G. de Angelis

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (51)59.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An accurate understanding of the physical interactions and transport of space radiation is important for safe and efficient space operations. Secondary particles produced by primary particle interactions with intervening materials are an important contribution to radiation risk. Pions are copiously produced in the nuclear interactions typical of space radiations and can therefore be an important contribution to radiation exposure. Charged pions decay almost exclusively to muons. As a consequence, muons must also be considered in space radiation exposure studies. In this work, the NASA space radiation transport code HZETRN has been extended to include the transport of charged pions and muons. The relevant transport equation, solution method, and implemented cross sections are reviewed. Muon production in the Earth’s upper atmosphere is then investigated, and comparisons with recent balloon flight measurements of differential muon flux are presented. Muon production from the updated version of HZETRN is found to match the experimental data well.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Advances in Space Research
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    ABSTRACT: Models of radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) on the Moon have been developed, and compared with data from the RADOM investigation onboard the ISRO CHANDRAYAAN-1 spacecraft.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Models of radiation environment induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) on Mars and Phobos have been developed, as well as for the mission cruise phase, and used for the Liulin-Phobos experiment onboard the Phobos-Soil mission.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009
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    ABSTRACT: These results for the moon radiation environment as well as for the cruise phase have been obtained in the framework of the Radom investigation that is on-board the Chandrayaan-1 mission by the Indian Space Agency ISRO.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Models for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars have been developed. Primary particles rescaled for Mars conditions are transported through the Martian atmosphere, with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales, down to the surface.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2008

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2008
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    ABSTRACT: Models for the Mars radiation environment have been developed. Primary particles are transported through the atmosphere down to the surface, with backscattering taken into account. These results will be tested with spacecraft data in the near future.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008
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    ABSTRACT: Models of the lunar radiation environment due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) have been developed. Results have been obtained for orbital, surface and subsurface scenarios and polar locations for volatile studies.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008
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    ABSTRACT: Results for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been obtained. Primary particle environments computed for Martian conditions are transported within the Mars atmosphere, modeled in a time-dependent way in terms of density, pressure, and temperature vs. altitude, down to the surface, with topography and backscattering patterns taken into account. The atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition has been modeled over results from the in-situ Viking Lander measurements for both major and minor components. The surface topography has been determined by using a model based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The surface itself has been modeled in both the dry (‘regolith’) and volatile components. Mars regolith composition has been modeled based on the measurements obtained with orbiter and lander spacecraft from which an average composition has been derived. The volatile inventory properties, both in the regolith and in the seasonal and perennial polar caps, has been taken into account by modeling the deposition of volatiles and its variations with geography and time all throughout the Martian year, from results from imaging data of orbiter spacecraft. Results are given in terms of fluxes, doses and LET, for most kinds of particles, namely protons, neutrons, alpha particles, heavy ions, pions, and muons for various soil compositions.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: Very proton rich nuclei in the A ≈ 100 region have been investigated using the GASP array coupled with the Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) and the GASP Si-ball. High-spin states of 105Sn and 103,105In nuclei formed with the reaction 58Ni + 50Cr at 210 MeV have been investigated up to ≈ 10 and 7 MeV of excitation energy respectively. We have confirmed the known excited states for both nuclei and extended to higher spin the level scheme. The experimental level schemes are compared with shell model calculations.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Physica Scripta
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    ABSTRACT: Anisotropies in the low Earth orbit (LEO) radiation environment were found to influence the thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) dose within the (International Space Station) ISS 7A Service Module. Subsequently, anisotropic environmental models with improved dynamic time extrapolation have been developed including westward and northern drifts using AP8 Min & Max as estimates of the historic spatial distribution of trapped protons in the 1965 and 1970 era, respectively. In addition, a directional dependent geomagnetic cutoff model was derived for geomagnetic field configurations from the 1945 to 2020 time frame. A dynamic neutron albedo model based on our atmospheric radiation studies has likewise been required to explain LEO neutron measurements. The simultaneous measurements of dose and dose rate using four Liulin instruments at various locations in the US LAB and Node 1 has experimentally demonstrated anisotropic effects in ISS 6A and are used herein to evaluate the adequacy of these revised environmental models.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Advances in Space Research
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    ABSTRACT: The ISS and the prior station Mir provided the proving ground for future human long-duration space activity. A recent European Space Agency study recommended “Measurement campaigns on the ISS form the ideal tool for experimental validation of radiation environment models, of transport code algorithms and reaction cross sections”. Indeed, prior measurements on Shuttle have provided vital information impacting both transport code and environmental model development. Recent studies using the ISS 7A configuration with TLD area monitors demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate anisotropic and dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree-of-freedom description of the ISS trajectory. The ISS model is now configured for 11A and uses an anisotropic and dynamic geomagnetic transmission and trapped proton models. The ISS 11A is instrumented with both passive and active dosimetric devices. Time resolved measurements have the advantage of isolating trapped proton and galactic cosmic ray components as was essential to transport code validation in Shuttle data analysis. ISS 11A model validation will begin with passive dosimetry as was used with ISS 7A. Directional dependent active measurements will play an important role in the validation of environmental model anisotropies.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Advances in Space Research
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    ABSTRACT: Space radiation have been monitored using the R3D-B2 radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter on board a recent space flight on the Russian satellite Foton M2 spending 15 6 days in Earth orbit at altitude between 260 and 304 km within the ESA Biopan 5 facility mounted on the outside of the satellite exposed to space conditions The relatively high inclination of 62 9 r allows observations of the inner and outer radiation belts In same time another very similar instrument flies continuously on CSA A310-300 commercial aircraft mainly on Prague to North America routes Simultaneously measured radiation environment on the spacecraft and on the aircraft are compared with a new Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation AIR model in development at the National Institute of Health of Italy Istituto Superiore di Sanita -- ISS in collaboration with the NASA Langley Research Center and the Bartol Research Institute of the University of Delaware
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006
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    ABSTRACT: In view of manned missions targeted to Mars for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool which allows the determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time at any point of the Martian surface With this goal in mind a new model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays GCR and Solar Particle Events SPE has been developed Primary particle environments computed for Martian conditions are transported within the Mars atmosphere with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales down to the surface with topography and backscattering patterns taken into account The atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition has been modeled over results from the in-situ Viking Lander measurements for both major and minor components The surface topography has been reconstructed with a model based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter MOLA instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor MGS spacecraft The surface itself has been modeled in both the dry regolith and volatile components Mars regolith composition has been modeled based on the measurements obtained with orbiter and lander spacecraft from which an average composition has been derived The volatile inventory e g CO2 ice H2O ice properties both in the regolith and in the seasonal and perennial polar caps has been taken into account by modeling the deposition of volatiles and its variations with geography and time all throughout the Martian
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006
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    ABSTRACT: The HZETRN code has been identified by NASA for engineering design in the next phase of space exploration highlighting a return to the Moon in preparation for a Mars mission. In response, a new series of algorithms beginning with 2005 HZETRN, will be issued by correcting some prior limitations and improving control of propagated errors along with established code verification processes. Code validation processes will use new/improved low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental models with a recently improved International Space Station (ISS) shield model to validate computational models and procedures using measured data aboard ISS. These validated models will provide a basis for flight-testing the designs of future space vehicles and systems of the Constellation program in the LEO environment.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Advances in Space Research
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    ABSTRACT: In view of manned missions targeted to Mars for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool which allows the determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time at any point of the Martian surface With this goal in mind a new model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays GCR and Solar Particle Events SPE has been developed Primary particle environments computed for Martian conditions are transported within the Mars atmosphere with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales down to the surface with topography and backscattering patterns taken into account The atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition has been modeled over results from the in-situ Viking Lander measurements for both major and minor components The surface topography has been reconstructed with a model based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter MOLA instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor MGS spacecraft The surface itself has been modeled in both the dry regolith and volatile components Mars regolith composition has been modeled based on the measurements obtained with orbiter and lander spacecraft from which an average composition has been derived The volatile inventory e g CO2 ice H2O ice properties both in the regolith and in the seasonal and perennial polar caps has been taken into account by modeling the deposition of volatiles and its variations with geography and time all throughout the Martian
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006
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    ABSTRACT: In view of manned missions targeted to the Moon for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool which allows the determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time and at any point of the lunar surface With this goal in mind a new model of the Moon s radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays GCR and Solar Particle Events SPE has been developed Primary particles reach the lunar surface and are transported all throughout the subsurface layers with backscattering patterns taken into account The surface itself has been modeled as regolith and bedrock with composition taken from the results of the instruments flown on the Apollo missions namely on the Apollo 12 from the Oceanus Procellarum landing site Subsurface environments like lava tubes have been considered in the analysis Particle transport has been performed with both deterministic and Monte Carlo codes with an adaptation for planetary surface geometry Results are given in terms of fluxes doses and LET for most kinds of particles namely protons neutrons alpha particles heavy ions pions and muons for various soil and rock compositions The spectra will be compared with the data from unmanned lunar orbiter missions in the near future
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In view of manned missions targeted to the Moon, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool, which allows determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time and at any point of the lunar surface. With this goal in mind, a new model of the Moon's radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been developed. Primary particles reach the lunar surface, and are transported all throughout the subsurface layers, with backscattering patterns taken into account. The surface itself has been modeled as regolith and bedrock, with composition taken from the results of the instruments flown on the Apollo missions, namely on the Apollo 12 from the Oceanus Procellarum landing site. Subsurface environments like lava tubes have been considered in the analysis. Particle transport has been performed with both deterministic and Monte Carlo codes with an adaptation for planetary surface geometry. Results are given for most kinds of particles, namely protons, neutrons, alpha particles, heavy ions, pions, and muons.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · SAE Technical Papers
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    ABSTRACT: An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found around and on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The scenarios are evaluated from the point of view of radiation safety with the radiation protection quantities recommended for LEO scenarios.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004
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    ABSTRACT: The NASA Radiation transport code HZETRN has recently been extended to include the transport of pions and muons. Improvements in the numerical convergence of this extension that allows transport through atmosphere with much less computational time are described. Muon fluxes are calculated for Earth's upper atmosphere using Badhwar's primary Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model as the initial conditions and the MSISE-1990 atmospheric model as the medium, and compared to data from balloon flights. Pion and muon fluxes are then calculated at aircraft altitudes in order to estimate possible radiation exposures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004

Publication Stats

547 Citations
59.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • German Aerospace Center (DLR)
      • Institute of Aerospace Medicine
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001-2009
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      • National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2003-2007
    • Old Dominion University
      • Department of Mathematics and Statistics
      Norfolk, Virginia, United States
  • 1994-1997
    • INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
      • Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro LNL
      Frascati, Latium, Italy