L. J. Tacconi

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (387)1382.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The optical classification of a Seyfert galaxy and whether it is considered X-ray absorbed are often used interchangeably. But there are many borderline cases and also numerous examples where the optical and X-ray classifications appear to be in conflict. In this article we re-visit the relation between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in AGNs. We make use of our "dust color" method (Burtscher et al. 2015) to derive the optical obscuration A_V and consistently estimated X-ray absorbing columns using 0.3--150 keV spectral energy distributions. We also take into account the variable nature of the neutral gas column N_H and derive the Seyfert sub-classes of all our objects in a consistent way. We show in a sample of 25 local, hard-X-ray detected Seyfert galaxies (log L_X / (erg/s) ~ 41.5 - 43.5) that there can actually be a good agreement between optical and X-ray classification. If Seyfert types 1.8 and 1.9 are considered unobscured, the threshold between X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed should be chosen at a column N_H = 10^22.3 / cm^2 to be consistent with the optical classification. We find that N_H is related to A_V and that the N_H/A_V ratio is approximately Galactic or higher in all sources, as indicated previously. But in several objects we also see that deviations from the Galactic ratio are only due to a variable X-ray column, showing that (1) deviations from the Galactic N_H/A_V can simply be explained by dust-free neutral gas within the broad line region in some sources, that (2) the dust properties in AGNs can be similar to Galactic dust and that (3) the dust color method is a robust way to estimate the optical extinction towards the sublimation radius in all but the most obscured AGNs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) Combining the deepest Herschel extragalactic surveys (PEP, GOODS-H, HerMES), and Monte Carlo mock catalogs, we explore the robustness of dust mass estimates based on modeling of broad band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two popular approaches: Draine & Li (2007, DL07) and a modified black body (MBB). As long as the observed SED extends to at least 160-200 micron in the rest frame, M(dust) can be recovered with a >3 sigma significance and without the occurrence of systematics. An average offset of a factor ~1.5 exists between DL07- and MBB-based dust masses, based on consistent dust properties. At the depth of the deepest Herschel surveys (in the GOODS-S field) it is possible to retrieve dust masses with a S/N>=3 for galaxies on the main sequence of star formation (MS) down to M(stars)~1e10 [M(sun)] up to z~1. At higher redshift (z<=2) the same result is achieved only for objects at the tip of the MS or lying above it. Molecular gas masses, obtained converting M(dust) through the metallicity-dependent gas-to-dust ratio delta(GDR), are consistent with those based on the scaling of depletion time, and on CO spectroscopy. Focusing on CO-detected galaxies at z>1, the delta(GDR) dependence on metallicity is consistent with the local relation. We combine far-IR Herschel data and sub-mm ALMA expected fluxes to study the advantages of a full SED coverage.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We use Herschel 70 to 160um images to study the size of the far-infrared emitting region in 400 local galaxies and QSO hosts. The sample includes normal `main sequence' star forming galaxies, as well as infrared luminous galaxies and Palomar-Green QSOs, with different level and structure of star formation. Assuming gaussian spatial distribution of the far-infrared emission, the excellent stability of the Herschel point spread function allows us to measure sizes well below the PSF width, by subtracting widths in quadrature. We derive scalings of FIR size and surface brightness of local galaxies with FIR luminosity, with distance from the star forming `main sequence', and with FIR color. Luminosities LFIR~10^11Lsun can be reached with a variety of structures spanning 2 dex in size. Ultraluminous LFIR>~10^12Lsun galaxies far above the main sequence inevitably have small Re,70~0.5kpc FIR emitting regions with large surface brightness, and can be close to optically thick in the FIR on average over these regions. Compared to these local relations, first ALMA sizes for the dust emission regions in high redshift galaxies, measured at somewhat longer restwavelengths, suggest larger size at same IR luminosity. We report a remarkably tight relation with <0.2dex scatter between FIR surface brightness and the ratio of [CII] 158um emission and FIR emission - the `[CII]-deficit' is more tightly linked to surface brightness than to FIR luminosity or FIR color. Among 33 z<0.1 PG QSOs with typical LFIR/LBOL(AGN)~0.1, 19 have a measured 70um half light radius, with median Re,70=1.1kpc. This is consistent with the FIR size for galaxies with similar LFIR but lacking a QSO, in accordance with a scenario where the rest far-infrared emission of such QSOs is in most cases due to host star formation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the angular momenta of massive star forming galaxies (SFGs) at the peak of the cosmic star formation epoch (z~0.8-2.6). Our sample of ~360 log(M*/Msun) ~ 9.3-11.8 SFGs is mainly based on the KMOS^3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys of H\alpha\ kinematics, and collectively provides a representative subset of the massive star forming population. The inferred halo scale, angular momentum distribution is broadly consistent with that theoretically predicted for their dark matter halos, in terms of mean spin parameter <\lambda> ~ 0.037 and its dispersion ($\sigma_{log(\lambda)}$~0.2). Spin parameters correlate with the disk radial scale, and with their stellar surface density, but do not depend significantly on halo mass, stellar mass, or redshift. Our data thus support the long-standing assumption that on average the specific angular momentum of early disks reflects that of their dark matter halos (jd = jDM), despite the fact that gas enters the virial radius with substantially higher angular momentum, requiring subsequent angular momentum redistribution. The lack of correlation between \lambda x (jd/jDM) and the nuclear stellar density $\Sigma_{*}$(1kpc) favors that disk-internal angular momentum redistribution leads to "compaction" inside massive high-z disks. The average disk to dark halo mass ratio is ~5%, consistent with recent abundance matching results and implying that our high-z disks are strongly baryon dominated.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Emission from high-J CO lines in galaxies has long been proposed as a tracer of X-ray dominated regions (XDRs) produced by AGN. Of particular interest is the question of whether the obscuring torus, which is required by AGN unification models, can be observed via high-J CO cooling lines. Here we report on the analysis of a deep Herschel-PACS observation of an extremely high J CO transition (40-39) in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The line was not detected, with a derived 3$\sigma$ upper limit of $2 \times 10^{-17}\,\text{W}\,\text{m}^{-2}$. We apply an XDR model in order to investigate whether the upper limit constrains the properties of a molecular torus in NGC 1068. The XDR model predicts the CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions for various gas densities and illuminating X-ray fluxes. In our model, the CO(40-39) upper limit is matched by gas with densities $\sim 10^{6}-10^{7}\,\text{cm}^{-3}$, located at $1.6-5\,\text{pc}$ from the AGN, with column densities of at least $10^{25}\,\text{cm}^{-2}$. At such high column densities, however, dust absorbs most of the CO(40-39) line emission at $\lambda = 65.69\, \mu$m. Therefore, even if NGC 1068 has a molecular torus which radiates in the CO(40-39) line, the dust can attenuate the line emission to below the PACS detection limit. The upper limit is thus consistent with the existence of a molecular torus in NGC 1068. In general, we expect that the CO(40-39) is observable in only a few AGN nuclei (if at all), because of the required high gas column density, and absorption by dust.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first observations of H$^{13}$CN$(1-0)$, H$^{13}$CO$^+(1-0)$ and SiO$(2-1)$ in NGC 6240, obtained with the IRAM PdBI. Combining a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) code with Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) modelling we derive posterior probability density functions (pdfs) for the dense gas parameters, including mass$-$luminosity conversion factors, finding a large amount of dense molecular gas $(\sim10^{10}M_\odot)$ in cold, dense clouds ($T_k\sim10$ K, $n_{{\rm H}_2}\sim10^6$ cm$^{-3}$) with a small volume filling factor $(<0.002)$. Including literature CO data we present simultaneously fitted multi-species, two phase models which spontaneously separate into a hot, diffuse phase ($\log_{10}\left(T_k / [{\rm K}]\right) = 3.2^{3.3}_{3.1}$, $\log_{10}\left(n_{{\rm H}_2} / [{\rm cm}^{-3}]\right)=3.6^{3.8}_{3.5}$) and a cold, dense phase ($\log_{10}\left(T_k / [{\rm K}]\right) = 0.9^{0.9}_{0.8}$, $\log_{10}\left(n_{{\rm H}_2} / [{\rm cm}^{-3}]\right)=6.6^{6.8}_{6.3}$). A restricted three phase model is used to include the ubiquitous diffuse, CO bearing gas phase and we derive a global $\alpha_{\rm CO}=1.5^{7.1}_{1.1}$ with gas masses $\log_{10}\left(M / [M_\odot]\right)=10.1_{10.0}^{10.8}$, dominated by the dense gas. We find that the [$^{12}$C]/[$^{13}$C] ratio is only slightly elevated ($98^{230}_{65}$), contrary to the very high [CO]/[$^{13}$CO] ratio (300-500) reported in the literature. The high [HCN]/[H$^{13}$CN] and [HCO$^+$]/[H$^{13}$CO$^+$] abundance ratios $(300^{500}_{200})$ we find are due to isotope fractionation in the cold, dense clouds.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the CO J=1-0 transition in a sample of four $z\sim2$ main sequence galaxies. These galaxies are in the blue sequence of star-forming galaxies at their redshift, and are part of the IRAM Plateau de Bure HIgh-$z$ Blue Sequence Survey (PHIBSS) which imaged them in CO J=3-2. Two galaxies are imaged here at high signal-to-noise, allowing determinations of their disk sizes, line profiles, molecular surface densities, and excitation. Using these and published measurements, we show that the CO and optical disks have similar sizes in main-sequence galaxies, and in the galaxy where we can compare CO J=1-0 and J=3-2 sizes we find these are also very similar. Assuming a Galactic CO-to-H$_2$ conversion, we measure surface densities of $\Sigma_{mol}\sim1200$ M$_\odot$pc$^{-2}$ in projection and estimate $\Sigma_{mol}\sim500-900$ M$_\odot$pc$^{-2}$ deprojected. Finally, our data yields velocity-integrated Rayleigh-Jeans brightness temperature line ratios $r_{31}$ that are approximately unity. In addition to the similar disk sizes, the very similar line profiles in J=1-0 and J=3-2 indicate that both transitions sample the same kinematics, implying that their emission is coextensive. We conclude that in these two main sequence galaxies there is no evidence for significant excitation gradients or a large molecular reservoir that is diffuse or cold and not involved in active star-formation. We suggest that $r_{31}$ in very actively star-forming galaxies is likely an indicator of how well mixed the star formation activity and the molecular reservoir are.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Ha maps at 1kpc spatial resolution for star-forming galaxies at z~1, made possible by the WFC3 grism on HST. Employing this capability over all five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields provides a sample of 2676 galaxies. By creating deep stacked Halpha (Ha) images, we reach surface brightness limits of 1x10^-18\erg\s\cm^2\arcsec^2, allowing us to map the distribution of ionized gas out to >10kpc for typical L* galaxies at this epoch. We find that the spatial extent of the Ha distribution increases with stellar mass as r(Ha)[kpc]=1.5(Mstars/10^10Msun)^0.23. Furthermore, the Ha emission is more extended than the stellar continuum emission, consistent with inside-out assembly of galactic disks. This effect, however, is mass dependent with r(Ha)/r(stars)=1.1(M/10^10Msun)^0.054, such that at low masses r(Ha)~r(stars). We map the Ha distribution as a function of SFR(IR+UV) and find evidence for `coherent star formation' across the SFR-M plane: above the main sequence, Ha is enhanced at all radii; below the main sequence, Ha is depressed at all radii. This suggests that at all masses the physical processes driving the enhancement or suppression of star formation act throughout the disks of galaxies. It also confirms that the scatter in the star forming main sequence is real and caused by variations in the star formation rate at fixed mass. At high masses (10^10.5<M/Msun<10^11), above the main sequence, Ha is particularly enhanced in the center, plausibly building bulges and/or supermassive black holes. Below the main sequence, the star forming disks are more compact and a strong central dip in the EW(Ha), and the inferred specific star formation rate, appears. Importantly though, across the entirety of the SFR-M plane, the absolute star formation rate as traced by Ha is always centrally peaked, even in galaxies below the main sequence.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 μm CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arcsecond and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log = 42.5 (log LxAGN = 42.5). These offsets only become clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of AVhot = 5.15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and AVhot= 15.35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxy evolution scenarios predict that the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity (AGN) can drive the transformation of gas-rich spiral mergers into ULIRGs, and, eventually, lead to the build-up of QSO/elliptical hosts. We study the role that star formation and AGN feedback have in launching and maintaining the molecular outflows in two starburst-dominated advanced mergers, NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of their molecular gas reservoirs. We have used the PdBI array to image with high spatial resolution (0.5"-1.2") the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) line emissions in NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, respectively. The velocity fields of the gas are analyzed and modeled to find the evidence of molecular outflows in these sources and characterize the mass, momentum and energy of these components. While most (>95%) of the CO emission stems from spatially-resolved (~2-3kpc-diameter) rotating disks, we also detect in both mergers the emission from high-velocity line wings that extend up to +-500-700km/s, well beyond the estimated virial range associated with rotation and turbulence. The kinematic major axis of the line wing emission is tilted by ~90deg in NGC1614 and by ~180deg in IRAS17208-0014 relative to their respective rotating disk major axes. These results can be explained by the existence of non-coplanar molecular outflows in both systems. In stark contrast with NGC1614, where star formation alone can drive its molecular outflow, the mass, energy and momentum budget requirements of the molecular outflow in IRAS17208-0014 can be best accounted for by the existence of a so far undetected (hidden) AGN of L_AGN~7x10^11 L_sun. The geometry of the molecular outflow in IRAS17208-0014 suggests that the outflow is launched by a non-coplanar disk that may be associated with a buried AGN in the western nucleus.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a complete volume limited sample of nearby active galaxies selected by their 14-195keV luminosity, and outline its rationale for studying the mechanisms regulating gas inflow and outflow. We describe also a complementary sample of inactive galaxies, selected to match the AGN host galaxy properties. The active sample appears to have no bias in terms of AGN type, the only difference being the neutral absorbing column which is two orders of magnitude greater for the Seyfert 2s. In the luminosity range spanned by the sample, log L_{14-195keV} [erg/s] = 42.4-43.7, the optically obscured and X-ray absorbed fractions are 50-65%. The similarity of these fractions to more distant spectroscopic AGN samples, although over a limited luminosity range, suggests that the torus does not strongly evolve with redshift. Our sample confirms that X-ray unabsorbed Seyfert 2s are rare, comprising not more than a few percent of the Seyfert 2 population. At higher luminosities, the optically obscured fraction decreases (as expected for the increasing dust sublimation radius), but the X-ray absorbed fraction changes little. We argue that the cold X-ray absorption in these Seyfert 1s can be accounted for by neutral gas in clouds that also contribute to the broad line region (BLR) emission; and suggest that a geometrically thick neutral gas torus co-exists with the BLR and bridges the gap to the dusty torus.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥1011 solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this “quenching” relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-infrared wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 micron CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arc second and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log L_MIR = 42.5 (log L_X = 42.5). These offsets only becomes clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to-mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of A_V (hot) = 5 - 15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and A_V (hot) = 15 - 35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.4 - 0.6arcsec resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ~0.25arcsec resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate ISM masses for Arp 220 East, West and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2 and 1.6x10^9 msun within radii of 69, 65 and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n_H2 ~10^5 cm^-3 at R < 50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n_H2 ~2x10^5 cm^-3. The agreement of the mean density from the total mass and size with that required for excitation suggests that the volume is essentially filled with dense gas, i.e. it is not cloudy or like swiss cheese.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the analysis of HST $J$- and $H$-band imaging for 29 galaxies on the star-forming main sequence at $z\sim2$, which have Adaptive Optics VLT SINFONI integral field spectroscopy from our SINS/zC-SINF program. The SINFONI H$\alpha$ data resolve the on-going star-formation and the ionized gas kinematics on scales of $1-2$ kpc; the near-IR images trace the galaxies' rest-frame optical morphologies and distributions of stellar mass in old stellar populations at a similar resolution. The global light profiles of most galaxies show disk-like properties well described by a single S\'ersic profile with $n\sim1$, with only $\sim15%$ requiring a high $n>3$ S\'ersic index, all more massive than $10^{10}M_\odot$. In bulge+disk fits, about $40%$ of galaxies have a measurable bulge component in the light profiles, with $\sim15%$ showing a substantial bulge-to-total ratio $B/T\ge0.3$. This is a lower limit to the frequency of $z\sim2$ massive galaxies with a developed bulge component in stellar mass because it could be hidden by dust and/or outshined by a thick actively star-forming disk component. The galaxies' rest-optical half-light radii range between $1-7$ kpc, with a median of 2.1 kpc, and lie slightly above the size-mass relation at these epochs reported in the literature. This is attributed to differences in sample selection and definitions of size and/or mass measurements. The $(u-g)_{rest}$ color gradient and scatter within individual $z\sim2$ massive galaxies with $\ge10^{11}M_\odot$ are as high as in $z=0$ low-mass, late-type galaxies, and are consistent with the high star-formation rates of massive $z\sim2$ galaxies being sustained at large galactocentric distances.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present multiline CO observations of the complex submillimeter galaxy SMM J00266+1708. Using the Zpectrometer on the Green Bank Telescope, we provide the first precise spectroscopic measurement of its redshift (z=2.742). Based on followup CO(1-0), CO(3-2), and CO(5-4) mapping, SMM J00266+1708 appears to have two distinct components separated by ~500 km/s that are nearly coincident along our line of sight. The two components show hints of different kinematics, with the blue-shifted component dispersion-dominated and the red-shifted component showing a clear velocity gradient. CO line ratios differ slightly between the two components, indicating that the physical conditions in their molecular gas may not be alike. We tentatively infer that SMM J00266+1708 is an ongoing merger with a mass ratio of (7.8+/-4.0)/sin^2(i), with its overall size and surface brightness closely resembling that of other merging systems. We perform large velocity gradient modeling of the CO emission from both components and find that each component's properties are consistent with a single phase of molecular gas (i.e., a single temperatures and density); additional multi-phase modeling of the red-shifted component, although motivated by a CO(1-0) size larger than the CO(3-2) size, is inconclusive. SMM J00266+1708 provides evidence of early stage mergers within the submillimeter galaxy population. Continuum observations of J00266 at the ~1" resolution of our observations could not have distinguished between the two components due to their separation (0.73" +/- 0.06"), illustrating that the additional velocity information provided by spectral line studies is important for addressing the prevalence of unresolved galaxy pairs in low-resolution submillimeter surveys.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M */M ☉) ≥ 10.9) z ~ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M */M ☉) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS3Dspectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ~450-5300 km s–1), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M */M ☉) ~ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ~ 1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) CO rotational emission from nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) and starburst galaxies, as well as several merging systems and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Using Herschel-PACS, we have detected transitions in the J$_{upp}$ = 14 - 20 range ($\lambda \sim$ 130 - 185 $\mu$m, $\nu \sim$ 1612 - 2300 GHz) with upper limits on (and in two cases, detections of) CO line fluxes up to J$_{upp}$ = 30. The PACS CO data obtained here provide the first well-sampled FIR extragalactic CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) for this range, and will be an essential reference for future high redshift studies. Combining these data with low-J line intensities taken from the literature, we present a CO ratio-ratio diagram and discuss its potential diagnostic value in distinguishing excitation sources and physical properties of the molecular gas. We then quantitatively analyze the CO emission from a subset of the detected sources with Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) radiative transfer models to fit the CO SLEDs. Using both single-component and two-component LVG models to fit the kinetic temperature, velocity gradient, number density and column density of the gas, we derive the molecular gas mass and the corresponding CO-to-H$_2$ conversion factor, $\alpha_{CO}$, for each respective source. Finally, we compare our best-fit LVG model results with those obtained in previous studies of the same galaxies and comment on any differences.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the KMOS^3D survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7<z<2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The KMOS^3D survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially-resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyrs of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass ($M_*$) and rest-frame $(U-V)-M_*$ planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first year of data we detect Halpha emission in 191 $M_*=3\times10^{9}-7\times10^{11}$ Msun galaxies at z=0.7-1.1 and z=1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation-dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and $v_{rot}/\sigma>1$, implying that the star-forming 'main sequence' (MS) is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Halpha kinematic maps indicate at least ~70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous IFS studies at z>0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km/s at z~2.3 to 25 km/s at z~0.9 while the rotational velocities at the two redshifts are comparable. Combined with existing results spanning z~0-3, disk velocity dispersions follow an approximate (1+z) evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally-stable disk theory.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relationship between the structure and star-formation rate (SFR) of X-ray selected low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the two Chandra Deep Fields, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and deep far-infrared maps from the PEP+GOODS-Herschel survey. We derive detailed distributions of structural parameters and FIR luminosities from carefully constructed control samples of galaxies, which we then compare to those of the AGNs. At z~1, AGNs show slightly diskier light profiles than massive inactive (non-AGN) galaxies, as well as modestly higher levels of gross galaxy disturbance (as measured by visual signatures of interactions and clumpy structure). In contrast, at z~2, AGNs show similar levels of galaxy disturbance as inactive galaxies, but display a red central light enhancement, which may arise due to a more pronounced bulge in AGN hosts or due to extinguished nuclear light. We undertake a number of tests of these alternatives, but our results do not strongly favour one interpretation over the other. The mean SFR and its distribution among AGNs and inactive galaxies are similar at z>1.5. At z<1, however, clear and significant enhancements are seen in the SFRs of AGNs with bulge-dominated light profiles. These trends suggest an evolution in the relation between nuclear activity and host properties with redshift, towards a minor role for mergers and interactions at z>1.5.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,382.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993-2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2014
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2011-2013
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
    • University of Texas at Austin
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2001-2013
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2010
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2009
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • The Ohio State University
      • Center for Cosmology and Astoparticle Physics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2000
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1997
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1991
    • University of Groningen
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1983-1990
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987-1989
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States