Gabrielle J. Graeter

North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (5)7.53 Total impact

  • Gabrielle J. Graeter · Corinne A. Diggins · Kendrick C. Weeks · Mary K. Clark
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    ABSTRACT: Bats in the eastern US face many significant threats, and more information on the distribution, natural history, and condition of multiple bat species is needed for conservation planning and management. To address this need for the northwestern mountain region of North Carolina, we conducted a large-scale, 3-day bat blitz in 2011 at 30 mist-net sites across 6 counties. We documented the presence of 8 species and obtained new county and summer records for 7 of those 8. Most notably, in McDowell County we documented Lasiurus seminolus (Seminole Bat), a species associated with Coastal Plain habitats and for which there were no previous records in the northwestern mountain region of North Carolina. “Bio-blitz” inventories have many benefits beyond scientific results, including opportunities to share research ideas, foster new collaborations, train students in techniques, and provide educational programs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Southeastern Naturalist
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    ABSTRACT: Harvesting timber is a common form of land use that has the potential to cause declines in amphibian populations. It is essential to understand the behavior and fate of individuals and the resulting consequences for vital rates (birth, death, immigration, emigration) under different forest management conditions. We report on experimental studies conducted in three regions of the United States to identify mechanisms of responses by pond-breeding amphibians to timber harvest treatments. Our studies demonstrate that life stages related to oviposition and larval performance in the aquatic stage are sometimes affected positively by clearcutting, whereas effects on juvenile and adult terrestrial stages are mostly negative. Partial harvest treatments produced both positive and weaker negative responses than clearcut treatments. Mitigating the detrimental effects of canopy removal, higher surface temperature, and loss of soil-litter moisture in terrestrial habitats surrounding breeding ponds is critical to maintaining viable amphibian populations in managed forested landscapes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · BioScience
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Population-level responses of amphibians to forest management regimes are partly dictated by individual behavioral responses to habitat alteration. We examined the short-term (i.e., 24-hr) habitat choices and movement patterns of 3 amphibian species—southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala), marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum), and southern toads (Bufo terrestris)—released on edges between forest habitats and recent clear-cuts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We predicted that adult frogs and salamanders would preferentially select forest using environmental cues as indicators of habitat suitability. We also predicted that movement patterns would differ in clear-cuts relative to forests, resulting in lower habitat permeability of clear-cuts for some or all of the species. Using fluorescent powder tracking, we determined that marbled salamanders selected habitat at random, southern toads preferred clear-cuts, and southern leopard frogs initially selected clear-cuts but ultimately preferred forests. Frogs exhibited long-distance, directional movement with few turns. In contrast, toads exhibited wandering behavior and salamanders moved relatively short distances before locating cover. Southern toads and southern leopard frogs moved farther in forests, and all 3 species made more turns in clear-cuts than in forests. Habitat selection by southern toads did not vary according to body size, sex, or the environmental cues we measured. However, marbled salamanders were more likely to enter clear-cuts when soil moisture was high, and southern leopard frogs were more likely to enter clear-cuts when relative humidity and air temperature were higher in the clear-cut than in adjacent forest. Although we found evidence of reduced habitat permeability of clear-cuts for southern leopard frogs and southern toads, none of the species exhibited strong behavioral avoidance of the small (4-ha) clear-cuts in our study. Further studies of long-term habitat use and the potential physiological and other costs to individuals in altered forests are needed to understand the effects of forest management on population persistence. To reduce potentially detrimental effects of clear-cutting on amphibians in the Southeast, wildlife managers should consider the vagility and behavior of species of concern, especially in relation to the size of planned harvests adjacent to breeding sites.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Wildlife Management
  • G.J. Graeter · B.B. Rothermel

    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Herpetological Review
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    Gabrielle Joy Graeter
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    ABSTRACT: I released adult southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala), marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum), and southern toads (Bufo terrestris) on forest/clearcut edges to examine the effects of forest management on amphibian habitat selection and movement behavior. Salamanders selected habitat at random, toads preferred clearcuts, and frogs initially selected clearcuts but ultimately chose forests. All three species made more turns in clearcuts than forests, and toads and frogs moved farther in forests. Frogs and toads moved without regard to environmental conditions, but salamanders were influenced by soil moisture. I also examined the efficacy of fluorescent powder as an amphibian tracking technique and found that some colors were easier to detect when paths were long, that heavy rainfall truncated path length, and that effectiveness varied among species, habitat, and region. Such knowledge of individual and species-level responses to terrestrial habitat alteration will facilitate development of forest management plans that enhance persistence of amphibian populations.
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Publication Stats

131 Citations
7.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008-2009
    • University of Georgia
      • Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
      Атина, Georgia, United States