Enrique Ortega

University of Valencia, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (63)314.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 CRF19_cpx, is a recombinant variant found almost exclusively in Cuba and recently associated to a faster AIDS onset. Infection with this variant leads to higher viral loads and levels of RANTES and CXCR4 co-receptor use. The goal of this study was to assess the presence of CRF19_cpx in the Spanish province of Valencia, given its high pathogenicity. 1294 HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase (PR/RT) sequences were obtained in Valencia (Spain), between 2005 and 2014. After subtyping, the detected CRF19_cpx sequences were aligned with 201 CRF19_cpx and 66 subtype D sequences retrieved from LANL, and subjected to maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian coalescent reconstructions. The presence of resistance mutations in the PR/RT region of these sequences was also analyzed. Among the 9 CRF19_cpx sequences from different patients found (prevalence <0.1%), 7 grouped in two well-supported clades (groups A, n=4, and B, n=3), suggesting the existence of at least two independent introductions which subsequently started to expand in the studied Spanish region. Unprotected sex between men was the only known transmission route. Coalescent analyses suggested that the introductions in Valencia occurred between 2008 and 2010. Resistance mutations in the RT region were found in all sequences from group A (V139D) and in two sequences from group B (E138A). This study reports for the first time the recent expansion of CRF19_cpx outside Cuba. Our results suggest that CRF19_cpx might become an emerging HIV variant in Spain, affecting Spanish native MSM and not only Cuban migrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This consensus document is an update of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk (CVR) guidelines for HIV-infected patients. Methods: This document has been approved by an expert panel of GEAM, SPNS and GESIDA after reviewing the results of efficacy and safety of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. Recommendation strength and the evidence in which they are supported are based on the GRADE system. Results: A healthy lifestyle is recommended, no smoking and at least 30min of aerobic exercise daily. In diabetic patients the same treatment as non-HIV infected patients is recommended. HIV patients with dyslipidemia should be considered as high CVR, thus its therapeutic objective is an LDL less than 100mg/dL. The antihypertensive of ACE inhibitors and ARAII families are better tolerated and have a lower risk of interactions. In HIV-patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome and elevated transaminases with no defined etiology, the recommended is to rule out a hepatic steatosis Recommendations for action in hormone alterations are also updated. Conclusions: These new guidelines update previous recommendations regarding all those metabolic disorders involved in CVR. Hormone changes and their management and the impact of metabolic disorders on the liver are also included.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of the metabolic disorders and their impact on patients with HIV infection requires an individualized study and continuous updating. HIV patients have the same cardiovascular risk factors as the general population. The HIV infection per se increases the cardiovascular risk, and metabolic disorders caused by some antiretroviral drugs are added risk factors. For this reason, the choice of drugs with a good metabolic profile is essential. The most common metabolic disorders of HIV infected-patients (insulin resistance, diabetes, hyperlipidemia or osteopenia), as well as other factors of cardiovascular risk, such as hypertension, should also be dealt with according to guidelines similar to the general population, as well as insisting on steps to healthier lifestyles. The aim of this document is to provide a query tool for all professionals who treat HIV-patients and who may present or display any metabolic disorders listed in this document.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We compared the prognostic value of liver biopsy (LB) and FIB-4 index in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Methods: We studied patients from the Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 3603 study cohort, in whom fibrosis was evaluated at baseline using both LB (Metavir score) and FIB-4 index. We assessed overall death (OD) and liver-related events (LREs), defined as decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma, whichever occurred first. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the ability of LB and FIB-4 to predict outcomes. We also assessed the association between advanced fibrosis-LB (F3 or greater) or FIB-4 (≥3.25)-and outcomes using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: The study sample comprised 903 patients (328 with sustained virologic response [SVR]). Baseline fibrosis by LB was as follows: F0, n = 71; F1, n = 242; F2, n = 236; F3, n = 236; F4, n = 118. Fibrosis by FIB-4 was as follows: ≤1, n = 148; >1 to <3.25, n = 597; ≥3.25, n = 158. After a median follow-up of 62 months, there were 46 deaths and 71 LREs. The area under the ROC curves for OD/LREs was 0.648 and 0.742 for LB and FIB-4, respectively (P = .006). Similar results were found for patients without SVR and for OD and LREs separately. The adjusted hazard ratios of OD or LRE were 1.740 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.119-2.7.06; P = .014) for advanced fibrosis assessed by LB and 3.896 (95% CI, 2.463-6.160; P < .001) assessed by FIB-4. Conclusions: FIB-4 outperformed LB as a predictor of OD and LRE. These findings are of relevance for clinical practice and research and call into question the role of LB as a gold standard for assessing prognosis in HIV/HCV coinfection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In general, HIV co-infected patients included in clinical trials evaluating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with telaprevir (TVR) or boceprevir (BOC) with advanced fibrosis, are scarce. We analyze data concerning the use of these drugs in a real-life clinical setting with patients affected by a more advanced degree of fibrosis in a Spanish cohort. Methods We evaluated safety and efficacy in an interim analysis encompassing the first 24 weeks of triple therapy with peginterferon (alfa-2a or alfa-2b), ribavirin and TVR or BOC in an observational, multicentre study. HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients beginning therapy from January 2012 to July 2013 were included. Results Enrolled patients were 155 (144 patients on TVR and 11 on BOC), average age was 47 years, 83% were male. With respect to HCV treatment, 44% were naïve, 13% relapsers, 17% partial responders, 21% null responders, and in seven patients, the previous response was unknown. All but three (98%) were under antiretroviral therapy (ART) (other than reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the backbone was raltegravir 43%, atazanavir 35%, and etravirine 28%). Median HCV-RNA at baseline was 6.1 log10, 54% were cirrhotic and 38% F3. At week 4, 93% of patients continued on therapy, 81% at w12, and 73% at w24. Virological failure was observed more frequently in: cirrhotic patients (19% [95% CI, 11–27]) vs F3 (12% [CI, 4–20]); patients with TT allele of the IL28B polymorphism (40% [CI, 18–61]) vs CT (21% [CI, 12–31]), or CC (2,2% [CI, −2–6]); previous null responders (37.5% [CI, 21–54]) vs partial responders (15.4% [CI, 1–29]), naïve (13% [CI, 5–21]) or relapsers (0% [CI, 0–0]); and in patients with a genotype subtype 1a (23.6% [CI, 57–76]) vs 1b (8.1% [CI, −1–17]). Overall, 17% had virological failure and in 8% treatment was discontinued due to adverse events. Severe adverse events occurred in 30 patients (19%). Haematologic disorders were the most common type including severe anaemia in 12 (7.7%) patients. Erythropoietin was employed in 41 patients (26.4%) and 11 (7.1%) received blood transfusions. Nineteen patients (12.2%) were treated with G-CSF, and 17 (11%) with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists. Five patients died (3.2%), three due to hepatic decompensation, one due to pneumonia and one due to pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions In a real-life setting, therapy against HCV in co-infected patients with advanced liver fibrosis shows high virologic success at 24 weeks. However, frequent haematologic disorders are observed and a close monitoring and an intensive therapy are needed to optimize the results.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients, the majority receiving antiretroviral therapy, with liver cirrhosis from different etiologies, enrolled between 2004 and 2005 with median follow-up of 5 years. We followed 371 patients, 25.6% with decompensated cirrhosis at baseline. The incidence rate of HCC was 6.72 per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6 to 10.9]. There was a trend toward a higher cumulative probability of developing HCC at 6 years of follow-up (considering death and liver transplant as competing risks) in patients with decompensated versus compensated cirrhosis at baseline (6% vs. 2%, P < 0.06).
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who are currently receiving boceprevir or telaprevir-based therapy against HCV show cirrhosis. However, the risk of liver decompensation (DC) among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with stage 3 fibrosis in the short term could be high enough to not allow delays. We aimed at assessing the risk of DC among HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals with advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). Methods: Eight hundred ninety-two HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, naive or without sustained virologic response to HCV therapy, were included in this cohort. Fibrosis was staged by biopsy in 317 patients and by liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in 575 individuals. Precirrhosis was defined as an LSM of 9.5-14.6 kilopascals (kPa), and cirrhosis as an LSM of ≥14.6 kPa. Results: For patients with biopsy, the probability of remaining free of DC for F3 vs F4 was 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95%-100%) vs 96% (95% CI, 91%-98%) at 1 year, and 98% (95% CI, 94%-100%) vs 87% (95% CI, 81%-92%) at 3 years. The only factor independently associated with DC was fibrosis stage (F4 vs F3, subhazard ratio [SHR], 2.1; 95% CI, 1.07-4.1; P = .032). For patients with LSM, the probability of remaining free of DC for precirrhosis vs cirrhosis was 99% (95% CI, 96%-100%) vs 93% (95% CI, 89%-96%) at 1 year, and 97% (95% CI, 94%-99%) vs 83% (95% CI, 77%-87%) at 3 years. Factors independently associated with DC were platelet count (<100 × 10(3) vs ≥100 × 10(3): SHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.01-3.42; P = .046) and LSM (cirrhosis vs precirrhosis: SHR, 5.67; 95% CI, 2.27-14.1; P < .0001). Conclusions: As in patients with cirrhosis, immediate therapy against HCV is warranted for patients with precirrhosis and HIV coinfection, as they are at risk of DC soon after the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To compare the prognostic performance of liver biopsy (LB)with that of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) to predict survival and liver decompensations among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. DESIGN:: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:: Cohort of 297 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, who underwent aLB and LSM separated by 12 months or less, followed in ten Spanish tertiary care centers from December 2005 to December 2011 (median follow-up, 5 years; interquartile range, 4.2-5.4 years). LB were staged following the Scheuer's score. LSM was obtained by hepatic transient elastometry. A survival analysis was carried out and the integrated discrimination improvement was computed to compare the ability of the survival models to predict outcomes. The incidence of death from any cause and of development of the first decompensation of cirrhosis were calculated. RESULTS:: Overall mortality rate was 1.63 (95%CI: 1.06-2.49) per 100 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio [AHR (95%CI)] of baseline fibrosis (per stage of fibrosis) was 1.52 (1.08-2.15, p = 0.017) and of LSM (per 5 KPa increase) 1.28 (1.12-1.46, p < 0.001). LMS including models yielded a performance 3.9% better than the LB-based models (p = 0.072). For the prediction of liver decompensations, the AHR (95%CI) of baseline fibrosis by LB (per stage of fibrosis) was 1.67 (1.15-2.43, p = 0.007) and of LSM (per 5 KPa increase) 1.37 (1.21-1.54, p < 0.001). LMS-based models yielded a performance 8.4% better than the LB-based models (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION:: LSM-based prediction achieves a similar yield than LB-based models to predict overall mortality in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Models including LSM couldpredict better liver decompensations than LB.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · AIDS (London, England)

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Hepatology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims: Sustained viral response (SVR) after therapy with interferon-ribavirin (IF-RB) reduces liver-related (LR) complications and mortality in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. Here, we assess the impact of end-of-treatment response with subsequent relapse (REL) on LR events (LR death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplantation), and liver stiffness (LS) by transient elastography. Methods: We analyzed the GESIDA 3603 Cohort (HIV/HCV-co-infected patients treated with IF-RB in 19 centers in Spain). Response to IF-RB was categorized as SVR, REL, and no response (NR). The study started when IF-RB was stopped and ended at death or the last follow-up visit. Multivariate regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, HIV category of transmission, CDC clinical category, nadir CD4+ cell count, HCV genotype, HCV-RNA viral load, and liver fibrosis. Results: Of 1599 patients included, response was categorized as NR in 765, REL in 250 and SVR in 584. Median follow-up was more than 4 years in each group. Taking the group of patients with NR as reference, we found that the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of liver-related events (liver-related death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation) for patients with REL and for patients with SVR were 0.17 (0.05; 0.50) and 0.03 (0; 0.20), respectively. We also found that SVR was followed by less liver stiffness than both REL and NR. However, REL was associated with less liver stiffness than NR. Conclusions: Best outcomes were achieved with an SVR. However, REL was associated with less LR mortality, decompensation, and liver stiffness than NR.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic steatosis (HS) is frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and metabolic alterations could induce HS. However, a protective effect of ART has been reported in a paired biopsy study. Thus, our aim was to examine the changes and predictors of HS progression among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with sequential biopsies. We also evaluated the rates of steatohepatitis and factors associated thereof. HIV-infected patients with detectable serum HCV RNA, who underwent two biopsies, separated at least by 1 year, were included in this retrospective study. HS progression was defined as increase in one or more HS grades. The median (interquartile range) time between biopsies was 3.3 (2.0-5.2) years. Among 146 individuals, HS at baseline was observed in 86 (60%) patients and in 113 (77%) in the follow-up biopsy (P < 0.001). Progression of HS was observed in 60 (40%) patients. HS regressed in 11 (8%) patients. Factors associated with HS progression were changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between biopsies (per 10 mg/dL increase; odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval; CI] = 1.4 [1.04-1.8]; P = 0.024) and cumulative use of dideoxynucleoside analogs (per year; OR [95% CI] = 1.5 [1.2-1.8]; P = 0.001). Persistent steatohepatitis or progression to steatohepatitis between biopsies was observed in 27 (18%) patients. Persistence of or progression to steatohepatitis was associated with progression ≥1 fibrosis stages between biopsies (OR [95% CI] = 2.4 [1.01-5.7]; P = 0.047). Conclusions: HS progresses frequently and regression is rarely observed in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, including in those on ART. Cumulative exposure to dideoxynucleoside analogs and increases in FPG are related with HS progression. Stetatohepatitis is frequently observed in these patients and is linked to fibrosis progression. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Spain. Methods: All HIV-infected patients diagnosed of HCC in 18 hospitals in Spain before 31 December 2010 were included. The main characteristics of HCC cases are described and comparisons between cases according to the year of diagnosis are presented. Results: Eighty-two cases of HCC in HIV-infected patients were included, all of them related to viral hepatitis coinfection: hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 66 (81%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 6 (7%), and HBV/HCV in 10 (12%). From 1999, when the first case of HCC was diagnosed, a progressive increment in the incidence of HCC in the cohort has occurred. In patients coinfected with HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, the incidence HCC increased from 0.2 to 2.8 cases per 1000 person-years between 2000 and 2009. Death occurred in 65 patients (79%), with a median survival of 91 days (interquartile range, 31-227 days). Three of 11 patients (28%) who received potentially curative therapy died, compared with 62 of 71 patients (87%) who did not receive curative therapy (P = .0001). Compared with cases of HCC diagnosed before 2005, cases diagnosed later did not show a higher survival rate. Conclusions: HCC is an emerging complication of cirrhosis in HIV-infected patients. A sharp increase in its incidence has occurred in those also infected by HCV in the recent years. Unfortunately, HCC is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage, and mortality continues to be very high, with no significant changes in recent years. Earlier diagnosis, which may allow potentially curative therapy, is necessary.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe assessment of liver fibrosis is crucial for taking therapeutic decisions in patients infected with HIV/AIDS coinfected with HCV, because it allows the prognosis of the disease and the prioritization of hepatitis C treatment in these patients.MethodsA discrete events model simulation (DEMS) and a Markov model have been developed to represent the evolution of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis in patients coinfected with HIV/HVC. The model evaluated two alternatives for the diagnosis and monitoring of these patients, transient elastography performed annually and liver biopsy performed every seven years. The models have been developed under Health Care System perspective and only considered direct medical costs (disease treatment and health state costs). One-way sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the impact of parameters with higher uncertainty. A discount rate of 3% was applied.ResultsBase case analysis shows that the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with transient elastography is a dominant strategy compared with to liver biopsy, resulting in greater life expectancy at lower cost. The sensitivity analysis performed confirmed the robustness of these results.Conclusion Transient elastography has proved to be a dominant strategy compared to liver biopsy in the diagnosis and monitoring of liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with HIV/HCV in Spain.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained virological response (SVR) after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin reduces liver-related complications and mortality in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We assessed the effect of SVR on HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease. An observational cohort study including consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with interferon plus ribavirin between 2000 and 2008 in 19 centers in Spain. Of 1599 patients, 626 (39%) had an SVR. After a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, we confirmed that failure to achieve an SVR was associated with an increased risk of liver-related events and liver-related death. We also observed higher rates of the following events in nonresponders than in responders: AIDS-defining conditions (rate per 100 person years, 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), .59-1.10] vs 0.29 [.10-.48]; P= .003), non-liver-related deaths (0.65 [.42-.87] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002), and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths (0.55 [.34-.75] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002). Cox regression analysis showed that the adjusted hazard ratios of new AIDS-defining conditions, non-liver-related deaths, and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths for nonresponders compared with responders were 1.90 (95% CI, .89-4.10; P = .095), 3.19 (1.21-8.40; P = .019), and 2.85 (1.07-7.60; P = .036), respectively. Our findings suggest that eradication of HCV after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in liver-related events but also with a reduction in HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for grade 3 or 4 ALT or AST elevations (TE) and grade 4 total bilirubin elevations (TBE) among HIV/HCV- coinfected treatment-naïve patients with an initial regimen including 2 nucleoside analogs plus efavirenz (EFV), nevirapine (NVP), or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r). This was a retrospective multicenter observational cohort study that recruited 745 HIV-infected drug-naïve patients with detectable plasma HCV RNA who started a regimen including EFV, NVP, or PI/r. EFV was prescribed in 323 (43%), NVP in 126 (17%), and a PI/r in 296 (40%) patients. Grade 3 or 4 TE were observed in 19 (5.9%) individuals receiving EFV compared with 14 (11%) on NVP (P = .056) and 31 (10.5%) on PI/r (P = .036). Grade 4 TBE were identified in 7 (2.2%) patients on EFV, 1 (0.8%) on NVP, and 11 (3.7%) on PI/r (P = .19). Therapy was discontinued due to liver toxicity in 13 (4%) patients on EFV, 16 (13%) on NVP, and 17 (6%) on PI/r (P = .003). Regimens including EFV, NVP, or PI/r are generally safe in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Grade 3-4 TE are less commonly seen with EFV than with PI/r. Discontinuations due to hepatotoxicity were less frequent for patients receiving EFV than for those treated with NVP.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · HIV Clinical Trials
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    ABSTRACT: The assessment of liver fibrosis is crucial for taking therapeutic decisions in patients infected with HIV/AIDS coinfected with HCV, because it allows the prognosis of the disease and the prioritization of hepatitis C treatment in these patients. A discrete events model simulation (DEMS) and a Markov model have been developed to represent the evolution of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis in patients coinfected with HIV/HVC. The model evaluated two alternatives for the diagnosis and monitoring of these patients, transient elastography performed annually and liver biopsy performed every seven years. The models have been developed under Health Care System perspective and only considered direct medical costs (disease treatment and health state costs). One-way sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the impact of parameters with higher uncertainty. A discount rate of 3% was applied. Base case analysis shows that the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with transient elastography is a dominant strategy compared with to liver biopsy, resulting in greater life expectancy at lower cost. The sensitivity analysis performed confirmed the robustness of these results. Transient elastography has proved to be a dominant strategy compared to liver biopsy in the diagnosis and monitoring of liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with HIV/HCV in Spain.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the frequency of severe liver toxicity in HIV/hepatitis C (HCV)-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis receiving efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral combinations. One hundred and eighty-nine previously antiretroviral naïve, HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, who started a regimen including two nucleoside analogues plus EFV, and in whom the presence or absence of advanced liver fibrosis could be established, were retrospectively analyzed. Liver fibrosis was evaluated according to a stepwise algorithm including liver biopsy, transient elastography and FIB-4 index. Fifty-six patients had advanced fibrosis - 25 with cirrhosis - and 133 did not. Three (5.4%) subjects with and 9 (6.8%) (p=0.717) without advanced fibrosis developed grade 3-4 transaminase elevation (TE). Grade 4 total bilirubin elevation was seen in 5 (8.9%) patients with advanced fibrosis and in 1 (0.8%) without it (p=0.003). Liver events led to EFV discontinuation in 10 (5.3%) patients, 6 (10.7%) with and 4 (3%) without advanced fibrosis (p=0.031). The hepatic tolerability of EFV was good in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis. The frequency of grade 3-4 TE was similar to that observed in patients without advanced fibrosis, there was no death attributable to liver failure caused by drug toxicity and the rate of EFV discontinuations due to liver events was low.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of infection
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    ABSTRACT: Maraviroc belongs to the family of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonists that prevent the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into host CD4+ T cells by blocking the CCR5 co-receptor R5. Maraviroc is currently the only CC5R co-receptor inhibitor that has been approved for clinical use in HIV-1-infected patients carrying the CCR5 tropism who are antiretroviral-na:?ve or have experienced therapeutic failure following traditional antiretroviral therapies. This article is a review of the main characteristics of maraviroc and the latest data regarding its clinical application. Maraviroc is effective and well tolerated in pre-treated and antiretroviral-naïve patients with HIV-1 infections carrying the CCR5 tropism. Data from the phase III programme of maraviroc, which includes the MOTIVATE 1 and 2 studies and the MERIT study, indicate that maraviroc significantly (p < 0.001) increases CD4+ cell counts compared with placebo in pre-treated patients and to a similar extent as efavirenz in antiretroviral-naïve patients. Even in cases where viral load is not completely suppressed, maraviroc improves immunological response compared with placebo. In addition, promising research suggests that maraviroc has favourable pharmacokinetic and safety profiles in patients with high cardiovascular risk or those co-infected with tuberculosis or hepatitis and could be considered an option for treatment of HIV-infected patients with these co-morbidities. Resistance to maraviroc is low and mainly related to the presence of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) tropism HIV-1-infections or to mutations in the V3 region of glycoprotein (gp) 120; however, the exact mechanisms by which resistance is acquired and their genotypic and phenotypic pattern have not yet been established. It is recommended that a tropism test should be performed when considering maraviroc as an alternate drug in HIV-1-infected patients. Current tropism assays have increased sensitivity to reliably detect CXCR4 HIV with rapid turn-around and at a low cost. Improved detection together with positive data on the drug’s efficacy and safety profiles should help physicians to identify more accurately the appropriate candidates for commencement of treatment with maraviroc. In summary, maraviroc improves immunological response and has shown favourable pharmacokinetic and safety profiles in patients with high cardiovascular risk or in those co-infected with tuberculosis or hepatitis. Long-term studies are needed to confirm whether therapeutic expectations resulting from clinical trials with maraviroc translate into a real benefit for HIV-1-infected patients for whom traditional antiretroviral therapies have failed or are not suitable.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Clinical Drug Investigation

Publication Stats

871 Citations
314.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 1997-2015
    • Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia
      • Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2006-2013
    • Port of Spain General Hospital
      City of Port-of-Spain, City of Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
  • 2009
    • Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2004
    • Hospital Universitario de Móstoles
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2003
    • University of Oviedo
      Oviedo, Asturias, Spain