G Trinchieri

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (401)1971.78 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Shock
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    ABSTRACT: We show here that mouse interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha)-producing cells (mIPCs) are a unique subset of immature antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that secrete IFN-alpha upon stimulation with viruses. mIPCs have a plasmacytoid morphology, can be stained with an antibody to Ly6G and Ly6C (anti-Ly6G/C) and are Ly6C+B220+CD11cloCD4+; unlike other dendritic cell subsets, however, they do not express CD8alpha or CD11b. Although mIPCs undergo apoptosis in vitro, stimulation with viruses, IFN-alpha or CpG oligonucleotides enhanced their survival and T cell stimulatory activity. In vivo, mIPCs were the main producers of IFN-alpha in cytomegalovirus-infected mice, as depletion of Ly6G+/C+ cells abrogated IFN-alpha production. mIPCs produced interleukin 12 (IL-12) in response to viruses and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, but not bacterial products. Although different pathogens can selectively engage various APC subsets for IL-12 production, IFN-alpha production is restricted to mIPCs' response to viral infection.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Nature Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory foci induced by murine cytomegalovirus infection in normocholesterolemic mice were present temporarily in the aortic wall, but some of these foci developed into advanced lesions that persisted late after infection. The early foci induced by virus infection were significantly exacerbated following a single inoculation withChlamydia pneumoniae.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2001 · Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Endotoxin tolerance, the transient, secondary down-regulation of a subset of endotoxin-driven responses after exposure to bacterial products, is thought to be an adaptive response providing protection from pathological hyperactivation of the innate immune system during bacterial infection. However, although protecting from the development of sepsis, endotoxin tolerance also can lead to fatal blunting of immunological responses to subsequent infections in survivors of septic shock. Despite considerable experimental effort aimed at characterizing the molecular mechanisms responsible for a variety of endotoxin tolerance-related phenomena, no consensus has been achieved yet. IL-12 is a macrophage- and dendritic cell (DC)-derived cytokine that plays a key role in pathological responses to endotoxin as well as in the induction of protective responses to pathogens. It recently has been shown that IL-12 production is suppressed in endotoxin tolerance, providing a likely partial mechanism for the increased risk of secondary infections in sepsis survivors. We examined the development of IL-12 suppression during endotoxin tolerance in mice. Decreased IL-12 production in vivo is clearly multifactorial, involving both loss of CD11c(high) DCs as well as alterations in the responsiveness of macrophages and remaining splenic DCs. We find no demonstrable mechanistic role for B or T lymphocytes, the soluble mediators IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-alphabeta, or nitric oxide, or the NF-kappaB family members p50, p52, or RelB.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2001 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Ligating Fc gamma R on macrophages results in suppression of IL-12 production. We show that Fc gamma R ligation selectively down-regulates IL-12 p40 and p35 gene expression at the level of transcription. The region responsive to this inhibition maps to the Ets site of the p40 promoter. PU.1, IFN consensus sequence binding protein, and c-REL: form a complex on this element upon macrophage activation. Receptor ligation abolishes the binding of this PU.1-containing activation complex, and abrogates p40 transcription. A dominant-negative construct of PU.1 diminishes IL-12 p40 promoter activity and endogenous IL-12 p40 protein secretion. Thus, the specificity of IL-12 down-regulation following receptor ligation lies in the inhibition of binding of a PU.1-containing complex to the Ets site of the IL-12 promoter. These findings provide evidence demonstrating for the first time the importance of PU.1 in the transcriptional regulation of IL-12 gene expression.
    Preview · Article · May 2001 · The Journal of Immunology
  • XJ Ma · Giorgio Trinchieri
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-12 is a cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells that is essential for host defense against intracellular microbial infection and control of malignancy by virtue of its ability to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune effector cells. The immune potentiating capacity of IL-12 and its mandatory requirement in host defense predispose it to rigorous regulation. The time, localization, and magnitude of IL-12 production during an immune response strongly influence the type, extent, and, ultimately, the fate of the response. Disturbance of this evolutionarily maintained "balance of power" frequently leads to immunologic disorders. This article reviews the intricate pathways that have been uncovered in which IL-12 production is modulated by numerous pathogens and immunological regulators. The understanding of IL-12 regulation in physiological settings will undoubtedly lend valuable support to the design of therapeutic applications of IL-12.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Advances in Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, is mediated by Th1 cells. The major Th1 inducer, IL-12, enhances EAE, while its blockade suppresses it. IL-4 suppresses EAE. Here, we determined IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by myelin basic protein-stimulated lymphocytes from prototypically EAE-susceptible SJL/J and EAE-resistant BALB/c mice, 9 days after immunization with spinal cord homogenate. While lymphocytes from SJL/J mice produce IFN-gamma and no IL-4, lymphocytes from BALB/c mice produce IL-4 and no IFN-gamma. Since early endogenous production of IL-12/IFN-gamma or IL-4 is linked to Th1 or Th2 responses, respectively, we determined whether neutralization of IL-12 or IL-4 at immunization modifies susceptibility or resistance to EAE. SJL/J mice given neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAb are protected from EAE. BALB/c mice given neutralizing anti-IL-4 mAb develop EAE, while those treated with control antibody remain resistant. These studies confirm the pivotal role of IL-12 in EAE development and show that endogenous IL-4 is important for determining the genetic resistance to EAE.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Clinical Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2001
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from mouse macrophages via a kappaB site within the IL-12 p40 promoter. In this study, we found that oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) inhibited this LPS-stimulated production of IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner while native LDL did not. OxLDL inhibited p40 promoter activation in monocytic RAW264.7 cells transiently transfected with p40 promoter/reporter constructs, and the repressive effect mapped to a region in the p40 promoter containing a binding site for nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) (p40-kappaB). Activation of macrophages by LPS in the presence of oxLDL resulted in markedly reduced binding to the kappaB site, as demonstrated by the electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In contrast, native LDL did not inhibit the IL-12 p40 promoter activation and NF-kappaB binding to the kappaB sites, suggesting that oxidative modification of LDL was crucial for the inhibition of NF-kappaB-mediated IL-12 production. 9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, a major oxidized lipid component of oxLDL, significantly inhibited IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages and also suppressed NF-kappaB-mediated activation in IL-12 p40 promoter. The NF-kappaB components p50 and p65 directly bound peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in vitro. In cotransfections of CV-1 and HeLa cells, PPAR-gamma inhibited the NF-kappaB transactivation in an oxLDL-dependent manner. From these results, we propose that oxLDL-mediated suppression of the IL-12 production from LPS-activated mouse macrophages may, at least in part, involve both inhibition of the NF-kappaB-DNA interactions and physical interactions between NF-kappaB and PPAR-gamma.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • H Xu · G X Zhang · M Wysocka · C Y Wu · G Trinchieri · A Rostami
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta exerts a counter-regulatory effect on interleukin (IL)-12-mediated immune modulation. The underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 in MBP peptide Ac1-11-primed splenocytes is upregulated upon antigen stimulation. TGF-beta induces an unresponsiveness of these primed splenocytes to IL-12 signaling through a mechanism involved in inhibition of both IL-12Rbeta1 and beta2. The modulation of IL-12Rbeta1 and beta2 expression by Ac1-11 stimulation and TGF-beta is mainly involved in CD4+ population. These data indicate that both IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 expression are crucial during T cell activation. TGF-beta-induced inhibition of IL-12R expression will reduce cellular immune responses during IL-12-mediated autoimmune disease.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2000 · Journal of Neuroimmunology
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    G Carra · F Gerosa · G Trinchieri
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    ABSTRACT: IL-12 is a heterodimeric proinflammatory cytokine consisting of a light alpha-chain, formerly defined as p35, disulfide-linked to a heavier beta-chain, formerly defined as p40. The beta-chain is also produced in large excess in a free form, and disulfide-linked beta-chain homodimers with anti-inflammatory effects are produced in the mouse. We analyzed the biosynthesis and glycosylation of IL-12 in human monocytes, and in a cell line stably transfected with IL-12 alpha and beta genes (P5-0.1). The IL-12 heterodimer and free beta-chain were immunoprecipitated from supernatants and cell lysates of metabolically labeled cells and resolved in SDS-PAGE. Whereas the beta-chain showed similar pI pattern whether in the free form or associated in the heterodimer, either in the secreted or intracellular form, the alpha-chain in the secreted heterodimer was much more acidic than that present in the intracellular heterodimer. Deglycosylation experiments with neuraminidase and Endo-F combined with two-dimensional PAGE of single bands of the intracellular vs extracellular IL-12 heterodimer revealed that the alpha-chain was extensively modified with sialic acid adducts to N-linked oligosaccharides before secretion. N-glycosylation inhibition by tunicamycin (TM) did not alter free beta-chain secretion, while preventing the IL-12 heterodimer assembling and secretion. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that IL-12 persists intracellularly for a long period as an immature heterodimer, and that glycosylation is the regulatory step that determines its secretion. beta-chain disulfide-linked homodimers were observed in TM-treated P5-0.1 cells, but in neither TM-treated nor untreated monocytes.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2000 · The Journal of Immunology
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    YM Geng · R B Shane · K Berencsi · E Gonczol · M H Zaki · D J Margolis · G Trinchieri · AH Rook
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of pulmonary infection, with serum positivity in at least 50% of the general population. In this study, we report that human PBMCs exposed to C. pneumoniae are resistant to apoptosis induced by the potent photoactivated chemotherapeutic agents 8-methoxypsoralen and hypericin. In contrast, PBMCs treated with a heat-inactivated inoculum exhibit normal susceptibility to apoptosis. We also observed that human PBMCs are responsive to C. pneumoniae infection by secretion of key immune regulatory cytokines, including IL-12 and IL-10. While IL-12 may play an important role in limiting C. pneumoniae proliferation within cells, IL-10 serves an anti-inflammatory function by down-regulating proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and TNF-alpha. Depletion of endogenous IL-10, but not of IL-12, abolished the apoptosis resistance of C. pneumoniae-infected PBMCs. Furthermore, addition of exogenous IL-10, but not IL-12, significantly increased the resistance of control inoculum-treated PBMCs to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen- and hypericin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that C. pneumoniae possesses an antiapoptotic mechanism. The resistance to apoptosis observed in PBMCs exposed to C. pneumoniae is due, at least partially, to the IL-10 induced during C. pneumoniae infection.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2000 · The Journal of Immunology
  • M. Aste-Amezaga · X. Ma · A. Sartori · G. Trinchieri

    No preview · Article · May 2000
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    ABSTRACT: The IL-12 receptor-beta 2 (IL-12R beta 2) chain is expressed on Th1 cells and lost upon differentiation to the Th2 phenotype. This has been suggested as the basis for commitment of Th1 cells, because early differentiated Th2 cells do not reverse their phenotype and do not produce IFN-gamma on restimulation in the presence of IL-12. In this study, we ectopically expressed the IL-12 receptor-beta 2 (IL-12R beta 2) bicistronically with enhanced green fluorescent protein by retroviral infection in developing and committed Th2 cells. Restimulation of Th2 cells expressing this ectopic IL-12R beta 2 in the presence of IL-12 led to levels of IL-4 production similar to those in control Th2 cells. The expression of IL-12R beta 2 in Th2 cells did not lead to significant levels of IFN-gamma production, although IL-12-mediated STAT signaling and proliferation were restored. Thus, although the IL-12R beta 2 and IL-12-dependent STAT4 activation are required for Th1 responses, activation of this pathway is not sufficient to restore a Th1 phenotype in developing or committed Th2 cells.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2000 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship between the profile of HIV-specific T helper (Th) cell responses, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cell counts during longitudinal studies in children with perinatal HIV infection. Patients with AIDS demonstrated undetectable or low levels of HIV-specific Th and CTL activities, and exhibited almost exclusively Th0 type of responses with low IFN-γ and IL-4 production. The levels of IL-2 expression in the envelope (env) peptide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were increased in children with a slowly progressive disease, concomitant with higher numbers of CD45RO+ memory T cells and increased proportions of Th1 clones. In these patients, high levels of env peptide-specific IL-2 expression correlated with increases in HIV-specific CTL responses, whereas a delay in the generation of HIV-specific CTL activity was associated with lower IL-2 production and elevated Th2 responses. Patients with slow disease progression produced higher levels of β-chemokines than those detected in children with AIDS. These results suggest that an impaired development of HIV-specific cellular responses and inhibition of T cell differentiation during infancy are associated with fast disease progression. They also point to a protective role of noncytotoxic antiviral activity that might complement HIV-specific CTL responses in children with a slowly progressive disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2000 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Blockade of the CD40 ligand (CD40L)-CD40 interaction suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Since this interaction induces IL-12, an essential cytokine for EAE induction, we hypothesized that CD40L blockade may suppress EAE through IL-12 inhibition. Here we show that exogenous IL-12 abolishes the ability of anti-CD40L monoclonal antibodies to prevent EAE. Anti-IL-12 antibodies prevent this reversal and protect from EAE. These results show that IL-12 is sufficient to overcome CD40L blockade and suggest that, of the multiple consequences of the CD40L-CD40 interaction, IL-12 induction is an essential one for induction of EAE.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The role of angiogenesis inhibition in the antitumor activity of recombinant murine interleukin 12 (rmIL-12) was studied in K1735 murine melanomas, the growth of which is rapidly and markedly suppressed by rmIL-12 treatment. On the basis of the prediction that tumor ischemia should result from therapeutic angiogenesis inhibition, tumor cell hypoxia was evaluated as a marker of ischemia using the EF5 [2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)aceta mide] approach. This method measures intracellular binding of the nitroimidazole EF5, which covalently binds to cellular macromolecules selectively under hypoxic conditions. Whereas 1 week of rmIL-12 treatment effectively inhibited K1735 cell-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel neovascularization assays, 2 weeks of treatment were needed before severe tumor cell hypoxia was detected in K1735 tumors. The hypoxia that developed was regional and localized to tumor areas distant from blood vessels. The great majority of severely hypoxic tumor cells were apoptotic, and in vitro studies indicated that the degree of hypoxia present within treated tumors was sufficient to trigger K1735 apoptosis. Tumor cell apoptosis was also prevalent in the first week of rmIL-12 treatment when few cells were hypoxic. In vitro studies indicated that this non-hypoxia-related apoptosis was induced directly by IFN-gamma produced in response to rmIL-12 administration. These studies reveal that rmIL-12 controls K1735 tumors initially by IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis and later by hypoxia-induced apoptosis. They also establish hypoxia as an expected result of tumor angiogenesis inhibition and a mediator of its therapeutic effect.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1999 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Using the monoclonal antibody C1.7, which recognizes a signaling, membrane-bound molecule on human NK and a proportion of CD8+ T cells, we cloned a novel molecule we refer to as NK cell activation-inducing ligand (NAIL). It is a 365-amino acid protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin-like superfamily with closest homology to murine 2B4, and human CD84 and CD48. Using a soluble NAIL-Fc fusion protein, we determined the counterstructure for NAIL, CD48, which it binds with high affinity. Stimulation of human B cells with recombinant NAIL in the presence of a suboptimal concentration of human CD40 ligand or IL-4 resulted in increased proliferation. Treatment of human dendritic cells with soluble NAIL-leucine zipper protein resulted in an increased release of IL-12 and TNF-α. Using recombinant CD48 protein, we demonstrated the ability of this molecule to increase NK cell cytotoxicity and induce IFN-γ production. We also showed that 2B4 binds to mouse CD48, suggesting that interaction of these receptors may play a similar role in both species. Taken together these results indicate that the NAIL-CD48 interaction may be an important mechanism regulating a variety of immune responses.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1999 · European Journal of Immunology
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    J D Marshall · J Chehimi · G Gri · J R Kostman · L J Montaner · G Trinchieri
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potentially critical factor in the immune response against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because it is important for regulating proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, antigen presentation and accessory cell function by macrophages and dendritic cells, and cytolytic activities of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cells and NK cells, which are all functions known to be dysfunctional in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected patients have been previously shown to be deficient in the ability to produce IL-12 in response to the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus Cowan. In this study, impaired IL-12 production in cells from PBMC of HIV-infected patients compared with healthy donors was observed across a broad panel of stimuli derived from infectious pathogens with or without priming with cytokines such as IFN-gamma and IL-4, which amplify the IL-12 induction signal. Analysis of p40 and p35 mRNA accumulation showed that reductions in both subunits contribute to the lower IL-12 secretion of cells from HIV-infected individuals. PBMC from HIV-infected donors also failed to upregulate the IL-12 receptor beta2 chain (IL-12Rbeta2) in response to mitogenic stimuli. The expression of the IL-12Rbeta2 gene could, however, be restored by in vitro exposure to rIL-12. Thus, it is possible that a primary IL-12 defect may lead to secondary deficiencies in expression of the genes for IL-12Rbeta2 and IFN-gamma, thus amplifying immune deficiency during HIV infection.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 1999 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: The C1.7 Ag is a surface marker previously shown to be expressed on all NK cells and on a subset of CD8+ T cells. We report in this study that C1.7 Ag expression on peripheral blood-derived CD8+ T cells overlaps with activation markers S6F1high and CD29high and is reciprocally expressed with CD62L. C1.7 Ag expression can be induced in vitro on CD8+ T cells by anti-CD3 cross-linking, suggesting that C1.7 Ag is activation dependent. In contrast to NK cells, C1.7 Ag does not signal on CD8+ T cells, nor does it induce redirected lysis upon ligation. The proportion of C1.7 Ag+CD8+ T cells is increased in HIV-infected patients compared with healthy donors. In 69 HIV-infected patients, we observed a significant inverse correlation between the percentage of C1.7 Ag-expressing CD8+ T cells and the absolute CD4+ T cell count. Two-year clinical follow-up of patients with initial CD4+ T cell count of >400 cells/mm3 and a normal proportion of C1.7 Ag+CD8+ T cells revealed that these patients were clinically stable with minimal HIV-associated symptoms. In contrast, 10 of 12 patients with CD4+ T cell counts of >400 cells/mm3 and an elevated proportion of C1.7 Ag+CD8+ T cells were symptomatic. ANOVA analysis of patients indicates that C1.7 Ag is a better predictor of disease progression than CD4 count. Overall, our findings indicate that C1.7 Ag is the first described marker for activated/memory CD8+ T cells and a useful parameter for evaluating the level of CD8+ T cell activation in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · The Journal of Immunology

Publication Stats

34k Citations
1,971.78 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1985-2012
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • New York Medical College
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1992-2010
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2005
    • University of Crete
      • Department of Physics
      Retimo, Crete, Greece
  • 2001
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      CGS, Maryland, United States
  • 1976-2001
    • Wistar Institute
      • Melanoma Research Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000
    • Chonnam National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 1999
    • Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy
      • Department of Radiotherapy
      Villejuif, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1997
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      • Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
  • 1996-1997
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      Maryland, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1993-1997
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • University of Florence
      • Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica
      Florence, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1981-1997
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Dermatology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1992-1996
    • University of Verona
      • Section of General Pathology
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 1995
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Infectious Disease Research Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1994
    • Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1990-1994
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1985-1990
    • INO - Istituto Nazionale di Ottica
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1989
    • Metamark Genetics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1986
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1979-1980
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
      لا هویا, California, United States