[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p63 is a multi-isoform member of the p53 family of transcription factors. There is compelling genetic evidence that ΔNp63 isoforms are needed for keratinocyte proliferation and stemness in the developing vertebrate epidermis. However, the role of TAp63 isoforms is not fully understood, and TAp63 knockout mice display normal epidermal development. Here, we show that zebrafish mutants specifically lacking TAp63 isoforms, or p53, display compromised development of breeding tubercles, epidermal appendages which according to our analyses display more advanced stratification and keratinization than regular epidermis, including continuous desquamation and renewal of superficial cells by derivatives of basal keratinocytes. Defects are further enhanced in TAp63/p53 double mutants, pointing to partially redundant roles of the two related factors. Molecular analyses, treatments with chemical inhibitors and epistasis studies further reveal the existence of a linear TAp63/p53->Notch->caspase 3 pathway required both for enhanced proliferation of keratinocytes at the base of the tubercles and their subsequent differentiation in upper layers. Together, these studies identify the zebrafish breeding tubercles as specific epidermal structures sharing crucial features with the cornified mammalian epidermis. In addition, they unravel essential roles of TAp63 and p53 to promote both keratinocyte proliferation and their terminal differentiation by promoting Notch signalling and caspase 3 activity, ensuring formation and proper homeostasis of this self-renewing stratified epithelium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin XI motor proteins transport plant organelles on the actin cytoskeleton. The Arabidopsis gene family that encodes myosin XI has 13 members, 12 of which have sub-domains within the tail region that are homologous to well-characterized cargo-binding domains in the yeast myosin V myo2p. Little is presently known about the cargo-binding domains of plant myosin XIs. Prior experiments in which most or all of the tail regions of myosin XIs have been fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transiently expressed have often not resulted in fluorescent labeling of plant organelles. We identified 42 amino-acid regions within 12 Arabidopsis myosin XIs that are homologous to the yeast myo2p tail region known to be essential for vacuole and mitochondrial inheritance. A YFP fusion of the yeast region expressed in plants did not label tonoplasts or mitochondria. We investigated whether the homologous Arabidopsis regions, termed by us the "PAL" sub-domain, could associate with subcellular structures following transient expression of fusions with YFP in Nicotiana benthamiana. Seven YFP::PAL sub-domain fusions decorated Golgi and six were localized to mitochondria. In general, the myosin XI PAL sub-domains labeled organelles whose motility had previously been observed to be affected by mutagenesis or dominant negative assays with the respective myosins. Simultaneous transient expression of the PAL sub-domains of myosin XI-H, XI-I, and XI-K resulted in inhibition of movement of mitochondria and Golgi.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Frontiers in Plant Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SWI/SNF-type chromatin-remodeling complexes (CRCs) are involved in regulation of transcription, DNA replication and repair, and cell cycle. Mutations of conserved subunits of plant CRCs severely impair growth and development, however the underlying causes of these phenotypes are largely unknown. Here we show that inactivation of SWI3C, the core component of Arabidopsis SWI/SNF CRCs, interferes with normal functioning of several plant hormone pathways and alters transcriptional regulation of key genes of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. The resulting reduction of GA4 causes severe inhibition of hypocotyl and root elongation, which can be rescued by exogenous GA-treatment. In addition, the swi3c mutation inhibits DELLA-dependent transcriptional activation of GID1 GA-receptor genes. Down-regulation of GID1a in parallel with the DELLA repressor gene RGA in swi3c indicates that lack of SWI3C also leads to defects in GA-signaling. Together with recent demonstration of function of SWI/SNF ATPase BRAHMA in the gibberellin pathway, these results reveal a critical role of SWI/SNF CRC in the regulation of GA biosynthesis and signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that SWI3C is capable of in vitro binding to, and shows in vivo BiFC interaction in cell nuclei with the DELLA proteins RGL2 and RGL3, which affect transcriptional activation of GID1 and GA3ox genes controlling GA perception and biosynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, we show that SWI3C also interacts with the O-GlcNAc transferase SPINDLY (SPY) required for proper functioning of DELLAs, and acts hypostatically to SPY in the GA-response pathway. These findings suggest that DELLA-mediated effects in GA-signaling as well as their role as a hub in hormonal crosstalk may be, at least in part, dependent on their direct physical interaction with complexes responsible for modulation of chromatin structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants respond to environmental changes often by reprogramming metabolic and stress-associated pathways. Homeostatic integration of signaling is a central requirement of life to ensure metabolic stability. Under diurnal conditions, properly timed rhythmic metabolism provides fitness benefits to plants. TIME FOR COFFEE is a circadian regulator known to be involved in clock resetting at dawn. Here we explored the mechanism of influence of TIC in plant growth and development, as initiated by a microarray analysis. This global profiling showed that a loss of TIC function causes a major reprogramming of gene expression that predicting numerous developmental, metabolic, and stress-related phenotypes. This led us to demonstrate that this mutant exhibits late flowering, a plastochron defect, and diverse anatomical phenotypes. We further observed a starch-excess phenotype and altered soluble carbohydrate levels. tic exhibited hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and abscisic acid, and this was associated to a striking resistance to drought. These phenotypes were connected to an increase in total glutathione levels that correlated with a readjustment of amino acids and polyamine pools. By comparatively analyzing our transcriptomic and metabolomic data, we concluded that TIC is a central element of plant homeostasis that integrates and coordinates developmental, metabolic, and environmental signals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Plant Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The steady state level of integral membrane proteins is dependent on a strictly controlled delivery and removal. Here we show that Dendra2, a green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent protein, is a suitable tool to study protein turnover in plants. We characterized the fluorescence properties of Dendra2 expressed either as a free protein or as a tag in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and optimized photoconversion settings to study protein turnover. Dendra2 was fused to the PIN2 protein, an auxin transporter in the root tip, and by time-lapse imaging and assessment of red and green signal intensities in the membrane after photoconversion we quantified directly and simultaneously the rate of PIN2 delivery of the newly synthesized protein into the plasma membrane as well as the disappearance of the protein from the plasma membrane due to degradation. Additionally we have verified several factors which are expected to affect PIN2 protein turnover and therefore potentially regulate root growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Arabidopsis thaliana, small peptides (AtPeps) encoded by PROPEP genes act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are perceived by two leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, PEPR1 and PEPR2, to amplify defense responses. In particular, expression of PROPEP2 and PROPEP3 is strongly and rapidly induced by AtPeps, in response to bacterial, oomycete, and fungal pathogens, and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). The cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) within the PROPEP2 and PROPEP3 promoters that mediate MAMP responsiveness were delineated, employing parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplasts and transgenic A. thaliana plants harboring promoter-reporter constructs. By chromatin immunoprecipitation in vivo, DNA interactions with a specific transcription factor were detected. Furthermore, the phastCons program was used to identify conserved regions of the PROPEP3 locus in different Brassicaceae species. The major MAMP-responsive CRM within the PROPEP2 promoter is composed of several W boxes and an as1/OCS (activation sequence-1/octopine synthase) enhancer element, while in the PROPEP3 promoter the CRM is comprised of six W boxes. The WRKY33 transcription factor binds in vivo to these promoter regions in a MAMP-dependent manner. Both the position and orientation of the six W boxes are conserved within the PROPEP3 promoters of four other Brassicaceae family members. WRKY factors are the major regulators of MAMP-induced PROPEP2 and PROPEP3 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HopQ1, a type III effector secreted by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, is widely conserved among diverse genera of plant bacteria. It promotes the development of halo blight in common bean. However, when this same effector is injected into Nicotiana benthamiana cells, it is recognized by the immune system and prevents infection. Although the ability to synthesize HopQ1 determines host specificity, the role it plays inside plant cells remains unexplored. Following transient expression in planta, HopQ1 was shown to co-purify with host 14-3-3 proteins. The physical interaction between HopQ1 and 14-3-3a was confirmed in planta using FRET-FLIM techniques. Moreover, mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS/MS) analyses detected specific phosphorylation of the canonical 14-3-3 binding site (RSXpSXP, pS denotes phosphoserine) located in the N-terminal region of HopQ1. Amino acid substitution within this motif abrogated the association and led to altered subcellular localization of HopQ1. In addition, the mutated HopQ1 protein showed reduced stability in planta. These data suggest that the association between host 14-3-3 proteins and HopQ1 is important for modulating the properties of this bacterial effector.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plant root defines the interface between a multicellular eukaryote and soil, one of the richest microbial ecosystems on Earth. Notably, soil bacteria are able to multiply inside roots as benign endophytes and modulate plant growth and development, with implications ranging from enhanced crop productivity to phytoremediation. Endophytic colonization represents an apparent paradox of plant innate immunity because plant cells can detect an array of microbe-associated molecular patterns (also known as MAMPs) to initiate immune responses to terminate microbial multiplication. Several studies attempted to describe the structure of bacterial root endophytes; however, different sampling protocols and low-resolution profiling methods make it difficult to infer general principles. Here we describe methodology to characterize and compare soil- and root-inhabiting bacterial communities, which reveals not only a function for metabolically active plant cells but also for inert cell-wall features in the selection of soil bacteria for host colonization. We show that the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown in different natural soils under controlled environmental conditions, are preferentially colonized by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and each bacterial phylum is represented by a dominating class or family. Soil type defines the composition of root-inhabiting bacterial communities and host genotype determines their ribotype profiles to a limited extent. The identification of soil-type-specific members within the root-inhabiting assemblies supports our conclusion that these represent soil-derived root endophytes. Surprisingly, plant cell-wall features of other tested plant species seem to provide a sufficient cue for the assembly of approximately 40% of the Arabidopsis bacterial root-inhabiting microbiota, with a bias for Betaproteobacteria. Thus, this root sub-community may not be Arabidopsis-specific but saprophytic bacteria that would naturally be found on any plant root or plant debris in the tested soils. By contrast, colonization of Arabidopsis roots by members of the Actinobacteria depends on other cues from metabolically active host cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Many fungal plant pathogens undergo a series of developmental and morphological transitions required for successful host invasion. For example, Colletotrichum higginsianum, a pathogen of cruciferous plants, employs a two-stage infection strategy called ‘hemibiotrophy’: after specialized penetration organs (appressoria) breach the host cuticle and cell wall, the fungus initially produces bulbous primary hyphae inside living epidermal cells (‘biotrophy’), before entering a destructive phase in which host tissues are killed and macerated by filamentous secondary hyphae (‘necrotrophy’). Here we investigated the role of secreted effector proteins in mediating hemibiotrophy and their delivery at fungal-plant interfaces. We found expression of many effector genes is plant-induced and distinct sets of effectors are deployed in successive waves by particular fungal cell-types. Early-expressed effector proteins are focally secreted from appressorial penetration pores and may function to suppress early plant defense responses, which we found to be activated before fungal entry. We also show that later-expressed effectors accumulate in structures formed at the interface between primary hyphae and living host cells, implicating these hyphae in effector delivery. Our findings indicate new functions for fungal infection structures and suggest a model for how this fungus switches from biotrophy to necrotrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 myosin XI motor proteins. Previous insertional mutant analysis has implicated substantial redundancy of function of plant myosin XIs in transport of intracellular organelles. Considerable information is available about the interaction of cargo with the myosin XI-homologous yeast myosin V protein myo2p. We identified a region in each of 12 myosin XI sequences that correspond to the yeast myo2p secretory-vesicle binding domain (the "DIL" domain). Structural modeling of the myosin DIL domain region of plant myosin XIs revealed significant similarity to the yeast myo2p and myo4p DIL domains. Transient expression of YFP fusions with the Arabidopsis myosin XI DIL domain resulted in fluorescent labeling of a variety of organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, Golgi, and nuclear envelope. With the exception of the YFP::MYA1 DIL fusion, expression of the DIL-YFP fusions resulted in loss of motility of labeled organelles, consistent with a dominant-negative effect. Certain fusions resulted in localization to the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, or to unidentified vesicles. The same YFP-domain fusion sometimes labeled more than one organelle. Expression of a YFP fusion to a yeast myo2p DIL domain resulted in labeling of plant peroxisomes. Fusions with some of the myosin XI domains resulted in labeling of known cargoes of the particular myosin XI; however, certain myosin XI YFP fusions labeled organelles that had not previously been found to be detectably affected by mutations nor by expression of dominant-negative constructs.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Frontiers in Plant Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wild type seed coats of Arabidopsis thaliana are brown due to the accumulation of proanthocyanidin pigments (PAs). The pigmentation requires activation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis genes and mutations in some of these genes cause a yellow appearance of seeds, termed transparent testa (tt) phenotype. The TT1 gene encodes a WIP-type zinc finger protein and is expressed in the seed coat endothelium where most of the PAs accumulate in wild type plants. In this study we show that TT1 is not only required for correct expression of PA-specific genes in the seed coat, but also affects CHS, encoding the first enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis. Many steps of this pathway are controlled by complexes of MYB and BHLH proteins with the WD40 factor TTG1. We demonstrate that TT1 can interact with the R2R3 MYB protein TT2 and that ectopic expression of TT2 can partially restore the lack in PA production in tt1. Reduced seed coat pigmentation was obtained using a TT1 variant lacking nuclear localisation signals. Based on our results we propose that the TT2/TT8/TTG1 regulon may also comprise early genes like CHS and discuss steps to further unravel the regulatory network controlling flavonoid accumulation in endothelium cells during A. thaliana seed development.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · The Plant Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMO conjugation affects a broad range of processes in Arabidopsis thaliana, including flower initiation, pathogen defense, and responses to cold, drought and salt stress. We investigated two sequence-related SUMO-specific proteases that are both widely expressed and show that they differ significantly in their properties. The closest homolog of SUMO protease ESD4, ESD4-LIKE SUMO PROTEASE 1 (ELS1, alternatively called AtULP1a) has SUMO-specific proteolytic activity, but is functionally distinct from ESD4, as shown by intracellular localization, mutant phenotype and heterologous expression in yeast mutants. Furthermore, we show that the growth defects caused by loss of ESD4 function are not due to increased synthesis of the stress signal salicylic acid, as was previously shown for a SUMO ligase, indicating that impairment of the SUMO system affects plant growth in different ways. Our results demonstrate that two A. thaliana SUMO proteases showing close sequence similarity have distinct in vivo functions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00425-010-1281-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granule-mediated cytotoxicity is the main effector mechanism of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. We report that CD8+ T cells from acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase)-deficient (ASMase-KO) mice are defective in exocytosis of cytolytic effector molecules; this defect resulted in attenuated cytotoxic activity of ASMase-KO CD8+ T cells and delayed elimination of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from ASMase-KO mice. Cytolytic granules of ASMase-KO and wild-type CD8+ T cells were equally loaded with granzymes and perforin, and correctly directed to the immunological synapse. In wild-type CD8+ T cells, secretory granules underwent shrinkage by 82% after fusion with the plasma membrane. In ASMase-KO CD8+ T cells, the contraction of secretory granules was markedly impaired. Thus, ASMase is required for contraction of secretory granules and expulsion of cytotoxic effector molecules.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Nature Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the class XI of the myosin superfamily comprising higher plant, actin-based molecular motors have been shown to be involved in peroxisome and Golgi vesicle trafficking comparable to yeast and animal class V myosins. The tasks of the second class of myosins of higher plants, class VIII, are unclear. In this study the class VIII myosin ATM2 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was selected for the examination of cargo specificity in vivo. Fluorescent protein-fusion plasmid constructs with fragments of the ATM2 cDNA were generated and used for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-based transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The resulting subcellular localization patterns were recorded by live imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in epidermal leaf cells. Expression of a nearly full-length construct displayed labeling of filaments and vesicles, a head + neck fragment led to decoration of filaments only. However, expression of fluorescent protein-tagged C-terminal tail domain constructs labeled vesicular structures of different appearance. Most importantly, coexpression of different RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins showed colocalization and, hence, binding to the same type of vesicular target. Further coexpression experiments of RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins with the endosomal marker FYVE and the endosomal tracer FM4-64 demonstrated colocalization with endosomes. Colocalization was also detected by expression of the CFP-tagged membrane receptor BRI1 as marker, which is constantly recycled via endosomes. Occasionally the ATM2 tail targeted to sites at the plasma membrane closely resembling the pattern obtained upon expression of the YFP-ATM1 C-terminal tail. ATM1 is known for its localization at the plasma membrane at sites of plasmodesmata.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase enzymes, which catalyse the rate-limiting step of proline biosynthesis, are encoded by two closely related P5CS genes in Arabidopsis. Transcription of the P5CS genes is differentially regulated by drought, salinity and abscisic acid, suggesting that these genes play specific roles in the control of proline biosynthesis. Here we describe the genetic characterization of p5cs insertion mutants, which indicates that P5CS1 is required for proline accumulation under osmotic stress. Knockout mutations of P5CS1 result in the reduction of stress-induced proline synthesis, hypersensitivity to salt stress, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, p5cs2 mutations cause embryo abortion during late stages of seed development. The desiccation sensitivity of p5cs2 embryos does not reflect differential control of transcription, as both P5CS mRNAs are detectable throughout embryonic development. Cellular localization studies with P5CS-GFP gene fusions indicate that P5CS1 is sequestered into subcellular bodies in embryonic cells, where P5CS2 is dominantly cytoplasmic. Although proline feeding rescues the viability of mutant embryos, p5cs2 seedlings undergo aberrant development and fail to produce fertile plants even when grown on proline. In seedlings, specific expression of P5CS2-GFP is seen in leaf primordia where P5CS1-GFP levels are very low, and P5CS2-GFP also shows a distinct cell-type-specific and subcellular localization pattern compared to P5CS1-GFP in root tips, leaves and flower organs. These data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis P5CS enzymes perform non-redundant functions, and that P5CS1 is insufficient for compensation of developmental defects caused by inactivation of P5CS2.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · The Plant Journal