Eun Young Choi

Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea

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Publications (245)742.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cough is one of the most common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases organized cough guideline committee and cough guideline was developed by this committee. The purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians to diagnose correctly and treat efficiently patients with cough. In this article, we have stated recommendation and summary of Korean cough guideline. We also provided algorithm for acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered. If UACS is suspicious, first generation anti-histamine and nasal decongestant can be used empirically. In CVA, inhaled corticosteroid is recommended in order to improve cough. In GERD, proton pump inhibitor is recommended in order to improve cough. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, habit, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factor, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic cough can be also considered as cause of chronic cough. Level of evidence for treatment is mostly low. Thus, in this guideline, many recommendations are based on expert opinion. Further study regarding treatment for cough is mandatory.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance the performance of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs), we have designed and synthesized interfacial modifiers (IMs) which provide better surface properties for the ZnO layer. The synthesized IMs were composed of electron donating and accepting parts. Julolidine or diethyl aniline was used as a donor part, and cyano acrylic acid as an acceptor part. The julolidine-based B1 material exhibited a much stronger dipole moment of 9.86 D than diethyl aniline-based B2 (9.17 D), and the water contact angle of the ZnO surface treated with B1 (65.3°) was much larger than that with B2 (39.8°). These julolidine effects were much more powerful than diethyl aniline: the julolidine moiety significantly decreased the hydrophilicity of the ZnO surface and its work function (WF). The inverted devices with the configuration of ITO/ZnO/IMs (B1 or B2)/PTB7-Th:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag were fabricated and the photovoltaic properties were investigated. Both B1 and B2 worked well as IMs, but B1-treated devices exhibited a much higher power conversion efficiency of 8.35% than B2-treated devices (7.80%). B1 treatment on ZnO effectively reduced series resistance and leakage current in the devices due to the julolidine effects. We believe that julolidine is an excellent electron donating building block for IMs in inverted PSCs and our approach can be applied to other IM systems universally to improve photovoltaic performance.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin condition caused by an imbalance of distinct subsets of T helper cells. Previously, we showed that 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (4H3MC) inhibits T cell activation but does not induce apoptosis. Here, we examined the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of 4H3MC on AD both in vivo and in vitro. We sought to test the pharmacological effects of 4H3MC using a mouse model of 2, 4-'2,4-dinitrocholorobenzene' (DNCB)- and mite-induced AD. Also, we determined whether 4H3MC affects T cell differentiation and proliferation. Oral administration of 4H3MC attenuated the symptoms of DNCB- and mite-induced AD, including increased ear thickness, serum IgE levels, immune cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions, and pathogenic cytokine expression in ear tissues. In vitro, 4H3MC blocked T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 subtypes, as reflected by suppression of T-bet and GATA3, which are key transcription factors involved in T cell differentiation. In addition, 4H3MC downregulated T cell proliferation during Th1 and Th2 differentiation and keratinocyte activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that 4H3MC ameliorates AD symptoms by modulating the functions of effector T cells and keratinocytes.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3 -dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyzes L-tryptophan to kynurenine in the first and rate-limiting step of tryptophan metabolism. IDO1 is expressed widely throughout the body, with especially high expression in colonic intestinal tissues. To examine the role of IDO1 in the colon, transcriptome analysis was performed in both Ido1(-/-) and Ido1(+/+) mice. Gene set enrichment analysis identified the Inflammatory Response as the most significant category modulated by the absence of IDO1. This observation prompted us to further investigate the function of IDO1 in the development of tissue inflammation. By using DSS-induced experimental colitis mice models, we found that the disease in Ido1(-/-) mice was less severe than in Ido1(+/+) mice. Pharmacological inhibition of IDO1 by L-1MT attenuated the severity of DSS-colitis as well. Transcriptome analyses revealed that pathways involving TLR and NF-kB signaling were significantly down-regulated by the absence of IDO1. Furthermore, dramatic changes in TLR and NF-kB signaling resulted in substantial changes in the expression of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Numbers of inflammatory cells in colon and peripheral blood were reduced in IDO1 deficiency. These findings suggest that IDO1 plays important roles in producing inflammatory responses and modulating transcriptional networks during the development of colitis.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    Ji-Min Ju · Min Bum Kim · Su Jeong Ryu · Joo Young Kim · Jun Chang · Eun Young Choi
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    ABSTRACT: Minor histocompatibility antigens are MHC-bound peptides and contribute to the generation of allo-responses after allogeneic transplantation. H60 is a dominant minor H antigen that induces a strong CD8 T-cell response in MHC-matched allogeneic transplantation settings. Here, we report establishment of a TCR transgenic mouse line named J15, wherein T cells express TCRs specific for H60 in complex with H-2K(b), and different fates of the thymocytes expressing J15 TCRs in various thymic antigenic environments. Thymocytes expressing the J15 TCRs were positively selected and differentiated into CD8(+) single positive (SP) cells in the thymus of C57BL/6 mice, wherein the cognate antigen H60 is not expressed. However, thymocytes were negatively selected in thymus tissue where H60 was transgenically expressed under the control of the actin promoter, with double-positive stages of cells being deleted. Despite the ability of the H60H peptide (LTFHYRNL) variant to induce cytotoxic activity from H60-specific CTL lines at ~50% of the activity induced by normal H60 peptides (LTFNYRNL), J15-expressing thymocytes were positively selected in the thymus where the variant H60H was transgenically expressed. These results demonstrate that a single amino-acid change in the H60 epitope peptide influences the fate of thymocytes expressing the cognate TCR.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Immune Network
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the presence of toll like receptor (TLR) expression in conventional TCRαβ T cells, the direct role of TLR signaling via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) within T lymphocytes on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains unknown. In the allo-SCT model of C57BL/6 (H-2b) → B6D2F1 (H-2b/d), recipients received transplants of wild type (WT) T-celldepleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) and splenic T cells from either WT or MyD88 deficient (MyD88KO) donors. Hosttype (H-2d) P815 mastocytoma or L1210 leukemia cells were injected either subcutaneously or intravenously to generate a GVHD/GVL model. Allogeneic recipients of MyD88KO T cells demonstrated a greater tumor growth without attenuation of GVHD severity. Moreover, GVHDinduced GVL effect, caused by increasing the conditioning intensity was also not observed in the recipients of MyD88KO T cells. In vitro, the absence of MyD88 in T cells resulted in defective cytolytic activity to tumor targets with reduced ability to produce IFN-γ or granzyme B, which are known to critical for the GVL effect. However, donor T cell expansion with effector and memory T-cell differentiation were more enhanced in GVHD hosts of MyD88KO T cells. Recipients of MyD88KO T cells experienced greater expansion of Foxp3- and IL4-expressing T cells with reduced INF-γ producing T cells in the spleen and tumor-draining lymph nodes early after transplantation. Taken together, these results highlight a differential role for MyD88 deficiency on donor T-cells, with decreased GVL effect without attenuation of the GVHD severity after experimental allo-SCT.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Moleculer Cells
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators Bax, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The current diabetes mellitus pandemic constitutes an important global health problem. Reductions in the mass and function of β-cells contribute to most of the pathophysiology underlying diabetes. Thus, physiological control of blood glucose levels can be adequately restored by replacing functioning β-cell mass. Sources of functional islets for transplantation are limited, resulting in great interest in the development of alternate sources, and recent progress regarding cell fate change via utilization of extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes and microvesicles, is notable. Thus, this study investigated the therapeutic capacity of extracellular vesicle-mimetic nanovesicles (NVs) derived from a murine pancreatic β-cell line. To differentiate insulin-producing cells effectively, a three-dimensional in vivo microenvironment was constructed in which extracellular vesicle-mimetic NVs were applied to subcutaneous Matrigel® platforms containing bone marrow (BM) cells in diabetic immunocompromised mice. Long-term control of glucose levels was achieved over 60 days, and differentiation of donor BM cells into insulin-producing cells in the subcutaneous Matrigel® platforms, which were comprised of islet-like cell clusters with extensive capillary networks, was confirmed along with the expression of key pancreatic β-cell markers. The resectioning of the subcutaneous Matrigel® platforms caused a rebound in blood glucose levels and confirmed the source of functioning β-cells. Thus, efficient differentiation of therapeutic insulin-producing cells was attained in vivo through the use of extracellular vesicle-mimetic NVs, which maintained physiological glucose levels.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · ACS Nano
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    Kyung Soo Hong · Eun Young Choi · Dong-Ah Park · Jinkyeong Park
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    ABSTRACT: Moderate sedatives have been increasingly used to improve patient comfort during flexible bronchoscopy (FB). However, routine use of moderate sedation during FB is controversial because its efficacy and safety are not well established.This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of moderate sedation during FB.A search was made of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to May 2014.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs were included.The main analysis was designed to examine the efficacy of moderate sedation during FB in sedation than no-sedation.The willingness to repeat FB was significantly more in sedation than no-sedation (odds ratio [OR] 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-4.73; P = 0.02; I = 22.5). The duration of FB was shorter in sedation group than no-sedation group (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.21; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.03; P = 0.02; I = 78.3%). Event of hypoxia was not significantly different between sedation and no-sedation groups (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.42-1.73; P = 0.67; I = 0%). The SpO2 during procedure was not different between sedation and no-sedation groups (SMD -0.14; 95% CI -0.37 to 0.08; P = 0.21; I = 49.9%). However, in subgroup analysis without supplemental oxygen, the SpO2 was significantly lower in sedation than no-sedation group (SMD -0.45; 95% CI -0.78 to -0.11; P = 0.01; I = 0.0%).According to this meta-analysis, moderate sedation in FB would be useful in patients who will require repeated bronchoscopies as well as safe in respiratory depression. To our knowledge, although the various sedative drugs are already used in the real field, this analysis was the first attempt to quantify objective results. We anticipate more definite and studies designed to elucidate standardized outcomes for moderate sedation in FB.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Medicine
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    Eun Young Choi · Dong-Ah Park · Hyun Jung Kim · Jinkyeong Park
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if daily bathing with chlorhexidine decreased hospital-acquired BSIs in critically ill patients. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify randomized controlled trials that compared daily bathing with chlorhexidine and a control in critically ill patients. Results: This meta-analysis included five RCTs. The overall incidence of measured hospital-acquired BSIs was significantly lower in the chlorhexidine group compared to the controls 0.69 (95 % CI 0.55-0.85; P < 0.001; I (2) = 57.7 %). Gram-positive-induced (RR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.41-0.58; P = 0.000; I (2) = 0.0 %) bacteremias were significantly less common in the chlorhexidine group. The incidence of MRSA bacteremias (RR 0.63; 95 % CI 0.44-0.91; P = 0.006; I (2) = 30.3 %) was significantly lower among patients who received mupirocin in addition to chlorhexidine bathing than among those who did not routinely receive mupirocin. Conclusions: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine may be effective to reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired BSIs. However, chlorhexidine bathing alone may be of limited utility in reduction of MRSA bacteremia; intranasal mupirocin may also be required. This meta-analysis has several limitations. Future large-scale international multicenter studies are needed.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Annals of Intensive Care
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the cellular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects exerted by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the repair of tissue damage, we investigated the in vivo dynamics of bone marrow (BM) lineage-negative (Lin(-)) cells transplanted into mice with hyper sensitivity dermatitis. Longitudinal in vivo imaging and flow cytometry analyses revealed that Lin(-) cells home directly to inflamed skin within 6 h, where they undergo extensive expansion with the peak on day 14 post-transplantation, and preferential differentiation into CD11b(+)Ly6G(int)Ly6C(+) cells by day 7. Cells with phenotypic profiles of neutrophils, macrophages, and DCs appeared in inflamed skin on day 14. Progenies of transplanted Lin(-) cells showed similar kinetics of expansion and myeloid differentiation in BM. However, differentiation into CD11b(+)Ly6G(int)Ly6C(+) cells in the inflamed skin on day 7 was more skewed toward CD115(+) cells (≥60%) with immune suppressive function and higher expression levels of iNOS, arginase, and IL-10, compared with those in the BM. Transplantation of Lin(-) cells reduced the levels of Cd3 transcript and CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells in inflamed skin. These results demonstrate differentiation of transplanted Lin(-) cells into myeloid-derived suppressor cells in inflamed skin to be the basis of the alleviation of skin inflammation after Lin(-) cell transplantation.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular comparison of species belonging to the genus Junonia collected from Myanmar was completed using mtDNA sequence data from 605-bp cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Six species were sequenced, aligned, and used to construct phylogenetic trees. The base composition of the COI sequences was 37.8% T, 15.4% C, 31.4% A, and 15.4% G, revealing strong AT bias (69.2%). The sequence distance of Junonia ranged from 1.5% to 9.0%. Nucleotide substitution primarily occurred through transition rather than transversion.. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods, using Hypolimas misippus as out group. Both trees had almost identical topologies. All COI sequences of each species fell in the same cluster as those of the same species obtained from the NCBI. Species in Junonia exhibited the following relationships: (((J. orithya + J. hierta) + J. lemonias lemonias) + J. almana almana) + (J. atlites + J. iphita). The clustering results were almost identical to current morphological classification.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual 1D-to-3D transformation of a coordination polymer based on organic linkers containing highly polar push–pull π-conjugated side chains is reported. The coordination polymers are synthesized from zinc nitrate and an organic linker, namely, 2,5-bis{4-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]butoxy}terephthalic acid, which possesses highly polar (4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine groups, with high dipole moments of about 7 D. The coordination polymers exhibit an unusual transformation from a soluble, solvent-stabilized 1D coordination polymer into an insoluble, metal–organic framework (MOF)-like 3D coordination polymer. The coordination polymer exhibits good film-forming ability, and the MOF-like films are insoluble in conventional organic solvents.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Chemistry - A European Journal
  • Hee Young Kang · Eun Young Choi

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer, mortality still is increasing. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of KMU-193, 2-(4-Ethoxy-phenyl)-N-{5-[2-fluoro-4-(4-methyl- piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenylamino]-1H-indazol-3-yl}-acetamide in a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. KMU-193 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, but it did not have anti-proliferative effect in other types of cancer cell lines. KMU-193 further induced apoptosis in association with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PLC-γ1. However, KMU-193 had no apoptotic effect in untransformed cells such as TMCK-1 and BEAS-2B. Interestingly, pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, strongly abrogated KMU- 193-induced apoptosis. KMU-193 treatment enhanced the expression levels of p53 and PUMA. Importantly, p53 siRNA transfection attenuated KMU-193-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrate that KMU-193 has strong apoptotic effects on A549 cells and these are largely mediated through caspase-3- and p53-dependent pathways.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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    ABSTRACT: CD8(+) T cells activated without CD4(+) T-cell help are impaired in memory expansion. To understand the underlying cellular mechanism, here we track the dynamics of helper-deficient CD8(+) T-cell response to a minor histocompatibility antigen by phenotypic and in vivo imaging analyses. Helper-deficient CD8(+) T cells show reduced burst expansion, rapid peripheral egress, delayed antigen clearance and continuous activation, and are eventually exhausted. Contrary to the general consensus that CD4 help encodes memory programmes in CD8(+) T cells and helper-deficient CD8(+) T cells are abortive, these cells can differentiate into effectors and memory precursors. Importantly, accelerating antigen clearance or simply increasing the burst effector size enables generation of memory cells by CD8(+) T cells, regardless of CD4 help. These results suggest that the memory programme is CD8(+) T-cell-intrinsic, and provide insight into the role of CD4 help in CD8(+) T-cell responses.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
  • Bong‐Hee Kim · Hee‐Young Kang · Eun‐Young Choi
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    ABSTRACT: Aims and objectivesThis study evaluated the effects of handholding and spoken information provided on the anxiety of patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty under local anaesthesia.BackgroundA surgical intervention usually entails physical discomfort and psychological burden. Furthermore, patients under local anaesthesia are conscious during the surgical intervention, which leads to more anxiety, as patients are aware of their surroundings in the operating theatre.DesignA quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group was utilised.Methods Amsterdam preoperative anxiety scale assessed psychological anxiety, while blood pressure and pulse were measured to evaluate physiological anxiety. Participants were 94 patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty in a spine hospital in Gwangju Metropolitan City, South Korea. Thirty patients were assigned to Experimental Group I, 34 to the Experimental Group II and 30 to the control group. During a surgical intervention, nurses held the hands of those in Experimental Group I and provided them with spoken information. Patients in Experimental Group II experienced only handholding.ResultsPsychological anxiety in Experimental Group I was low compared to those in Experimental Group II and the control group. In addition, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure in both Experimental Groups compared to the control group.Conclusions Handholding and spoken information provided during a surgical intervention to mitigate psychological anxiety, and handholding to mitigate physiological anxiety can be used in nursing interventions with patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty.Relevance to clinical practiceHandholding and providing nursing information are possibly very useful interventions that are easily implemented by circulating nurses during a surgical intervention. In particular, handholding is a simple, economical and appropriate way to help patient in the operating theatre.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Clinical Nursing
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    ABSTRACT: To identify significant fluorescein angiographic (FA) characteristics associated with visual acuity (VA) in Behçet retinal vasculitis. Retrospective review of 86 eyes of 48 patients (age: 35.6±10.2 years) with Behçet retinal vasculitis were performed. VA and FA findings as well as correlation between them were assessed. The mean initial VA of eyes with posterior pole-involved vasculitis (63 eyes; 73.3%) was significantly worse than that of those with peripheral vasculitis (23 eye; 26.7%) (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution VA: 0.554±0.572 vs. 0.078±0.148; p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis revealed a more severe and diffuse pattern of vascular leakage in posterior pole-involved vasculitis compared to peripheral vasculitis (p<0.0001). Retinal vascular leakage (β=0.345; p<0.0001), optic disc hyperfluorescence (β=0.147; p=0.032), and macular leakage (β=0.107; p=0.047) were significantly associated with worse initial VA. During the follow up (mean: 33.3±17.9 months), the change of leakage showed no significant correlation with change of VA in posterior pole-involved vasculitis (τ=0.199, p=0.092). Posterior pole involvement, the degree of retinal vascular leakage, optic disc hyperfluorescence, and macular leakage are significantly associated with VA in Behçet retinal vasculitis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Yonsei medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Upregulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is known to be strongly associated with the proliferation, invasion, and radio-resistance of glioma cells. However, the regulatory mechanism that governs the biogenesis of miR-21 in glioma is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the DEAD-box RNA helicase, DDX23, promotes miR-21 biogenesis at the post-transcriptional level. The expression of DDX23 was enhanced in glioma tissues compared to normal brain, and expression level of DDX23 was highly associated with poor survival of glioma patients. Specific knockdown of DDX23 expression suppressed glioma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo, which is similar to the function of miR-21. We found that DDX23 increased the level of miR-21 by promoting primary-to-precursor processing of miR-21 through an interaction with the Drosha microprocessor. Mutagenesis experiments critically demonstrated that the helicase activity of DDX23 was essential for the processing (cropping) of miR-21, and we further found that ivermectin, a RNA helicase inhibitor, decreased miR-21 levels by potentially inhibiting DDX23 activity and blocked invasion and cell proliferation. Moreover, treatment of ivermectin decreased glioma growth in mouse xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest that DDX23 plays an essential role in glioma progression, and might thus be a potential novel target for the therapeutic treatment of glioma. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Brain

Publication Stats

3k Citations
742.41 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Chosun College Of Science and Technology
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2012-2015
    • Hanyang University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Major in Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Psychology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Korea Internet & Security Agency
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dankook University
      Eidō, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2011-2015
    • National Cancer Center Korea
      • Specific Organs Cancer Branch
      QYK, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Ajou University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yonsei University
      • College of Dentistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seegene Institute of Life Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gangneung-Wonju National University
      • Department of Nursing
      Gangneung, Gangwon-do, South Korea
    • Kwandong University
      Gangneung, Gangwon, South Korea
    • Chosun University
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2015
    • University of Ulsan
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Graduate School
      Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2004-2015
    • Yeungnam University
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      • • College of Medicine
      경산시, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
  • 1996-2015
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Kyung Hee University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013-2014
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanyang University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009-2014
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • College of Ecology and Environmental Science
      • • Applied Biology
      • • School of Life Science
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Experimental Immunology
      Maryland, United States
    • National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States
  • 2003-2014
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • The Jackson Laboratory
      Bar Harbor, Maine, United States
    • Wonkwang University School of Medicine and Hospital
      Riri, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • Blood Systems Research Institute
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2000-2014
    • Pusan National University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Division of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Busan, Busan, South Korea
  • 1997-2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
      • • Department of Pathology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2013
    • Sejong General Hospital
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
  • 2010-2012
    • Hongik University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007-2010
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Experimental Immunology Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • Korea University
      • Department of Life Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dankook University Hospital
      Anjŏ, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2005-2006
    • Inha University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004-2005
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Institute of Basic Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea