[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI) function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria) is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Gastroenterology Insights
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosoma mansoni, a trematode is a significant parasite of human beings causing intestinal schistosomiasis. In the present investigation, 294 volunteers from central India were screened for schistosomic infection, and the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were calculated as an anti‐schistosomic
immune response in them. Also, an attempt was made to correlate the observed Ig level with the brutality of infection. Consequently, total 138 (46.9%) out of 294 volunteers were reported to have ova of Schistosoma
mansoni in their urine samples. Among which, 84 (28.6%) volunteers with <50 ova in per 10 ml of urine showed light infection while remaining 54 (18.4%) volunteers with >50 ova in per 10 ml of urine showed heavy infection. This difference was found statistically significant (X2= 6.52, p > 0.05). The mean immunoglobulin status observed in their serum sample were; IgE (2141.6 ± 143.7 mg/dL), IgG (13.6 ± 3.53 mg/dL), IgA (3.72 ± 0.149 mg/dL), IgM (2.82 ± 0.48 mg/dL) and IgD (0.12 ± 0.04 mg/dL). The relationship between intensity of infection and serum level of IgM & IgE were positively correlated (r =0.27 and r =0.65, respectively) while IgG, IgA and IgD were showing negative correlation with the strength of infection (r = ‐0.65, r = ‐0.39 and r = ‐0.18, respectively). Therefore, IgG and IgA can be considered as markers of light infection and IgM and IgE for heavy infection respectively.
Since, the levels of IgG, IgA and IgD were found very low in infected volunteers than control subjects hence, are suggested to play insignificant protective role in schistosomic infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll‐like Receptors (TLRs) are identified as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) present in vertebrates and invertebrates which recognize the pathogen‐ associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) shared by pathogens. They are a type of innate immune receptors, involved in the cytokine production, cellular activation and phagocytosis of microorganisms during microbial infection.
They exist on various immune cells therefore, considered for targeted immunotherapeutic research in current approaches. In the present review, we have extensively discussed that how TLRs play a crucial role in mediating the innate immune response and forming a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Moreover, their role in immunological disorders and treatment of human diseases is also discussed in length.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), the evolutionarily conserved molecules are identified as the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in vertebrates and invertebrates which recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The TLRs signaling is via interactions with adaptor proteins including MyD88 and toll receptor associated activator of interferon (TRIF). They directly detect the pathogen invasion and induce either immuno-stimulatory or immunomodulatory biological response. This ability of TLRs to modulate the immune system has been taken in concern in recent studies to develop an adaptive immunotherapy against cancer and several other neurological disorders. Moreover, to trace their auxiliary therapeutic effects, the TLR agonists are now undergoing the extensive clinical investigation. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of TLRs as Immunostimulators and Immunomodulators. Alongside, the association of TLRs with autoimmune responses and human diseases is also explored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Good health is the center of everything that is important for us. To restore and maintain it the health risk assessment and management approach addressing to Indian population was developed in the present investigation. It helps to reduce the health risks by identifying the environmental health hazards exposing to human beings and are donated as subsidiary of rapid industrialization, urbanization etc. The study was resulted in an In-silico tool developed passing three phases; 1) HRA Questionnaire based data collection (2) Development of database and Database management system holding the collected data (3) Design and development of website uploaded with developed tool for online risk assessment