[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study examined the ameliorative effect of a Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) cortex water extract (DzCw) on heme biosynthesis and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities in lead (Pb)-administered rats. Male rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, Pb control group (Pb), and DzCw-administered Pb group (Pb + DzCw). The Pb (25 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally once a week for 4 weeks, while the DzCw was administered orally at a dosage of 0.139 g of DzCw/kg of body weight/day. DzCw administration significantly lowered plasma Pb concentration compared with the Pb group. Furthermore, the blood hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in the Pb + DzCw group than in the Pb group. Although the blood and hepatic delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities were significantly lower in the Pb group compared with the normal control group, both ALAD activities was normalized with the administration of DzCw. The erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly higher in the Pb group than in the normal control group, whereas the glutathione peroxidase activity and glutathione level were lowered by Pb administration compared with the normal group. However, the administration of DzCw was found to enhance the antioxidant defense system and significantly lower lipid peroxidation levels in erythrocytes compared with the Pb group. These results indicate that the DzCw administration alleviated the Pb-induced oxidative stress in the erythrocytes through elevating the blood and hepatic ALAD activity and enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of cinnamate, a phenolic compound found in cinnamon bark and other plant materials, on lipid metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Three groups of rats were given a diet containing 1 g of cholesterol/kg for 6 weeks. The control group only received the high cholesterol diet, whereas the other two groups received a diet supplemented with lovastatin or cinnamate (0.1 g/100 g of diet). The plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the cinnamate group than in either the control or lovastatin groups, and the atherogenic index was significantly lower in rats with cinnamate supplementation. Supplementation with cinnamate resulted in significantly lower hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was higher in the control group than in the rats supplemented with either cinnamate or lovastatin. Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was significantly lower in the cinnamate group compared with the other groups, whereas only acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was significantly lower in the lovastatin group compared with the control group. Cinnamate supplementation resulted in higher catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, while hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were significantly lower in both the cinnamate and lovastatin groups. The fecal acidic sterol was higher in the lovastatin group than in the control or cinnamate groups. These results suggest that dietary cinnamate inhibits hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, resulting in lower hepatic cholesterol content, and suppresses lipid peroxidation via enhancement of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cinnamate is a widespread secondary metabolite of phenolic compound synthesized by plants for defensive purposes. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of two structurally related cinnamate derivatives, 4-hydroxycinnamate and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (HPP), on the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male rats were fed a 1 g/100 g high-cholesterol diet with supplements of either 4-hydroxycinnamate or HPP (0.135 mmol/100 g diet) for 6 weeks. The plasma paraoxonase activity was found to be higher in the cinnamate-derivative-supplemented groups than in the control group. The erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, plus glutathione (GSH) level, were all significantly higher in the 4-hydroxycinnamate- and HPP-supplemented groups than in the control group. However, both 4-hydroxycinnamate and HPP supplementation significantly lowered the hepatic activities and mRNA expression of CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) compared to the control group. The hepatic mRNA expression and activity of SOD did not differ between the groups. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level was significantly lowered by the 4-hydroxycinnamate and HPP supplementation. Accordingly, these results indicate that supplementation by 4-hydroxycinnamate and HPP would seem to enhance the antioxidative defense of erythrocyte. Both HPP and 4-hydroxycinnamate would appear to be beneficial in improving the function of antioxidative enzymes on a molecular level in high-cholesterol-fed rats.
Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology