E. S. Choi

Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States

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Publications (124)345.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Results from detailed investigations of the magnetic properties of a powder sample of β-CoPc for the temperatures T=0.4 K to 300 K and in magnetic fields H up to 90 kOe are reported. X-ray diffraction confirmed the β-phase and scanning electron microscopy showed plate-like morphology of the sample. For T>3 K, the data of magnetic susceptibility χ vs. T fit the Curie-Weiss (CW) law yielding θ=- 2.5 K, µ=2.16 µB per Co2+ and g=2.49 for spin S=1/2 of the low spin-state of Co2+. However for T<3 K, the χ vs. T data deviates from the CW law yielding a peak in χ at Tmax=1.9 K. It is shown that the χ vs. T data from 0.4 K to 300 K fits well with the predictions of the Bonner-Fisher (BF) model for S=1/2 Heisenberg linear chain antiferromagnet with the Co2+-Co2+ exchange J/kB=−1.5 K (Ĥ=-2J Σ Si•Si+1). The data of magnetization M vs. H at T=1 K agrees with the predictions of the BF model with J/kB=−1.5 K, yielding saturation magnetization MS=12.16 emu/g above 60 kOe corresponding to complete alignment of the spins.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Polycrystalline samples of the quarter-doped manganites $R_{0.75}$Ca$_{0.25}$MnO$_3$ ($R$ = Y, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) were studied by X-ray diffraction and AC/DC susceptibility measurements. All five samples are orthorhombic and exhibit similar magnetic properties: enhanced ferromagnetism below $T_1$ ($\sim80$ K) and a spin glass (SG) state below $T_{SG}$ ($\sim30$ K). With increasing $R^{3+}$ ionic size, both $T_1$ and $T_{SG}$ generally increase. The single crystal neutron diffraction results on Tb$_{0.75}$Ca$_{0.25}$MnO$_3$ revealed that the SG state is mainly composed of a short-range ordered version of a novel canted (i.e. noncollinear) antiferromagnetic spin state. Furthermore, calculations based on the double exchange model for quarter-doped manganites reveal that this new magnetic phase provides a transition state between the ferromagnetic state and the theoretically predicted spin-orthogonal stripe phase.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We report the pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition of BiTeI single crystals using Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of bulk Fermi surfaces. The sizes of the inner and the outer FSs of the Rashba-split bands exhibit opposite pressure dependence up to P = 3.35 GPa, indicating pressure-tunable Rashba effect. Above a critical pressure P ∼ 2 GPa, the Shubnikov-de Haas frequency for the inner Fermi surface increases unusually with pressure, and the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for the outer Fermi surface shows an abrupt phase shift. In comparison with band structure calculations, we find that these unusual behaviors originate from the Fermi surface shape change due to pressure-induced band inversion. These results clearly demonstrate that the topological quantum phase transition is intimately tied to the shape of bulk Fermi surfaces enclosing the time-reversal invariant momenta with band inversion.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Elastic neutron scattering, ac susceptibility, and specific heat experiments on the pyrochlores Er$_{2}$Ge$_{2}$O$_{7}$ and Yb$_{2}$Ge$_{2}$O$_{7}$ show that both systems are antiferromagnetically ordered in the $\Gamma_5$ manifold. The ground state is a $\psi_{3}$ phase for the Er sample and a $\psi_{2}$ or $\psi_{3}$ phase for the Yb sample, which suggests "Order by Disorder"(ObD) physics. Furthermore, we unify the various magnetic ground states of all known R$_{2}$B$_{2}$O$_{7}$ (R = Er, Yb, B = Sn, Ti, Ge) compounds through the enlarged XY type exchange interaction $J_{\pm}$ under chemical pressure. The mechanism for this evolution is discussed in terms of the phase diagram proposed in the theoretical study [Wong et al., Phys. Rev. B 88, 144402, (2013)].
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: The specific heat, the susceptibility under pressure, and the dielectric constant were measured for single crystals ${\mathrm{Y}}_{1$-${}x}{\mathrm{La}}_{x}{\mathrm{TiO}}_{3}$. The observed ${T}^{2}$-dependent specific heat at low temperatures for $0.17$\le${}x$\le${}0.3$ samples shows a spin-orbital liquid state between the ferromagnetic/orbital ordering $(x<0.17)$ and antiferromagnetic/possible orbital liquid phase $(x>0.3)$. The nonmonotonous pressure dependence of ${T}_{\text{C}}$ and the glassy behavior of the dielectric loss for the $x=0.23$ sample suggest that it is approaching a possible quantum critical point. All these properties result from the coupling between the strong spin and orbital fluctuations while approaching the phase boundary.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: High quality single crystals of BaFe12O19 were grown using the floating zone technique in 100 atm of flowing oxygen. Single crystal neutron diffraction was used to determine the nuclear and magnetic structures of BaFe12O19 at 4 K and 295 K. At both temperatures, there exist local electric dipoles formed by the off-mirror-plane displacements of magnetic Fe3+ ions at the bipyramidal sites. The displacement at 4 K is about half of that at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the specific heat shows no anomaly associated with long range polar ordering in the temperature range from 1.90 to 300 K. The inverse dielectric permittivity, 1/ε, along the c-axis shows a T 2 temperature dependence between 10 K and 20 K, with a significantly reduced temperature dependence displayed below 10 K. Moreover, as the sample is cooled below 1.4 K there is an anomalous sharp upturn in 1/ε. These features resemble those of classic quantum paraelectrics such as SrTiO3. The presence of the upturn in 1/ε indicates that BaFe12O19 is a critical quantum paraelectric system with Fe3+ ions involved in both magnetic and electric dipole formation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · APL Materials
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the magnetic properties of single-crystal Yb2V2O7 using dc and ac susceptibility measurements, elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering measurements, and linear spin-wave theory. The experimental data show a ferromagnetic ordering of V4+ ions at 70 K, a short-range ordering of Yb3+ ions below 40 K, and finally a long-range noncollinear ordering of Yb3+ ions below 15 K. With external magnetic field oriented along the [111] axis, the Yb sublattice experiences a spin flop transition related to the “three-in one-out” spin structure. By modeling the spin-wave excitations, we extract the Hamiltonian parameters. Our results confirm that although the extra inter-sublattice Yb-V interactions dramatically increase the Yb ordering temperature to 15 K, the intra-sublattice Yb-Yb interactions, based on the pyrochlore lattice, still stabilize the Yb ions' noncollinear spin structure and spin flop transition.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Physical review. B, Condensed matter
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the spin liquid state in Tb$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ has challenged experimentalists and theorists alike for nearly 20 years. To improve our understanding of the exotic magnetism in Tb$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$, we have synthesized a chemical pressure analog, Tb$_2$Ge$_2$O$_7$. Germanium substitution results in a lattice contraction and enhanced exchange interactions. We have characterized the magnetic ground state of Tb$_2$Ge$_2$O$_7$ with specific heat, ac and dc magnetic susceptibility, and polarized neutron scattering measurements. Akin to Tb$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$, there is no long-range order in Tb$_2$Ge$_2$O$_7$ down to 20 mK. The Curie-Weiss temperature of $-19.2(1)$ K, which is more negative than that of Tb$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$, supports the picture of stronger antiferromagnetic exchange. Polarized neutron scattering of Tb$_2$Ge$_2$O$_7$ reveals that at 3.5 K liquid-like correlations dominate in this system. However, below 1 K, the liquid-like correlations give way to intense short-range ferromagnetic correlations with a length scale related to the Tb-Tb distance. Despite stronger antiferromagnetic exchange, the ground state of Tb$_2$Ge$_2$O$_7$ has ferromagnetic character, in stark contrast to the pressure-induced antiferromagnetic order observed in Tb$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: After nearly 20 years of study, the origin of the spin-liquid state in Tb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} remains a challenge for experimentalists and theorists alike. To improve our understanding of the exotic magnetism in Tb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}, we synthesize a chemical pressure analog: Tb_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7}. Substitution of titanium by germanium results in a lattice contraction and enhanced exchange interactions. We characterize the magnetic ground state of Tb_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7} with specific heat, ac and dc magnetic susceptibility, and polarized neutron scattering measurements. Akin to Tb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}, there is no long-range order in Tb_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7} down to 20 mK. The Weiss temperature of -19.2(1) K, which is more negative than that of Tb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}, supports the picture of stronger antiferromagnetic exchange. Polarized neutron scattering of Tb_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7} reveals that liquidlike correlations dominate in this system at 3.5 K. However, below 1 K, the liquidlike correlations give way to intense short-range ferromagnetic correlations with a length scale similar to the Tb-Tb nearest neighbor distance. Despite stronger antiferromagnetic exchange, the ground state of Tb_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7} has ferromagnetic character, in stark contrast to the pressure-induced antiferromagnetic order observed in Tb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We report a de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillation study on IrTe2 single crystals showing complex dimer formations. By comparing the angle dependence of dHvA oscillations with band structure calculations, we show distinct Fermi surface reconstruction induced by a 1/5-type and a 1/8-type dimerizations. This verifies that an intriguing quasi-two-dimensional conducting plane across the layers is induced by dimerization in both cases. A phase transition to the 1/8 phase with higher dimer density reveals that local instabilities associated with intra- and interdimer couplings are the main driving force for complex dimer formations in IrTe2.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The axial anomaly leads to the violation of separate number conservation laws for left- and right-handed massless chiral (or Weyl-) fermions. For a certain class of gapless semiconductors, for which the low-energy band structure is described in terms of Weyl-fermions, the application of a magnetic field parallel to the electrical current is predicted to induce a large suppression of the electrical resistivity. To date, there is no concrete experimental realization of a Weyl semi-metal or unambiguous evidence for this field-induced phenomenon. Here, we report the observation of a very large negative magnetoresistance in the extremely clean quasi-two-dimensional metal PdCoO$_2$. Our experimental study provides strong support for a scenario where this unconventional response results from the axial anomaly of field-induced quasi-one-dimensional conduction channels. The observation of this effect in PdCoO$_2$ demonstrates that the axial anomaly is a general feature of the longitudinal magnetotransport of clean and weakly correlated three-dimensional metals.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed magnetic, electric, thermal, and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations on Ba3MnNb2O9. All results suggest that Ba3MnNb2O9 is a spin-5/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF) with weak easy-axis anisotropy. At zero field, we observed a narrow two-step transition at TN1 = 3.4 K and TN2 = 3.0 K. The neutron diffraction measurement and the DFT calculation indicate a 120◦ spin structure in the ab plane with out-of-plane canting at low temperatures. With increasing magnetic field, the 120◦ spin structure evolves into up-up-down (uud) and oblique phases showing successive magnetic phase transitions, which fits well to the theoretical prediction for the 2D Heisenberg TLAF with classical spins. Multiferroicity is observed when the spins are not collinear but suppressed in the uud and oblique phases.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: We report the valley-selective interlayer conduction of SrMnBi_{2} under in-plane magnetic fields. The c-axis resistivity of SrMnBi_{2} shows clear angular magnetoresistance oscillations indicating coherent interlayer conduction. Strong fourfold variation of the coherent peak in the c-axis resistivity reveals that the contribution of each Dirac valley is significantly modulated by the in-plane field orientation. This originates from anisotropic Dirac Fermi surfaces with strong disparity in the momentum-dependent interlayer coupling. Furthermore, we found a signature of broken valley symmetry at high magnetic fields. These findings demonstrate that a quasi-two-dimensional anisotropic Dirac system can host a valley-polarized interlayer current through magnetic valley control.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out high magnetic field studies of single-crystalline Li$_2$MnO$_3$, a honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet. Its magnetic phase diagram was mapped out using magnetization measurements at applied fields up to 35 T. Our results show that it undergoes two successive meta-magnetic transitions around 9 T fields applied perpendicular to the ab-plane (along the c*-axis). These phase transitions are completely absent in the magnetization measured with field applied along the ab-plane. In order to understand this magnetic phase diagram, we developed a mean-field model starting from the correct Neel-type magnetic structure, consistent with our single crystal neutron diffraction data at zero field. Our model calculations succeeded in explaining the two meta-magnetic transitions that arise when Li$_2$MnO$_3$ enters two different spin-flop phases from the zero field Neel phase.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: A flop of electric polarization from $P$$\parallel$$c$ ($P_c$) to $P$$\parallel$$a$ ($P_a$) is observed in MnTiO$_3$ as a spin flop transition is triggered by a $c$-axis magnetic field, $H_{\|c}$=7 T. The critical magnetic field $H_{\|c}$ for $P_a$ is significantly reduced in Mn$_{1-x}$Ni$_x$TiO$_3$ (x=0.33). $P_a$ and $P_c$ have been observed with both $H_{\|c}$ and $H_{\|a}$. Neutron diffraction measurements revealed similar magnetic arrangements for the two compositions where the ordered spins couple antiferromagnetically with their nearest intra- and inter-planar neighbors. In the x=0.33 system, the uniaxial and planar anisotropies of Mn$^{2+}$ and Ni$^{2+}$ compete and give rise to a spin reorientation transition at $T_R$. A magnetic field, $H_{\|c}$, aligns the spins along $c$ for $T_R$$<$$T$$<$$T_N$. The rotation of the collinear spins away from the $c$-axis for $T$$<$$T_R$ alters the magnetic point symmetry and gives rise to a new ME susceptibility tensor form. Such linear ME response provides satisfactory explanation for the behavior of the field-induced electric polarization in both compositions. As the Ni content increases to x=0.5 and 0.68, the ME effect disappears as a new magnetic phase emerges.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the spin dynamics and discovery of magnetoelectricity in the coupled-spin tetrahedral compound Cu2Te2O5Cl2. Te-125 NMR measurements show an anomalous resonance frequency shift and a signal wipe-out phenomenon around the Neel temperature T-N = 18.2 K, which could be attributed to the anomalous critical slowing down of the Cu spin fluctuations on the NMR time scale (similar to 10-100 MHz). The critical exponent of (T1T)(-1) proportional to (T - T-N)(-alpha) is 0.40 +/- 0.03, as compared to 0.5 for a three-dimensional mean-field model. This is in contrast to the Br compound [S.-H. Baek et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 180405 (2012)], which exhibits pronounced singlet dynamics with a large spin gap. Electric polarization (P-c) is observed along the c axis for temperatures below T-N under finite magnetic field but not sensitive to the electric poling. P-c increases sharply over zero to 2T and then reaches saturation. Below T-N, P-c changes its sign depending on the applied magnetic field direction, positive for the H perpendicular to c axis and negative for H parallel to c axis. We discuss possible explanations for the observed magnetoelectric (ME) behavior in terms of linear ME effect, spin-driven multiferroicity, and an exchange striction of intertetrahedral exchange paths involving the Te4+ lone-pair ions. Our results suggest that Cu2Te2O5Cl2 is a type of ME material whose properties are tuned by intertetrahedral exchange interactions involving polarizable Te4+ ions.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Physical Review B
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    Z L Dun · V O Garlea · C Yu · Y Ren · E S Choi · H M Zhang · S Dong · H D Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: A layered perovskite LaSrVO 4 was studied by neutron diffraction, pair distribution function measurement using synchrotron x-ray, susceptibility, and specific heat measurements, and first-principles calculation. The results show (i) a weak structural distortion around 100 K with the existence of orbital fluctuations both above and below it; (ii) the absence of the long range magnetic ordering down to 0.35 K but the appearance of a short range magnetic ordering around 11 K with a T 2 behavior of the specific heat below it. Meanwhile, the calculation based on the density functional theory predicts a magnetic ordered ground state. All facts indicate a melting of the magnetic ordering due to the orbital fluctuations in LaSrVO 4 , which makes it a rare candidate for the spin-orbital liquid state related to t 2g orbitals.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: The hysteresis loss (Qhyst) of a conductor is a very important parameter for magnet design. Due to the anisotropy of the REBCO conductor, its Qhyst strongly depends on magnetic field orientation. During a field ramp of a REBCO magnet, at locations where radial field component is significant, Qhyst may be large. This may significantly reduce the design temperature margin and increase the liquid helium consumption. Therefore, it is very important to measure the field and field angular dependence of Qhyst of the REBCO conductor. In this paper, we measured Qhyst of a small REBCO sample by vibrating sample magnetometry. The measurements were performed in a resistive magnet at the NHMFL with magnetic fields up to 35 T. The magnetization of a 1×1 mm2 sample was measured in different fields, field orientations, and temperatures. The implication of our experimental results on the REBCO magnet design is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
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    ABSTRACT: Two critical points have been revealed in the normal-state phase diagram of the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Nd$_{2-x}$Ce$_x$CuO$_4$ by exploring the Fermi surface properties of high quality single crystals by high-field magnetotransport. First, the quantitative analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas effect shows that the weak superlattice potential responsible for the Fermi surface reconstruction in the overdoped regime extrapolates to zero at the doping level $x_c = 0.175$ corresponding to the onset of superconductivity. Second, the high-field Hall coefficient exhibits a sharp drop right below optimal doping $x_{\mathrm{opt}} = 0.145$ where the superconducting transition temperature is maximum. This drop is most likely associated with the onset of long-range antiferromagnetic ordering. Thus, for Nd$_{2-x}$Ce$_x$CuO$_4$ the superconducting dome appears to be pinned by two critical points to the normal state phase diagram.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Physical Review B
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    M. Lee · J. Hwang · E. S. Choi · J. Ma · C. R. Dela Cruz · M. Zhu · X. Ke · Z. L. Dun · H. D. Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the magnetic and electric ground states of a quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), Ba3CoNb2O9, in which the effective spin of Co2+ is 1/2. At zero field, the system undergoes a two-step transition upon cooling at TN2=1.36 K and TN1=1.10 K and enters a 120∘ ordered state. By applying magnetic fields, a series of spin states with fractions of the saturation magnetization Ms are observed. They are spin states with 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 (or √3 /3) Ms. The ferroelectricity emerges in all spin states, either with collinear or noncollinear spin structure, which makes Ba3CoNb2O9 another unique TLAF exhibiting both a series of magnetic phase transitions and multiferroicity. We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations and magnetic anisotropy in contributing more complex phase diagram compared to its sister multiferroic TLAF compound Ba3NiNb2O9 [J. Hwang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 257205 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.257205].
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Physical Review B

Publication Stats

1k Citations
345.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000-2016
    • Florida State University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
      Tallahassee, Florida, United States
  • 2003-2014
    • National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
      Tallahassee, Florida, United States
  • 2001-2002
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Physics
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea