Francisco Javier Gil

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain

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Publications (33)110.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial infection in dental implants along with osseointegration failure usually leads to loss of the device. Bioactive molecules with antibacterial properties can be attached to titanium surfaces with anchoring molecules such as silanes, preventing biofilm formation and improving osseointegration. Properties of silanes as molecular binders have been thoroughly studied, but research on the biological effects of these coatings is scarce. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro cell response and antibacterial effects of triethoxysilypropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) silane anchored on titanium surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed a successful silanization. The silanized surfaces showed no cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analyses of Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) osteoblast-like cells cultured on TESPSA silanized surfaces reported a remarkable increase of biochemical markers related to induction of osteoblastic cell differentiation. A manifest decrease of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation at early stages was observed on treated substrates, while favoring cell adhesion and spreading in bacteria-cell co-cultures. Surfaces treated with TESPSA could enhance a biological sealing on implant surfaces against bacteria colonization of underlying tissues. Furthermore, it can be an effective anchoring platform of biomolecules on titanium surfaces with improved osteoblastic differentiation and antibacterial properties.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Materials Science and Engineering C
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    ABSTRACT: Since metallic biomaterials used for bone replacement possess low bioactivity, the use of cell adhesive moieties is a common strategy to improve cellular response onto these surfaces. In recent years the use of recombinant proteins has emerged as an alternative to native proteins and short peptides owing to the fact that they retain the biological potency of native proteins, while improving their stability. In the present study, we investigated the biological effect of two different recombinant fragments of fibronectin, spanning the 8th-10th and 12th-14th type III repeats, covalently attached to a new TiNbHf alloy using APTES silanization. The fragments were studied separately and mixed at different concentrations and compared to a linear RGD, a cyclic RGD and the full-length fibronectin protein. Cell culture studies using rat mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated that low to medium concentrations (30% and 50%) of type III 8th-10th fragment mixed with type III 12th-14th fragment stimulated cell adhesion and proliferation compared to RGD peptides and the fragments separately. On the other hand, type III 12th-14th fragment alone or mixed at low volume percentages ≤ 50% with type III 8th-10th fragment increased alkaline phosphatase levels compared to the other molecules. These results are significant for the understanding of the role of fibronectin recombinant fragments in cell responses and thus to design bioactive coatings for biomedical applications.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial properties of silver-doped titanium surfaces prepared with a novel electrochemical anodizing process. Material and methods: Titanium samples were anodized with a pulsed process in a solution of silver nitrate and sodium thiosulphate at room temperature with stirring. Samples were processed with different electrolyte concentrations and treatment cycles to improve silver deposition. Physicochemical properties were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, white-light interferometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Cellular cytotoxicity in human fibroblasts was studied with lactate dehydrogenase assays. The in vitro effect of treated surfaces on two oral bacteria strains (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius) was studied with viable bacterial adhesion measurements and growth curve assays. Nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for multiple and paired comparisons, respectively. Post hoc Spearman's correlation tests were calculated to check the dependence between bacteria adhesion and surface properties. Results: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the presence of silver on treated samples and showed that treatments with higher silver nitrate concentration and more cycles increased the silver deposition on titanium surface. No negative effects in fibroblast cell viability were detected and a significant reduction on bacterial adhesion in vitro was achieved in silver-treated samples compared with control titanium. Conclusions: Silver deposition on titanium with a novel electrochemical anodizing process produced surfaces with significant antibacterial properties in vitro without negative effects on cell viability.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Oral Implants Research
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    ABSTRACT: This study shows the potential risk of microfiltration between two different types of implant-abutment connections screwed at 45 Ncm: external and internal. For the first time the use of a mechanical artificial mouth is used with the values (compression and torsion loads with a frequency of 2 Hz) of the human chewing. The mechanical tests were performed with an artificial saliva at 37 °C. The microgap in the connection was measured by an Image Analysis software incorporated in a high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Implant connections were filled with methylene blue by using self-adjustable precision pipettes and the quantity of leakage was determined by high sensitivity spectometry. We showed that the internal connection has lower microgaps compared to the external ones and these microgaps increased with the number of mechanical cycles. The leakage of methylene blue was higher when the external connection was performed. Microgaps and the influence of the mechanical loads are very important for the long-term behavior avoiding the bacteria colonization in the dental implants. These aspects should be known by the implantologists.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Titanium dental implants are commonly used for the replacement of lost teeth, but they present a considerable number of failures due to the infection on surrounding tissues. The aim of this paper is the development of a polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating on the titanium surface by plasma polymerization to obtain a novel improved surface with suitable low bacterial adhesion and adequate cell response. Surface analysis data of these coatings are presented, in particular, water contact angle, surface roughness, and film chemistry, demonstrating the presence of a PEG-like coating. Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius bacterial adhesion assays showed a decreased adhesion on the plasma polymerized samples, while cell adhesion of fibroblasts and osteoblasts on the treated surfaces was similar to control surfaces. Thus, the PEG-like antifouling coating obtained by plasma polymerization on Ti confers this biomaterial's highly suitable properties for dental applications, as they reduce the possibility of infection while allowing the tissue integration around the implant.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Biointerphases
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    ABSTRACT: TGF-β1 is the most related cytokine with the production of fibrotic tissue. It plays an important role on the production of collagen by fibroblasts and other types of cells. The inhibition of this cytokine reduces fibrosis in various types of tissue. Biofunctionalization of dental and orthopedic implants with biomolecules enables modification of the physical, chemical and biochemical properties of their surfaces to improve its biological and clinical performance. Our objective was to develop a reliable method to immobilize oligopeptides on Ti surfaces to obtain a surface with TGF-β1 inhibitory activity that will potentially minimize fibrotic encapsulation of implants during the process of osseointegration. We covalently immobilized TGF-β1 inhibitor P17-peptides on Ti surfaces and assessed by characterizing each step of the process that we successfully biofunctionalized the implant surfaces. High amounts of peptides were anchored and homogeneously distributed on the surfaces with mechanical and thermochemical stability after in vitro simulated challenges. Notably, the immobilized peptides retained their TGF-β1 inhibitory activity in vitro. Thus, these biofunctional coatings are potential candidates for inducing a fast and reliable osseointegration in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: Dental plaque is a biofilm that causes dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Most of the studies in antibacterial coatings have been conducted by in vitro single-species biofilm formation but oral biofilm involves more than 500 different bacterial species that are able to interact. Therefore, new studies are focused on in vitro multispecies biofilm model that mimic in vivo biofilms. The aim of the present work was to study different antibacterial coatings onto titanium surfaces, and evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of the surfaces on two different bacterial species and an oral biofilm. Lactate dehydrogenase assay determined that treated samples did not affect fibroblast viability. In addition, the viability of microorganisms on modified samples was evaluated by LIVE/DEAD BackLight bacterial viability kit. Although a decrease in viable bacteria onto treated samples was obtained, the results showed differences in effectiveness when single-biofilm and oral plaque were tested. It confirms, as we expected, the distinct sensitivities that bacterial strains have. Thus, this multispecies biofilms model holds a great potential to assess antibacterial properties onto samples for dental purposes.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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    ABSTRACT: The use of tantalum as biomaterial for orthopedic applications is gaining considerable attention in the clinical practice because it presents an excellent chemical stability, body fluid resistance, biocompatibility, and it is more osteoconductive than titanium or cobalt-chromium alloys. Nonetheless, metallic biomaterials are commonly bioinert and may not provide fast and long-lasting interactions with surrounding tissues. The use of short cell adhesive peptides derived from the extracellular matrix has shown to improve cell adhesion and accelerate the implant's biointegration in vivo. However, this strategy has been rarely applied to tantalum materials. In this work, we have studied two immobilization strategies (physical adsorption and covalent binding via silanization) to functionalize tantalum surfaces with a cell adhesive RGD peptide. Surfaces were used untreated or activated with either HNO3 or UV/ozone treatments. The process of biofunctionalization was characterized by means of physicochemical and biological methods. Physisorption of the RGD peptide on control and HNO3-treated tantalum surfaces significantly enhanced the attachment and spreading of osteoblast-like cells; however, no effect on cell adhesion was observed in ozone-treated samples. This effect was attributed to the inefficient binding of the peptide on these highly hydrophilic surfaces, as evidenced by contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In contrast, activation of tantalum with UV/ozone proved to be the most efficient method to support silanization and subsequent peptide attachment, displaying the highest values of cell adhesion. This study demonstrates that both physical adsorption and silanization are feasible methods to immobilize peptides onto tantalum-based materials, providing them with superior bioactivity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To improve cardiovascular implant success, metal-based stents are designated to modulate endothelial cells adhesion and migration in order to prevent restenosis and late thrombosis diseases. Biomimetic coatings with extra-cellular matrix adhesive biomolecules onto stents surfaces are a strategy to recover a healthy endothelium. However, the appropriate bioactive sequences to selective promote growth of endothelium and the biomolecules surface immobilization strategy remains to be elucidated. In this study, biofunctionalization of cobalt chromium, CoCr, alloy surfaces with elastin-like recombinamers, ELR, genetically modified with an REDV sequence, was performed to enhance metal surfaces endothelialization. Moreover, physical adsorption and covalent bonding were used as biomolecules binding strategies onto CoCr alloy. Surfaces were activated with plasma and etched with sodium hydroxide previous to silanization with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane and functionalized with the ELR. CoCr alloy surfaces were successfully biofunctionalized and the use of an ELR with an REDV sequence, allows conferring bioactivity to the biomaterials surface, demonstrating a higher cell adhesion and spreading of HUVEC cells on the different CoCr surfaces. This effect is emphasized as increases the amount of immobilized biomolecules and directly related to the immobilization technique, covalent bonding, and the increase of surface charge electronegativity. Our strategy of REDV elastin-like recombinamers immobilization onto CoCr alloy surfaces via covalent bonding through organosilanes provides a bioactive surface that promotes endothelial cell adhesion and spreading.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces
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    ABSTRACT: Dental implant failure can be associated with infections that develop into peri-implantitis. In order to reduce biofilm formation, several strategies focusing on the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been studied. To covalently immobilize these molecules onto metallic substrates, several techniques have been developed, including silanization and polymer brush prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), with varied peptide binding yield and antibacterial performance. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of these methods to immobilize the lactoferrin-derived hLf1–11 antibacterial peptide onto titanium, and evaluate their antibacterial activity in vitro. Smooth titanium samples were coated with hLf1–11 peptide under three different conditions: silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and polymer brush based coatings with two different silanes. Peptide presence was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the mechanical stability of the coatings was studied under ultrasonication. The LDH assays confirmed that HFFs viability and proliferation were no affected by the treatments. The in vitro antibacterial properties of the modified surfaces were tested with two oral strains (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius) showing an outstanding reduction. A higher decrease in bacterial attachment was noticed when samples were modified by ATRP methods compared to silanization. This effect is likely due to the capacity to immobilize more peptide on the surfaces using polymer brushes and the nonfouling nature of polymer PDMA segment.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biomacromolecules
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    ABSTRACT: Dental implant failure can be associated to infections which develop into peri-implantitis. In order to reduce biofilm formation, several strategies focusing on the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. To covalently immobilize these molecules onto metallic substrates several techniques have been developed, including silanization and polymer brush prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), with varied peptide binding yield and antibacterial performance. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of these methods to immobilize the lactoferrin-derived hLf1-11 antibacterial peptide onto titanium, and evaluate their antibacterial activity in vitro. Smooth titanium samples were coated with hLf1-11 peptide under three different conditions: silanization with APTES, and polymer brush based coatings with two different silanes. Peptide presence was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the mechanical stability of the coatings was studied under ultrasonication. The LDH assays confirmed that HFFs viability and proliferation were no affected by the treatments. The in vitro antibacterial properties of the modified surfaces were tested with two oral strains (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius) showing an outstanding reduction. A higher decrease in bacterial attachment was noticed when samples were modified by ATRP methods compared to silanization. This effect is likely due to the capacity to immobilize more peptide on the surfaces using polymer brushes and the non-fouling nature of polymer PDMA segment.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biomacromolecules
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    ABSTRACT: A new thermoplastic polymer for orthodontic applications was obtained and extruded into wires with round and rectangular cross sections. We evaluated the potential of new aesthetic archwire: tensile, three point bending, friction and stress relaxation behaviour, and formability characteristics were assessed. Stresses delivered were generally slightly lower than typical beta-titanium and nickel-titanium archwires. The polymer wire has good instantaneous mechanical properties; tensile stress decayed about 2% over 2 h depending on the initial stress relaxation for up to 120 h. High formability allowed shape bending similar to that associated with stainless steel wires. The friction coefficients were lower than the metallic conventional archwires improving the slipping with the brackets. This new polymer could be a good candidate for aesthetic orthodontic archwires.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Materials Science and Engineering C
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial infection represents a major cause of implant failure in dentistry. A common approach to overcome this issue and treat peri-implant infection consists in the use of antibiotics. However, the rise of multidrug resistant bacteria poses serious concerns to this strategy. A promising alternative is the use of antimicrobial peptides due to their broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and reduced bacterial resistance responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of the human lactoferrin-derived peptide hLf1-11 anchored to titanium surfaces. To this end, titanium samples were functionalized with the hLf1-11 peptide either by silanization methods or physical adsorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed the successful covalent attachment of the hLf1-11 peptide onto titanium surfaces. Lactate dehydrogenase assay determined that hLf1-11 peptide did not affect fibroblast viability. An outstanding reduction in the adhesion and early stages of biofilm formation of Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius was observed on the biofunctionalized surfaces compared to control non-treated samples. Furthermore, samples coated with the hLf1-11 peptide inhibited the early stages of bacterial growth. Thus, this strategy holds great potential to develop antimicrobial biomaterials for dental applications.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Acta biomaterialia
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study focuses on the fatigue behavior of titanium dental implants as-received, with a grit-blasted surface and with a new bioactive surface treatment (2Steps).Background: The 2Step process consists of (1) an initial grit-blasting process to produce a micro-rough surface, followed by (2) a combined thermo-chemical treatment that produces a potentially bioactive surface, that is, that can form an apatitic layer when exposed to biomimetic conditions in vitro. The 2Step treatment produced micro-rough and apatitic coating implants.Methods: Residual stresses were determined by means of X-ray diffraction. The fatigue tests were carried out at 37°C on 500 dental implants, and the S-N curve was determined. The fatigue-crack nucleation for the different treatments was analyzed.Results: The fatigue tests show that the grit-blasting process improves the fatigue life. This is a consequence of the layer of compressive residual stresses that the treatment generates in titanium surfaces. Dental implants that had its surfaced prepared with the 2Step procedure (grit-blasting and thermo-chemical treatment) had its fatigue life decreased by 10% due to the incorporation of oxygen to the surface and the relaxation of the compressive residual stress produced by the heat treatment.Conclusions: Thermo-chemical treatment is an excellent compromise between the improvement of bioactive and mechanical long-life behaviors.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research
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    ABSTRACT: Biofunctionalization of metallic materials with cell adhesive molecules derived from the extracellular matrix is a feasible approach to improve cell-material interactions and enhance the biointegration of implant materials (e.g. osseointegration of bone implants). However, classical biomimetic strategies may prove insufficient to elicit complex and multiple biological signals required in the processes of tissue regeneration. Thus, newer strategies are focusing on installing multifunctionality on biomaterials. In this work, we introduce a novel peptide-based divalent platform with the capacity to simultaneously present distinct bioactive peptide motifs in a chemically controlled fashion. As a proof of concept, the integrin-binding sequences RGD and PHSRN were selected and introduced in the platform. The biofunctionalization of titanium with this platform showed a positive trend towards increased numbers of cell attachment, and statistically higher values of spreading and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells compared to control non-coated samples. Moreover, it displayed statistically comparable or improved cell responses compared to samples coated with the single peptides or with an equimolar mixture of the two motifs. Osteoblast-like cells produced higher levels of alkaline phosphatase on surfaces functionalized with the platform than on control titanium; however, these values were not statistically significant. This study demonstrates that these peptidic structures are versatile tools to convey multiple biofunctionality to biomaterials in a chemically defined manner.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty orthodontic archwires with 55.2 % Ni and 44.8 % Ti (% weight) were subjected to a dipping treatment to coat the NiTi surface by a polyamide polymer. It has been selected a Polyamide 11 due to its remarkable long lasting performance. The transformation temperatures as well as the transformation stresses of the NiTi alloy were determined in order to know whether the coating process can alter its properties. The adhesive wear tests have been demonstrated that the wear rates as well as the dynamic friction coefficients μ of polymer coated wires are much lower than metallic wires. The corrosion studies have shown that the use of this polymer, as coating, seals the NiTi surface to prevent corrosion and the release of nickel ions. The average decrease of Ni ions release due to this coating is around 85 %.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of two different activation methods on the surface chemical composition of a CoCrMo-alloy. The activation was performed with oxygen plasma (OP) or nitric acid (NA). The surface physical-chemical properties were thoroughly characterized by means of several analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), zinc-complex substitution technique, contact angle, and interferometry. The surface modification was evaluated by assessing contamination removal, the "active" hydroxyl groups (OH-act) present at the surface, the metal oxide ratio (CoyO x (-) /CryO x (-) ) and changes in the chemical composition and topography of the oxide layer. XPS experimental data showed for both methods (OP and NA) a significant decrease of the carbon contents (C 1s) associated with contaminants and at the same time changes in the atomic composition of the oxide layer (O 1s). In addition, the O 1s XPS spectra showed differences between the percentage of OH(-) before and after OP or NA treatment, leading to the conclusion that both methods are effective for surface "cleaning" and activation. These results were further investigated and corroborated by ToF-SIMS analysis and zinc complex substitution technique. The general conclusion was that NA is more efficient in terms of contaminants removal and generation of accessible OH-act present at the surface and without altering the native metal oxide ratio (CoyO x (-) /CryO x (-) ) considered to be essential for biocompatibility.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We present the immobilization on synthetic substrates of elastin-like recombinamers (ELR) that combine a bioactive motif for cell adhesion with protein antifouling properties. Physical adsorption of the recombinamers and covalent-grafting through organosilane chemistry were investigated. The biochemically-modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized and tested for protein absorption in serum by fluorescence-labelling, XPS, Ellipsometry, and OWLS. The ELR were successfully grafted and stable, even upon mechanical stresses; being the covalent bonding favourable over physical adsorption. The coated metal surfaces exhibited excellent reduction of serum protein adsorption (9ng/cm(2)) compared to the bare metal surface (310ng/cm(2)). Non-specific protein adsorption may mask the introduced bioactive motifs; therefore, the bioactivated surfaces should display serum-protein antifouling properties. Finally, improved hMSCs response was assessed on the bioactivated substrates. In summary, the coatings simultaneously displayed anti-fouling and bioactive properties. These studies investigated key factors to enhance tissue material interactions fundamental for the design of bioactive devices and future biomedical applications.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The main purpose of this work was to assess the short-term bone regenerative potential of new osteoconductive implants. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the effectiveness of a novel two-step treatment which combines shot-blasting with a thermo-chemical treatment, at very short times after implant placement in a minipig model. Materials and methods Three hundred twenty implants with four different surface treatments, namely bioactivated surfaces, micro-rough grit-blasted, micro-rough acid-etched and smooth as-machined titanium implants were placed into the bone of 20 minipigs. The percent of bone-to-implant contact was determined 3 days, 1, 2, 3 and 10 weeks after implant placement by histomorphometric analysis. Surface composition, topography and wettability of the implant specimens were analysed. Results The combination of shot-blasting and thermo-chemical treatment accelerated bone regeneration at early stages in comparison with all other treatments between day 3 and week 3 (p < 0.05). The value of osseointegration attained at week 2 was maintained until the end of the experiment without any significant changes (percent direct contact ≈ 85 %). This was mostly attributed to the ability of these implants to form in vivo a layer of apatitic mineral that coated the implant and could rapidly stimulate bone nucleation and growth from the implant surface. Conclusions The surface quality resulting from this treatment on cpTi provided dental implants with a unique ability of rapid bone regeneration and osseointegration. Clinical relevance This treatment represents a step forward in the direction of reducing the time prior to implant loading.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Clinical Oral Investigations
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    ABSTRACT: β-type titanium alloys with low Young's modulus are desirable to reduce stress shielding effect and enhance bone remodeling for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. For biomaterials application, the surface bioactivity is necessary to achieve optimal osseointegration. In the previous work, the low elastic modulus (43 GPa) Ti-25Nb-16Hf (wt %) alloy was mechanically and microstructurally characterized. In the present work, the biological behavior of Ti-25Nb-16Hf was studied. The biological response was improved by surface modification. The metal surface was modified by oxygen plasma and subsequently silanized with 3-chloropropyl(triethoxy)silane for covalent immobilization of the elastin-like polymer. The elastin-like polymer employed exhibits RGD bioactive motives inspired to the extracellular matrix in order to improve cell adhesion and spreading. Upon modification, the achieved surface presented different physical and chemical properties, such as surface energy and chemical composition. Subsequently, osteoblast adhesion, cell numbers, and differentiation studies were performed to correlate surface properties and cell response. The general tendency was that the higher surface energy the higher cell adhesion. Furthermore, cell culture and immunofluorescence microscopy images demonstrated that RGD-modified surfaces improved adhesion and spreading of the osteoblast cell type. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A

Publication Stats

325 Citations
110.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN)
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2003-2014
    • Polytechnic University of Catalonia
      • Research Center of Biomedical Engineering (CREB)
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013
    • University of Zaragoza
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2007
    • Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijon
      Gijón, Asturias, Spain
  • 2006-2007
    • Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena
      Carthago Nova, Murcia, Spain