[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) is considered a tumor suppressor in various cancers, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still uncertain. The aims of this study were to analyze the IGFBP-7 expression, and explore the mechanism responsible for the inactivation of IGFBP-7 in CRC.
mRNA expression was studied by RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis of cultured cells. Methylation status was analyzed by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine followed by sequencing of PCR products of sodium bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. IGFBP-7 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays.
mRNA expression was lost in six out of eight CRC cell lines as compared to normal colon cells. DNA methylation was found in the region of exon 1 and intron 1 of IGFBP-7. In tumor tissue, 107 out of 279 samples showed a negative expression of IGFBP-7 by IHC, which was significantly associated with poor prognosis. The analysis of 37 paired cancerous and normal mucosa samples confirmed the downregulation in the tumors, but revealed variable basal expression levels of IGFBP-7 in normal mucosal samples.
DNA methylation is a mechanism responsible for IGFBP-7 gene silencing providing a target for therapeutic intervention of this tumor suppressor gene.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PITX1 (pituitary homeobox 1) gene has essential roles in human development and has been considered a tumor suppressor in various cancers. However, in lung cancer the role of PITX1 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the expression of PITX1 at both mRNA and protein levels in human lung cancer. The reduced PITX1 expression was found in cancer cell lines test compared to normal human bronchial epithelia cells (HEBC) and small airway epithelia cells (SAEC) by Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR as well as Western blot analysis. In primary lung tissues, PITX1 mRNA was found to be downregulated in the majority of tumors compared with normal lung tissues. An association between the lack of PITX1 mRNA expression and higher tumor grade was observed. A tissue microarray containing 135 primary lung carcinomas was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Eighty-four cases (62%) exhibited no expression of PITX1 and the lower expression of PITX1 was significantly linked to higher tumor stages. Additionally, PITX1 was found to be upregulated in lung cancer cell lines H2228 and H526 after they were exposed to a differentiation modifying agent 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Since homeobox genes are known to transcriptionally regulate key cellular processes and associated with differentiation and carcinogenesis, we suggest that PITX1 might be linked to lung cancer development and progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) is decreased in various tumours, but the role of IGFBP-rP1 in lung cancer is not yet clear. In this study, IGFBP-rP1 expression in lung cancer cell lines was evaluated and reduced expression of IGFBP-rP1 was found. In tissue microarrays containing 138 primary tumours and 20 normal lung tissues analysed by immunohistochemistry, 58 tumours (42%) exhibited no expression of IGFBP-rP1, while all 20 normal lung tissues showed high expression. In squamous cell lung cancer, low expression of IGFBP-rP1 was significantly linked to high-grade tumours. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored the expression of IGFBP-rP1 in three of four lung cancer cell lines. Sequencing of PCR products of sodium bisulphite-treated genomic DNA from the three lung cancer cell lines revealed a heterogeneous methylation pattern in the region of exon 1 and intron 1. Stable transfection of IGFBP-rP1 full-length cDNA into the H2170 lung cancer cell line led to increased expression of IGFBP-rP1 protein. IGFBP-rP1-positive transfectants exhibited remarkably reduced colony-forming ability in soft agar, suppression of tumour growth rate in nude mice, and increased apoptotic cell number as well as activated caspase-3 expression level. The data suggest that IGFBP-rP1 is a tumour suppressor inactivated by DNA methylation in human lung cancer.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · The Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) appears to arise from neuroendocrine cells with the potential to differentiate into a variety of lung epithelial cell lineages. In order to investigate molecular events underlying the cell type transition in SCLC, we treated a SCLC cell line H526 with a differentiation inducing agent 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The treatment led to a dramatic conversion from suspension cells to adherent cells exhibiting an epithelioid phenotype, which remarkably reduced the ability of colony formation in soft agar and suppressed the tumor growth rate in nude mice. The phenotypic transition was consistent with upregulation of surfactant protein C (SFTPC), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), Connexin 26 (Cx26), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1), as well as homeobox genes LAGY, PITX1, and HOXB2. Our data suggest that BrdU induced cell differentiation could be linked to the development of a less aggressively phenotype in small cell lung cancer.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications