[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The catalytic engine of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), wherein the endoribonuclease Argonaute and single-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) direct target mRNA cleavage. We reconstituted long double-stranded RNA- and duplex siRNA-initiated RISC activities with the use of recombinant Drosophila Dicer-2, R2D2, and Ago2 proteins. We used this core reconstitution system to purify an RNAi regulator that we term C3PO (component 3 promoter of RISC), a complex of Translin and Trax. C3PO is a Mg2+-dependent endoribonuclease that promotes RISC activation by removing siRNA passenger strand cleavage products. These studies establish an in vitro RNAi reconstitution system and identify C3PO as a key activator of the core RNAi machinery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (dsRBPs), such as R2D2 and Loquacious (Loqs), function in tandem with Dicer (Dcr) enzymes in RNA interference (RNAi). In Drosophila, Dcr-1/Loqs and Dcr-2/R2D2 complexes generate microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), respectively. Although R2D2 does not regulate siRNA production, R2D2 and Dcr-2 coordinately bind siRNAs to promote assembly of the siRNA-induced silencing (siRISC) complexes. Conversely, Loqs enhances miRNA production. It is uncertain if Dcr-1 and Loqs facilitate miRNA loading onto the miRISC complexes. Here we used loqs knockout (KO) flies to characterize the physiological functions of Loqs in the miRNA pathway. Northern analysis revealed consistent accumulation of precursor (pre)-miRNAs in loqs(KO) flies. However, the lack of Loqs had differential effects on mature miRNAs: some are diminished, whereas others maintain wild-type levels. Importantly, the data suggest that miRNA production is not the rate-limiting step of the miRNA pathway. We show that Dcr-1, but not Loqs, is critical for assembly of miRISCs by using dcr-1 or loqs null egg extract. Consistent with this, recombinant Dcr-1 could efficiently interact with miRNA duplex in the absence of Loqs. Together, our results indicate that Loqs plays a prominent role in miRNA biogenesis, but is largely dispensable for miRISC assembly. Thus, Loqs and R2D2 represent two distinct functional modes for dsRBPs in the RNAi pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Drosophila melanogaster, the Dicer-2/R2D2 complex initiates RNA interference (RNAi) by processing long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNA (siRNA). Recent biochemical studies suggest that the Dcr-2/R2D2 complex also facilitates incorporation of siRNA into the RNA-induced silencing complex (siRISC). Here we present genetic evidence that R2D2 and Dcr-2 are both required for loading siRNA onto the siRISC complex. Consistent with this, only the Dcr-2/R2D2 complex, but neither Dcr-2 nor R2D2 alone, can efficiently interact with duplex siRNA. Furthermore, both dsRNA-binding domains of R2D2 are critical for binding to siRNA and promoting assembly of the siRISC complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Drosophila melanogaster, Dicer-2/R2D2 and Dicer-1 generate small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), respectively. Here we identify a novel dsRNA-binding protein, which we named R3D1-L, that forms a stable complex with Dicer-1 in vitro and in vivo. While depletion of R3D1-L by RNAi causes accumulation of precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) in S2 cells, recombinant R3D1-L enhances miRNA production by Dicer-1 in vitro. Furthermore, R3D1 deficiency causes miRNA-generating defect and severe sterility in male and female flies. Therefore, R3D1-L functions in concert with Dicer-1 in miRNA biogenesis and is required for reproductive development in Drosophila.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Genes & Development