[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to quantify the accuracy and reproducibility of five commercially available pulmonary function test (PFT) instruments (Collins CPL [Ferraris Respiratory; Louisville, CO]; Morgan Transflow Test PFT System [Morgan Scientific; Haverhill, MA]; SensorMedics Vmax 22D [VIASYS Healthcare; Yorba Linda, CA]; Jaeger USA Masterscreen Diffusion TP [VIASYS Healthcare]; and Medical Graphics Profiler DX System [Medical Graphics Corp; St. Paul, MN]) that are associated with spirometry and the measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity.
In a multifactor, single-center, repeated-measures, full factorial 90-day study, a pulmonary waveform generator and a single-breath simulator of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco) were used to perform simulations of FVC and Dlco maneuvers. Accuracy was assessed as the difference between the observed and simulated values. Reproducibility was determined as the coefficient of variation of all measurements made during the study.
All instruments demonstrated a high degree of accuracy in the measurement of FVC and FEV(1). Overall, the accuracies associated with the measurement of peak flow, forced expiratory flow, mid-expiratory phase, and diffusing capacity were generally lower and more variable among the instruments tested. The coefficients of variation of Dlco measurements over 90 days were higher than those observed for spirometry.
This study demonstrates the feasibility of assessing the accuracy and reproducibility of modern PFT instruments using simulation testing. Our results provide an assessment of the component of PFT accuracy and reproducibility that is due to instrumentation alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to characterize the biological and technical components of variability associated with longitudinal measurements of FEV(1) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (Dlco). Variability was apportioned to subject and instrument for five commercially available pulmonary function testing (PFT) systems: Collins CPL (Ferraris Respiratory; Louisville, CO); Morgan Transflow Test PFT System (Morgan Scientific; Haverhill, MA); SensorMedics Vmax 22D (VIASYS Healthcare; Yorba Linda, CA); Jaeger USA Masterscreen Diffusion TP (VIASYS Healthcare; Yorba Linda, CA); and Medical Graphics Profiler DX System (Medical Graphics Corporation; St. Paul, MN).
This was a randomized, replicated cross-over, single-center methodology study in 11 healthy subjects aged 20 to 65 years. Spirometry and Dlco measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Repetitive simulations of FEV(1) and Dlco were performed on the same instruments on four occasions over a 90-day period using a spirometry waveform generator and a Dlco simulator.
The coefficient of variation associated with repetitive measurements of FEV(1) or Dlco in subjects was consistently larger than that associated with repetitive simulated waveforms across the five instruments. Instrumentation accounted for 13 to 58% of the total FEV(1) and 36 to 70% of the total Dlco variability observed in subjects. Sample size estimates of hypothetical studies designed to detect treatment group differences of 0.050 L in FEV(1) and 0.5 mL/min/mm Hg in Dlco varied as much as four times depending on the instrument utilized.
These results provide a semiquantitative assessment of the biological and technical components of PFT variability in a highly standardized setting. They illustrate how instrument choice and test variability can impact sample size determinations in clinical studies that use FEV(1) and Dlco as end points.