[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some studies highlight the association of better clinical responses with adherence to guidelines for empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but little is known about factors that influence this adherence.
Our objectives were to identify factors influencing adherence to the guidelines for empiric treatment of CAP, and to evaluate the impact of adherence on outcome.
We studied 1,288 patients with CAP admitted to 13 Spanish hospitals. Collected variables included the patients' clinical and demographic data, initial severity of the disease, antibiotic treatment, and specialty and training status of the prescribing physician.
Adherence to guidelines was high (79.7%), with significant differences between hospitals (range, 47-97%) and physicians (pneumologists, 81%; pneumology residents, 84%; nonpneumology residents, 82%; other specialists, 67%). The independent factors related to higher adherence were hospital, physician characteristics, and initial high-risk class of Fine, whereas admission to intensive care unit decreased adherence. Seventy-four patients died (6.1%), and treatment failure was found in 175 patients (14.2%). After adjusting for Fine risk class, adherence to the guidelines was found protective for mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.9) and for treatment failure (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). Treatment prescribed by pneumologists and residents was associated with lower treatment failure (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9).
Adherence to guidelines mainly depends on the hospital and the specialty and training status of prescribing physicians. Nonadherence was higher in nonpneumology specialists, and is an independent risk factor for treatment failure and mortality.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural history of the resolution of infectious parameters in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not completely known. The aim of our study was to identify those factors related to host characteristics, the severity of pneumonia, and treatment that influence clinical stability.
In a prospective, multicenter, observational study, we observed 1424 patients with CAP who were admitted to 15 Spanish hospitals. The main outcome variable was the number of days needed to reach clinical stability (defined as a temperature of <or=37.2 degrees C, a heart rate of <or=100 beats/min, a respiratory rate of <or=24 breaths/min, systolic blood pressure of >or=90 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation >or=90% or arterial oxygen partial pressure of >or=60 mm Hg).
The median time to stability was 4 days. A Cox proportional hazard model identified 6 independent variables recorded during the first 24 h after hospital admission related to the time needed to reach stability: dyspnea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76), confusion (HR, 0.66), pleural effusion (HR, 0.67), multilobed CAP (HR, 0.72), high pneumonia severity index (HR, 0.73), and adherence to the Spanish guidelines for treatment of CAP (HR, 1.22). A second Cox model was performed that included complications and response to treatment. This model identified the following 10 independent variables: chronic bronchitis (HR, 0.81), dyspnea (HR, 0.79), confusion (HR, 0.61), multilobed CAP (HR, 0.84), initial severity of disease (HR, 0.73), treatment failure (HR, 0.31), cardiac complications (HR, 0.66), respiratory complications (HR, 0.77), empyema (HR, 0.57), and admission to the intensive care unit (HR, 0.57).
Some characteristics of CAP are useful at the time of hospital admission to identify patients who will need a longer hospital stay to reach clinical stability. Empirical treatment that follows guidelines is associated with earlier clinical stability. Complications and treatment failure delay clinical stability.
Preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Clinical Infectious Diseases