensitivity analysis was performed for the perspective, the time horizon, switching, and dose-reduction. The main analysis conservatively assumes 50 percent switching at discontinuation. The cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained with early ETA/MTX treatment is €13,500 (societal perspective, incremental cost of €15,500 and incremental QALYs of 1.15). With 75 percent switching, the cost per QALY gained was €10,400. Over 20 years, the cost per QALY gained was €8,200. Results were further sensitive to the time patients remained on half dose and the perspective. CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS: This study combines clinical trial and clinical practice data to explore cost-effective treatment scenarios in early RA, including the use of biologics. Our results indicate that a situation where a considerable proportion of patients achieve remission, dose-adjustments will increase the cost-effectiveness of treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514million people. AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country. METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US. DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges. RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011

Publication Stats

4k Citations
313.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2014
    • Lund University
      • Department of Orthopaedics
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
    • Ministry of Health, France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2005
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2004
    • Università degli Studi di Sassari
      Sassari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 2000-2004
    • Karolinska Institutet
      Сольна, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2000-2001
    • Stockholm School of Economics
      • Department of Economics
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1998-1999
    • Cellular Dynamics International
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom