Greg Atkinson

South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesborough, England, United Kingdom

Are you Greg Atkinson?

Claim your profile

Publications (249)803.43 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Sports Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To quantify the mean daily changes in training and match load and any parallel changes in indicators of morning-measured fatigue across in-season training weeks in elite soccer players. Methods: Following each training session and match, ratings of perceived exertion (s-RPE) were recorded to calculate overall session load (RPE-TL) in 29 English Premier League players from the same team. Morning ratings of fatigue, sleep quality, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), as well as sub-maximal exercise heart rate (HRex), post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR%) and variability (HRV) were also recorded pre-match day and one, two and four days post-match. Data were collected for a median duration of 3 weeks (range:1-13) and reduced to a typical weekly cycle including no mid-week match and a weekend match day. Data were analysed using within-subjects linear mixed models. Results: RPE-TL was approximately 600 AU (95%CI: 546-644) higher on match-day vs the following day (P<0.001). RPE-TL progressively decreased by ≈ 60 AU per day over the 3 days prior to a match (P<0.05). Morning-measured fatigue, sleep quality and DOMS tracked the changes in RPE-TL, being 35-40% worse on post-match day vs pre-match day (P<0.001). Perceived fatigue, sleep quality and DOMS improved by 17-26% from post-match day to three days post-match with further smaller (7-14%) improvements occurring between four days post-match and pre-match day (P<0.01). There were no substantial or statistically significant changes in HRex, HRR% and HRV over the weekly cycle (P>0.05). Conclusions: Morning-measured ratings of fatigue, sleep quality and DOMS are clearly more sensitive than HR-derived indices to the daily fluctuations in session load experienced by elite soccer players within a standard in-season week.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A hot-flush is characterised by feelings of intense heat, profuse elevations in cutaneous vasodilation and sweating, and reduced brain blood flow. Exercise training reduces self-reported hot-flush severity, but underpinning physiological data are lacking. We hypothesised that exercise training attenuates the changes in cutaneous vasodilation, sweat rate and cerebral blood flow during a hot flush. In a preference trial, 18 symptomatic post-menopausal women underwent a passive heat stress to induce hot-flushes at baseline and follow-up. Fourteen participants opted for a 16-week moderate intensity supervised exercise intervention, while 7 participants opted for control. Sweat rate, cutaneous vasodilation, blood pressure, heart rate and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) were measured during the hot-flushes. Data were binned into eight equal segments, each representing 12.5% of hot flush duration. Weekly self-reported frequency and severity of hot flushes were also recorded at baseline and follow-up. Following training, mean hot-flush sweat rate decreased by 0.04 mg·cm(2) ·min(-1) at the chest (95% CI: 0.02-0.06, P = 0.01) and by 0.03 mg·cm(2) ·min(-1) (0.02-0.05, P = 0.03) at the forearm, compared with negligible changes in control. Training also mediated reductions in cutaneous vasodilation by 9% (6-12) at the chest and by 7% (4-9) at forearm (P≤0.05). Training attenuated hot flush MCAv by 3.4 cm/s (0.7-5.1, P = 0.04) compared with negligible changes in control. Exercise training reduced the self-reported severity of hot-flush by 109 arbitrary units (80-121, P<0.001). These data indicate that exercise training leads to parallel reductions in hot-flush severity and within-flush changes in cutaneous vasodilation, sweating and cerebral blood flow. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The percentage flow-mediated dilation (FMD%) of the brachial artery is purported to be an early indicator of atherosclerosis and has been reported to be reduced in people with obstructive sleep apnoea. Nevertheless, FMD% scales poorly for, and is concomitantly dependent on, initial artery diameter, which may, itself, be higher in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Therefore, for the first time, we aimed to quantify the differences in initial diameter and properly scaled flow-mediated dilation between people with and without sleep apnoea. Method: The prevalence of physician-diagnosed sleep apnoea, as well as initial and peak diameters of the brachial artery were recorded for 3354 participants in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Arterial data were analysed using FMD% and an allometric approach, which scales the flow-mediated response properly for initial diameter. Results: In the sex, race and age-adjusted model, initial diameter was 0.19 mm larger in sleep apnoea patients [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07 to 0.32 mm, P = 0.003] and correlated negatively with FMD% (r = -0.43, 95% CI: -0.57 to -0.26, P < 0.0005). Using this same adjusted model, FMD% was 3.8 ± 2.7% for sleep apnoea patients (n = 104) versus 4.4 ± 2.7% for undiagnosed people (95% CI for difference: -1.12 to -0.07%, P = 0.028). Allometric scaling halved this FMD%-indicated sample difference in flow-mediated dilation (95% CI: -0.7 to 0.1%, P = 0.19). Conclusion: The initial diameter of the brachial artery is larger in MESA participants diagnosed with sleep apnoea compared with undiagnosed people. However, the difference in flow-mediated dilation between these two cohorts is trivial, when the flow-mediated response is scaled properly for resting diameter.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: REVIEW QUESTION / OBJECTIVE Are intermittent fasting interventions an effective treatment for overweight and obesity in adults, when compared to usual care treatment (continuous daily energy restriction – reduced calorie diet) or no treatment (ad libitum diet)? INCLUSION CRITERIA Types of participants This review will consider studies that include free-living (not hospitalized) male and female adults aged 18 years and over (adults of any age will be included; however age will be considered as a potential moderator) who are overweight or obese (i.e. have a Body Mass Index greater than or equal to 25 or 30). Participants will be excluded if they have secondary or syndromic forms of obesity or are diabetic, undergoing bariatric surgery, pregnant or breast feeding, and taking medication associated with weight loss (e.g. orlistat, metformin) or weight gain (e.g. steroids, antipsychotics). Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest This review will consider studies that evaluate intermittent fasting interventions (defined as consumption of 800* kcal or less on at least one day, but no more than six days in a calendar week) that follow participants for at least 12 calendar weeks from the start of the intervention. *as there is no accepted formal definition of “fasting” - the NICE upper limit for a very low calorie diet will be used in this review. Types of comparators Interventions will be compared to control (no intervention) or usual care (which is likely to consist of advice to continuously follow a reduced calorie diet, which is usually around 25% of recommended energy intake).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Isotemporal substitution analysis offers new insights for public health, but has only recently been applied to sedentary behavior research. We aimed to quantify associations between the substitution of 10 minutes of sedentary behavior with 10 minutes of light physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Age was also explored as a potential effect modifier. Methods: We completed a secondary analysis of data from 1477 adults from the Health Survey for England (2008). Sedentary time, LPA and MVPA were measured using accelerometry. We applied isotemporal models to quantify the relationship with CVD prevalence of replacing 10 minutes of sedentary time with equivalent amounts of LPA or MVPA. Prevalence risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented, adjusted for covariates. The role of age as an effect modifier was explored via age × MVPA and age × LPA interactions. CVD was defined as per the International Classification of Diseases. Results: The prevalence of CVD was 24%. The RR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96 to 0.99) for LPA and 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) for MVPA. Substitution of approximately 50 minutes of LPA would be required for an association equivalent to 10 minutes of MVPA. The beneficial association of MVPA was attenuated with age, with a decrease in the relative risk reduction of ∼7% per decade. Conclusions: Isotemporal substitution of sedentary time with LPA was associated with a trivial relative risk reduction for CVD, whereas the equivalent replacement with MVPA had a small beneficial relationship. With respect to CVD prevalence, MVPA might become decreasingly important in older individuals. Prospective studies are needed to investigate causality.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Child and adolescent overweight and obesity have increased globally, and are associated with significant short and long term health consequences. To assess the effects of surgical interventions for treating obesity in childhood and adolescence. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE as well as LILACS, ICTRP Search Portal and (all from database inception to March 2015). References of identified studies and systematic reviews were checked. No language restrictions were applied. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of surgical interventions for treating obesity in children and adolescents (age < 18 years) with a minimum of six months follow-up. Interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included participants with a secondary or syndromic cause of obesity were excluded. Pregnant females were also excluded. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Where necessary authors were contacted for additional information. We included one RCT (a total of 50 participants, 25 in both the intervention and comparator group). The intervention focused on laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding surgery, which was compared to a control group receiving a multi component lifestyle programme. The participating population consisted of Australian adolescents (a higher proportion of girls than boys) aged 14 to 18 years, with a mean age of 16.5 and 16.6 years in the gastric banding and lifestyle group, respectively which was conducted in a private hospital, receiving funding from the gastric banding manufacturer. The study authors were unable to blind participants, personnel and outcome assessors which may have resulted in a high risk of performance and detection bias. Attrition bias was noted as well. The study authors reported a mean reduction in weight of 34.6 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) 30.2 to 39.0) at two years, representing a change in body mass index (BMI) of 12.7 (95% CI 11.3 to 14.2) for the surgery intervention; and a mean reduction in weight of 3.0 kg (95% CI 2.1 to 8.1) representing a change in BMI of 1.3 (95% CI 0.4 to 2.9) for the lifestyle intervention. The differences between groups were statistically significant for all weight measures at 24 months (P < 0.001). The overall quality of the evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was low. Adverse events were reported in 12/25 (48%) participants in the intervention group compared to 11/25 (44%) in the control group (low quality evidence). A total of 28% of the adolescents undergoing gastric banding required revisional surgery. No data were reported for all-cause mortality, behaviour change, participants views of the intervention and socioeconomic effects. At two years, the gastric banding group performed better than the lifestyle group in two of eight health-related quality of life concepts (very low quality evidence) as measured by the Child Health Questionnaire (physical functioning score (94 versus 78, community norm 95) and change in health score (4.4 versus 3.6, community norm 3.5)). Laparoscopic gastric banding led to greater body weight loss compared to a multi component lifestyle program in one small study with 50 patients. These results do not provide enough data to assess efficacy across populations from different countries, socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, who may respond differently. This systematic review highlights the lack of RCTs in this field. Future studies should assess the impact of the surgical procedure and post operative care to minimise adverse events, including the need for post operative adjustments and revisional surgery. Long-term follow-up is also critical to comprehensively assess the impact of surgery as participants enter adulthood.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
  • S V Suri · A M Batterham · L Ells · G Danjoux · G Atkinson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing is an important comorbidity for several diseases, including stroke. Initial screening tools comprise simple yes/no questions about known risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing, e. g., obesity, sex. But walking speed has not been investigated in this context. We examined the cross-sectional association between walking pace and sleep-disordered breathing in the population-level Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. A sample of 2 912 men and 3 213 women (46-87 years) reported perceived walking pace outside their homes. A walking pace<0.89 m/s was deemed "slow", with ≥ 0.89 m/s considered "average/brisk" according to validated thresholds. Sample prevalences were: sleep apnoea (3.5%), self-reported apnoeas (8.4%), loud snoring (20.5%), daytime tiredness (22.2%) and slow-walking pace (26.9%). The 95% CI risk differences (multivariable-adjusted) for slow vs. faster walking pace were; sleep apnoea (0.4-2.5%), self-reported apnoeas (0.1-3.8%), loud snoring (1.2-8.3%), and daytime tiredness (3.0-7.8%). Risk differences were similar between sexes. The multivariable-adjusted risk ratio indicated that slower walkers had 1.5 (95% CI: 1.0 to 2.1) times the risk of sleep apnoea vs. faster walkers. In conclusion, a slower walking speed was associated with a greater prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, independently from other common screening factors. Therefore, a simple walking speed question may help consolidate screening for this disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · International Journal of Sports Medicine
  • Greg Atkinson · Alan M Batterham
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Within the "hot topic" of personalised medicine, we scrutinise common approaches for presenting and quantifying individual differences in the physiological response to an intervention. First, we explain how popular plots used to present individual differences in response are contaminated by random within-subjects variation and the regression to the mean artefact. Using a simulated dataset of blood pressure measurements, we show that large individual differences in physiological response can be suggested by some plots and analyses, even when the true magnitude of response is exactly the same in all individuals. Second, we present the appropriate designs and analysis approaches for quantifying the true inter-individual variation in physiological response. It is imperative to include a comparator arm/condition (or derive information from a prior relevant repeatability study) to quantify true inter-individual differences in response. The most important statistic is the standard deviation of changes in the intervention arm which should be compared with the same standard deviation in the comparator arm, or from a prior repeatability study in the same population conducted over the same duration as the particular intervention. Only if the difference between these standard deviations is clinically relevant is it logical to go on to explore any moderators or mediators of the intervention effect that might explain the individual response. To date, very few researchers have compared these standard deviations before making claims about individual differences in physiological response and their importance to personalised medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Experimental physiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To quantify the relationship between daily training load and a range of potential measures of fatigue in elite soccer players during an in-season competitive phase (17-days). Total high-intensity running distance (THIR), perceived ratings of wellness (fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality), counter-movement jump height (CMJ), post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (Ln rMSSD) were analysed during an in-season competitive period (17 days). General linear models were used to evaluate the influence of daily fluctuation in THIR distance on potential fatigue variables. Fluctuations in fatigue (r=-0.51; large; P<0.001), Ln rMSSD (r=-0.24; small; P=0.04), and CMJ (r=0.23; small; P=0.04) were significantly correlated with fluctuations in THIR distance. Correlations between variability in muscle soreness, sleep quality and HRR and THIR distance were negligible and not statistically significant. Perceived ratings of fatigue and heart rate variability were sensitive to daily fluctuations in THIR distance in a sample of elite soccer players. Therefore, these particular markers show particular promise as simple, non-invasive assessments of fatigue status in elite soccer players during a short in-season competitive phase.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · International journal of sports physiology and performance
  • Greg Atkinson · Alan M Batterham
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2010, the American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association could not recommend brachial artery percentage flow-mediated dilation (FMD%) for risk assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic adults. We aimed to scrutinise past and recently published findings regarding FMD% in this same context of clinical utility and conclude that (1) the question of whether brachial FMD% is a suitable substitute for coronary vasodilation is addressed by method agreement statistics rather than the correlation coefficients that have been reported in past studies. Also, the much-repeated view that brachial FMD% and coronary vasodilation are "closely related" is not entirely justified, even before the influence of baseline lumen diameters on this relationship is accounted for; (2) along with the specialist training and the considerable time (≥1 h) that is required for the FMD% protocol, the error in individual measurements and population reference ranges is too large for clinical decisions to be robust on individual patients; (3) many interventions that are proposed to change FMD% also change baseline artery diameter, which can bias estimates of any intervention effects on the flow-mediated response per se, and (4) the FMD% index generates spurious correlations between shear rate, artery diameter and endothelial function, which may help to explain the apparent paradoxes of FMD% being higher in obese people and lower in athletes. In conclusion, the clinical relevance of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation is unclear at present. The dependence of the chosen index, FMD%, on initial artery size has contributed to this lack of clarity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Hypertension Reports
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of the current study was to identify the external-training-load markers that are most influential on session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of training load (RPE-TL) during elite soccer training. Methods: Twenty-two elite players competing in the English Premier League were monitored. Training-load data (RPE and 10-Hz GPS integrated with a 100-Hz accelerometer) were collected during 1892 individual training sessions over an entire in-season competitive period. Expert knowledge and a collinearity r < .5 were used initially to select the external training variables for the final analysis. A multivariate adjusted within-subjects model was employed to quantify the correlations of RPE and RPE-TL (RPE × duration) with various measures of external training intensity and training load. Results: Total high-speed-running (HSR; >14.4 km/h) distance and number of impacts and accelerations >3 m/s2 remained in the final multivariate model (P < .001). The adjusted correlations with RPE were r = .14, r = .09, and r = .25 for HSR, impacts, and accelerations, respectively. For RPE-TL, the correlations were r = .11, r = .45, and r = .37, respectively. Conclusions: The external-load measures that were found to be moderately predictive of RPE-TL in soccer training were HSR distance and the number of impacts and accelerations. These findings provide new evidence to support the use of RPE-TL as a global measure of training load in elite soccer. Furthermore, understanding the influence of characteristics affecting RPE-TL may help coaches and practitioners enhance training prescription and athlete monitoring.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International journal of sports physiology and performance

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent laboratory experiments on rodents have increased our understanding of circadian rhythm mechanisms. Typically, circadian biologists attempt to translate their laboratory-based findings to treatment of jet lag symptoms in humans. We aimed to scrutinise the strength of the various links in the translational pathway from animal model to human traveller. First, we argue that the translation of findings from pre-clinical studies to effective jet lag treatments and knowledge regarding longer-term population health is not robust, e.g. the association between circadian disruption and cancer found in animal models does not translate well to cabin crew and pilots, who have a lower risk of most cancers. Jet lag symptoms are heterogeneous, making the true prevalence and the effects of any intervention difficult to quantify precisely. The mechanistic chain between in vitro and in vivo treatment effects has weak links, especially between circadian rhythm disruption in animals and the improvement of jet lag symptoms in humans. While the number of animal studies has increased exponentially between 1990 and 2014, only 1-2 randomised controlled trials on jet lag treatments are published every year. There is one relevant Cochrane review, in which only 2-4 studies on melatonin, without baseline measures, were meta-analysed. Study effect sizes reduced substantially between 1987, when the first paper on melatonin was published, and 2000. We suggest that knowledge derived from a greater number of human randomised controlled trials would provide a firmer platform for circadian biologists to cite jet lag treatment as an important application of their findings.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Arbeitsphysiologie
  • Source
    A Thompson · H Jones · E Marqueze · W Gregson · G Atkinson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of evening bright light on the circadian timing of core temperature and morning exercise performance under conditions of high thermal stress. At 20:00 h, 8 males were exposed to a standardised light protocol and thereafter to either polychromatic bright light (2 500 lux at 50 cm, BL) or no light (0 lux, NL) for 30 min. The following morning, intermittent cycling exercise was undertaken followed by a 10 km time-trial in an environmental chamber set to 35°C and 60% relative humidity. Core body temperature was measured throughout. Data were analysed using a within-subjects model and presented as mean±SD. Time of the sleep-trough in core temperature occurred ~1.75 h later following BL (P=0.07). Prior to time-trial, core temperature was 0.27±0.42°C lower in BL (95%CI: -0.02 to 0.57, P=0.07). The time-trial was completed 1.43±0.63 min (0.98-1.87) faster in BL (P=0.001). Post time-trial, intestinal temperature was 38.21±0.56°C (37.84-38.57) in BL compared to 38.64±0.42°C (38.34-38.93) in NL (P=0.10). These data provide the first evidence that a 30-min exposure to bright light prior to sleep can influence exercise performance under hot conditions during the subsequent early morning.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Sports Medicine
  • N C S Lewis · H Jones · P N Ainslie · A Thompson · K Marrin · G Atkinson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The incidence of vasovagal syncope is more common in the morning. Previous researchers have reported negligible diurnal variation in the physiological responses associated with initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH). Nevertheless, physical activity and sleep prior to morning and afternoon test times have not been controlled and may influence the findings. We designed a semi-constant routine protocol to examine diurnal variation in cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular responses to active standing. Methods: At 06:00 and 16:00 hours, nine males (27 ± 9 years) completed an upright-stand protocol. Altimetry-measured sleep durations were 3.3 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6 h immediately prior to the morning and afternoon test times. Continuous beat-to-beat measurements of middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and end-tidal carbon dioxide were obtained. Intestinal body temperature and salivary melatonin concentrations were also measured. Results: Compared with the afternoon, resting HR and body temperature were 4 ± 2 beats min(-1) and 0.45 ± 0.2 °C lower, respectively, whereas melatonin concentration was 28.7 ± 3.2 pg ml(-1) higher in the morning (P ≤ 0.02). Although all individuals experienced IOH at both times of the day, the initial decline in MAP during standing was 13 ± 4 mmHg greater in the afternoon (P = 0.01). Nevertheless, the decline in MCAv was comparable at both times of day (mean difference: 2 ± 3 cm s(-1); P = 0.5). Conclusion: These findings indicate that a bout of sleep in the afternoon in healthy young individuals results in greater IOH that is compensated for by effective cerebral blood flow regulation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Arbeitsphysiologie
  • Greg Atkinson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A ratio index (FMD%) is used ubiquitously to scale (by simple division) brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (Ddiff) in direct proportion to baseline diameter (Dbase). It is now known that Ddiff is inversely proportional to Dbase rendering FMD% wholly inappropriate. Consequently, FMD% is still substantially dependent on Dbase. Although this problem is grounded in statistics, normalization of FMD% for the change in arterial shear rate (ΔSR) has been proposed to remove this Dbase-dependency. It was hypothesized that, if the flow-mediated response is scaled properly to Dbase in the first place, shear rate normalization would not be needed to remove Dbase-dependency. Dedicated software (Digitizelt) was employed to extract the data from a seminal study on FMD% normalization. The underlying allometric relationship between Dbase and peak diameter (Dpeak) was described. The re-analyses revealed that the absolute change in arterial diameter was strongly inversely proportional to Dbase (r= − 0.7, P < 0.0005). The allometric exponent for the Dbase–Dpeak relationship was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78–0.86) rather than the value of 1 needed for appropriate use of FMD%. The allometric approach completely eliminated the originally reported dependency on Dbase without any need for ΔSR normalization (r=0.0, P=0.96). The correlation between ΔSR and FMD% reduced from 0.69 to 0.37, when adjusted for Dbase. In conclusion, this new re-analysis of data from an influential study demonstrates that the FMD%–Dbase correlation is caused by the inappropriate size-scaling properties of FMD% itself. Removal of Dbase-dependency via FMD%/ΔSR normalization is not essential at all if allometric scaling is applied to isolate the flow-mediated response in the first place. Consequently, the influence of ΔSR on this properly scaled response can also be isolated and quantified accurately without the confounding influence of Dbase.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Physiological Measurement
  • R D Wrigley · B Drust · G Stratton · G Atkinson · W Gregson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to compare 3-year changes in physical performance between junior soccer players selected for an elite academy and age-matched controls. The 3-year changes in indicators of the physical performance were quantified in 12-16-year-old Premier League Academy (n=27) and non-academy soccer players (n=18). Data were analysed with an age-group×competitive level general linear model, covariate-adjusted for initial performance level and change in maturation. Covariate adjusted mean±SD changes were greater (standardised effect size>0.7) for the academy players in terms of countermovement jump (7.3±2.6 vs. 5.4±2.5 cm), 10 m sprint (- 0.15±0.05 vs. - 0.10±0.04 s), 20 m sprint (- 0.30±0.16 s vs. - 0.15±0.13 s), agility (- 0.19±0.01 s vs. - 0.08±0.08 s), repeated sprint (- 0.60±0.26 s vs. - 0.41±2.1 s) and intermittent endurance capacity (1 128±406 vs. 315±370 m). These data indicate that a 3-year programme of training in an elite soccer academy is associated with greater changes in physical performance indicators independently from the initial performance level of the child and change in maturation over the same period of time.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Sports Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The individual internal response to an external training load (TL) is the important stimulus for mediating longer-term adaptation. The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is widely used as an indicator of the internal training response in team sports such as soccer (3). Markers of external TL can predict sRPE during rugby training (4). It is unknown whether this is so during soccer training (1). Therefore, we aimed to identify the external TL markers that are most influential of sRPE during elite soccer training. Methods: Twenty-two soccer players (four central defenders, three wide defenders, six central midfielders, three wide midfielders and six attackers) competing in the English Premier League were monitored. The TL data (sRPE and global positioning system @ 10Hz) were collected during 1892 individual training sessions over an entire in-season competitive period. A multivariate-adjusted within-subjects model was employed to quantify the correlations between sRPE and sRPE-TL and various measures of external training intensity and TL respectively (2). Results & Discussion: Expert knowledge and a colinearity r < 0.5 were used initially to select the external training variables for the final analysis. Total high-speed running distance (HSR; >14.4 km·h1), number of impacts and accelerations >3 m•s-2 remained in the final multivariate model (p<0.001). The adjusted correlations with sRPE were r=0.14, r=0.09 and r=0.25 for HSR, impacts and accelerations respectively. For sRPE-TL, the correlations were r=0.11, r=0.45 and r=0.37 respectively. Conclusion: The external load measures that were found to be predictive of sRPE in soccer training were HSR distance, and the number of impacts and accelerations.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • Greg Atkinson · Alan M Batterham

    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Vascular Medicine

Publication Stats

10k Citations
803.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Middlesborough, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012-2015
    • Teesside University
      • School of Health and Social Care
      Middlesborough, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Liverpool
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Cleveland State University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1993-2013
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • • Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES)
      • • School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
      Liverpool, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2003-2004
    • Loughborough University
      Loughborough, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Durham University
      Durham, England, United Kingdom