[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The X protein (HBx) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and methionine
adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) promotes the growth of liver cancer cells through altering S-adenosylmethionine homeostasis. Thus, we speculated that a link between HBx and MAT2A may contribute to HCC development. In this study, the effects of HBx on MAT2A expression and cell apoptosis were investigated, and the molecular mechanism by which HBx and MAT2A regulate tumorigenesis was evaluated. Results from immunohistochemistry analyses of 37 pairs of HBV-associated liver cancer
tissues/corresponding peritumor tissues showed that HBx and MAT2A are highly expressed in most liver tumor tissues. Our in vitro results revealed that HBx activates MAT2A expression in a dose-dependent manner in hepatoma cells, and such regulation requires the cis-regulatory elements NF-κB and CREB on the MAT2A gene promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) further demonstrated
that HBx facilitates the binding of NF-κB and CREB to MAT2A gene promoter. In addition, overexpression of HBx or MAT2A inhibits cell apoptosis, whereas knockdown of MAT2A expression stimulates apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HBx reduces MAT1A expression and AdoMet production but enhances MAT2β expression. Thus, we proposed that HBx activates MAT2A expression through NF-κB and CREB signaling pathways to reduce AdoMet production, inhibit hepatoma cell apoptosis, and perhaps enhance HCC development. These
findings should provide new insights into our understanding how the molecular mechanisms underline the effects of HBV infection
on the production of MAT2A and the development of HCC.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) emerges as a crucial player in tumor progression. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially its relation with global DNA methylation patterns in HCC under hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not completely understood. Methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) maintains the homeostasis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a critical marker of genomic methylation status. In this study, we investigated the link between HIF-1α and MAT2A as a mechanism responsible for the change in genomic DNA methylation patterns in liver cancer under hypoxia conditions. Our results showed that hypoxia induces genomic DNA demethylation in CpG islands by reducing the steady-state SAM level both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, HIF-1α and MAT2A expression is correlated with tumor size and TNM stage of liver cancer tissues. We further showed that hypoxia-induced MAT2A expression is HIF-1α dependent and requires the recruitment of p300 and HDAC1. We also identified an authentic consensus HIF-1α binding site in MAT2A promoter by site-directed mutagenesis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we show for the first time that hypoxia induces genomic DNA demethylation through the activation of HIF-1α and transcriptional upregulation of MAT2A in hepatoma cells. These findings provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular link between genomic DNA methylation and tumor hypoxia in HCC.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics