Daniel Weintraub

University of Pennsylvania, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (201)1038.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: We examined the association between cognitive domains and research consent capacity in PD. Our hypothesis was that research consent capacity is best predicted by executive function. Methods: A cohort of 90 PD patients and 30 healthy older adults were administered the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research, Dementia Rating Scale-2, and the MoCA. Experts classified patients as either "capable" or "not capable" of providing informed consent to participate in two clinical trials. Results: MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research Reasoning scores for both clinical trial types were most associated with executive functions and delayed recall. As scores on these domains improved, the odds of an expert rating of "capable of consent" increased. Conclusions: These results extend our previous findings by demonstrating that memory and executive abilities appear closely associated with capacity when evaluated using either a structured interview or expert judgment of that interview. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Movement Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) are the most commonly used scales to test cognitive impairment in Lewy body disease (LBD), but there is no consensus on which is best suited to assess cognition in clinical practice and most sensitive to cognitive decline. Retrospective cohort study of 265 LBD patients [Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia (PDnD, N = 197), PD with dementia (PDD, N = 40), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, N = 28)] from an international consortium who completed both the MMSE and MoCA at baseline and 1-year follow-up (N = 153). Percentage of relative standard deviation (RSD%) at baseline was the measure of inter-individual variance, and estimation of change (Cohen's d) over time was calculated. RSD% for the MoCA (21 %) was greater than for the MMSE (13 %) (p = 0.03) in the whole group. This difference was significant only in PDnD (11 vs. 5 %, p < 0.01), but not in PDD (30 vs. 19 %, p = 0.37) or DLB (15 vs. 14 %, p = 0.78). In contrast, the 1-year estimation of change did not differ between the two tests in any of the groups (Cohen's effect <0.20 in each group). MMSE and MoCA are equal in measuring the rate of cognitive changes over time in LBD. However, in PDnD, the MoCA is a better measure of cognitive status as it lacks both ceiling and floor effects.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Neural Transmission
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarkers from multiple modalities have been shown to correlate with cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the relationships of these markers with each other, and the use of multiple markers in concert to predict an outcome of interest, are areas that are much less explored. Our objectives in this study were (1) to evaluate relationships among 17 biomarkers previously reported to associate with cognition in PD or AD and (2) to test performance of a five-biomarker classifier trained to recognize AD in identifying PD with dementia (PDD). To do this, we evaluated a cross-sectional cohort of PD patients (n = 75) across a spectrum of cognitive abilities. All PD participants had 17 baseline biomarkers from clinical, genetic, biochemical, and imaging modalities measured, and correlations among biomarkers were assessed by Spearman’s rho and by hierarchical clustering. We found that internal correlation among all 17 candidate biomarkers was modest, showing a maximum pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.51. However, a five-marker subset panel derived from AD (CSF total tau, CSF phosphorylated tau, CSF amyloid beta 42, APOE genotype, and SPARE-AD imaging score) discriminated cognitively normal PD patients vs. PDD patients with 80% accuracy, when employed in a classifier originally trained to recognize AD. Thus, an AD-derived biomarker signature may identify PDD patients with moderately high accuracy, suggesting mechanisms shared with AD in some PDD patients. Based on five measures readily obtained during life, this AD-derived signature may prove useful in identifying PDD patients most likely to respond to AD-based crossover therapies.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Pharmacological treatments for agitation and aggression in patients with Alzheimer's disease have shown limited efficacy. The authors assessed the heterogeneity of response to citalopram in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease (CitAD) study to identify individuals who may be helped or harmed. Method: In this double-blind parallel-group multicenter trial of 186 patients with Alzheimer's disease and clinically significant agitation, participants were randomly assigned to receive citalopram or placebo for 9 weeks, with the dosage titrated to 30 mg/day over the first 3 weeks. Five planned potential predictors of treatment outcome were assessed, along with six additional predictors. The authors then used a two-stage multivariate method to select the most likely predictors; grouped participants into 10 subgroups by their index scores; and estimated the citalopram treatment effect for each. Results: Five covariates were likely predictors, and treatment effect was heterogeneous across the subgroups. Patients for whom citalopram was more effective were more likely to be outpatients, have the least cognitive impairment, have moderate agitation, and be within the middle age range (76-82 years). Patients for whom placebo was more effective were more likely to be in long-term care, have more severe cognitive impairment, have more severe agitation, and be treated with lorazepam. Conclusions: Considering several covariates together allowed the identification of responders. Those with moderate agitation and with lower levels of cognitive impairment were more likely to benefit from citalopram, and those with more severe agitation and greater cognitive impairment were at greater risk for adverse responses. Considering the dosages used and the association of citalopram with cardiac QT prolongation, use of this agent to treat agitation may be limited to a subgroup of people with dementia.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Fatigue is a severe problem for many people living with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Best estimates suggest that more than 50% of patients experience this debilitating symptom. Little is known about its etiology or treatment, making the understanding of fatigue a true unmet need. As part of the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation Community Choice Research Program, patients, caregivers, and scientists attended a symposium on fatigue on 16 and 17 October 2014. We present a summary of that meeting, reviewing what is known about the diagnosis and treatment of fatigue, its physiology, and what we might learn from multiple sclerosis (MS), depression, and cancer—disorders in which fatigue figures prominently too. We conclude with focused recommendations to enhance our understanding and treatment of this prominent problem in PD.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal loss and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) pathology are diagnostic of PD in the appropriate clinical context. However, some Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have comorbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology on autopsy, including amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Florbetapir (18F) is a PET ligand that detects Aβ pathology. We hypothesized that florbetapir (18F) imaging could detect Aβ pathology in PD dementia (PDD) patients before death. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of florbetapir (18F) PET imaging in detecting Aβ pathology in patients with autopsy-confirmed PDD. Five participants with PDD had florbetapir (18F) PET imaging before death as a part of a longitudinal research study of cognitive decline in PD. PET scans were evaluated by expert raters blinded to clinical and neuropathological information. At autopsy, all 5 participants underwent semiquantitative assessments of regional Aβ and tau immunohistochemistry. All participants met neuropathological criteria for PD. Two had both positive florbetapir (18F) scans and Aβ-positive plaques in multiple brain regions. Regional florbetapir (18F) binding correlated with regional semiquantitative Aβ pathology in these cases. Three cases had negative florbetapir (18F) scans. Two of these had significant tau pathology without Aβ pathology, consistent with PSP in 1 case and argyrophilic grain disease in the other. The last case had a low level of AD neuropathological change. Florbetapir (18F) Aβ imaging can detect the presence of Aβ neuropathology in patients with PDD. This imaging technique may aid the clinical evaluation of PDD patients to determine whether cognitive decline is occurring in the setting of Aβ accumulation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to describe the development and psychometric analysis of the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire. The questionnaire is an item response theory-based tool for rating cognitive instrumental activities of daily living in PD. Candidate items for the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire were developed through literature review and focus groups of patients and knowledgeable informants. Item selection and calibration of item-response theory parameters were performed using responses from a cohort of PD patients and knowledgeable informants (n = 388). In independent cohorts of PD patients and knowledgeable informants, assessments of test-retest reliability (n = 50), and construct validity (n = 68) of the questionnaire were subsequently performed. Construct validity was assessed by correlating questionnaire scores with measures of motor function, cognition, an existing activities of daily living measure, and directly observed daily function. Fifty items were retained in the final questionnaire item bank. Items were excluded owing to redundancy, difficult reading level, and when item-response theory parameters could not be calculated. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97; P < 0.001). The questionnaire correlated strongly with cognition (r = 0.68; P < 0.001) and directly observed daily function (r = 0.87; P < 0.001), but not with motor impairment (r = 0.08; P = 0.53). The questionnaire score accurately discriminated between PD patients with and without dementia (receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.85-0.97). The Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire shows strong evidence of reliability and validity. Item response theory-based psychometric analysis suggests that this questionnaire can discriminate across a range of daily functions. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 Movement Disorder Society.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Movement Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease includes neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, psychosis, and impulse control disorders, which often are unreported by patients and caregivers or undetected by doctors. Given their substantial impact on patients and caregivers as well as the existence of effective therapies for some of these disorders, screening for neuropsychiatric symptoms is important. Instruments for screening have a particular methodology for validation, and their performance is expressed in terms of accuracy compared with formal diagnostic criteria. The present study reviews the attributes of the screening instruments applied for detection of the aforementioned major neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A quasi-systematic review (including predefined selection criteria, but not evaluating the quality of the reviewed studies) was carried out on the basis of previous systematic reviews (commissioned by the American Academy of Neurology and the Movement Disorder Society) and made current by conducting a literature search (2005-2014). For depression, 11 scales and questionnaires were shown to be valid for Parkinson's disease screening. The recently developed Parkinson Anxiety Scale and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory demonstrate satisfactory properties as screening instruments for anxiety, and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale for detection of apathy. No scale adequately screens for psychosis, so a specific psychosis instrument should be developed. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (Questionnaire and Rating Scale) are valid for comprehensive screening of impulse control disorders, and the Parkinson's Disease-Sexual Addiction Screening Test for hypersexuality specifically. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Movement Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We found a benefit of citalopram for agitation in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease study (CitAD), and wondered if this was mediated by a sedative effect. CitAD was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial conducted at 8 academic centers in the United States and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. One hundred sixty-two participants with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and clinically significant agitation were analyzed in this study. Participants received a psychosocial intervention and were randomized to receive either citalopram or placebo (approximately half assigned to each group). Participants were rated on the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale Agitation subscale and measures of sedation (i.e., fatigue and somnolence). Methods: Using the MacArthur Foundation procedures for documenting a mediator effect, we performed a secondary analysis examining whether sedation mediates the effect of treatment on agitation outcome. Results: We found a statistically significant mediating effect of sedation on agitation outcomes, but the magnitude of the effect was small, only explaining 11% of the variance in agitation, with a significant, but modest effect size of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.22). Conclusions: The benefit of citalopram was partly due to sedation but largely due to other mechanisms of action.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The citalopram for Alzheimer's disease trial evaluated citalopram for the management for agitation in Alzheimer's disease patients. Sparse data was available from this elderly patient population. A nonlinear mixed effects population pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used to describe the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-citalopram and their primary metabolite (desmethylcitalopram). A structural model with 4 compartments (one compartment/compound) with linear oral absorption and elimination described the data adequately. Overall, the model showed that clearance of the R-enantiomer was slower than the clearance of the S-enantiomer. Without accounting for any patient-specific covariates, the population estimate of the metabolic clearance of citalopram was 8.6 (R-citalopram) and 14 L/h (S-citalopram). The population estimate of the clearance of desmethylcitalopram was 23.8 (R-Dcit) and 38.5 L/h (S-Dcit). Several patient-specific covariates were found to have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of R,S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram. A significant difference in the metabolic clearance of R-citalopram between males and females (13 vs 9.05 L/h) was identified in this analysis. Both R- and S-citalopram metabolic clearance decreased with age. Additionally, consistent with literature reports S-citalopram metabolic clearance increased with increasing body weight and was significantly influenced by CYPC19 genotype, with a difference of 5.8 L/h between extensive/rapid and intermediate/poor metabolizers. R,S-desmethylcitalopram clearance increased with increasing body weight. This model may allow for the opportunity to delineate the effect of R- and S-citalopram on pharmacodynamics outcomes related to the management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mild cognitive impairment and dementia are common, clinically important features of Parkinson's disease (PD). The underlying disease pathology is heterogeneous and not yet well characterized. Biomarkers for cognitive impairment in PD could aid in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation and in the development of new cognitive enhancing treatments. Objective: To examine the relationship between CSF markers and cognition in a large, multicentre, cohort study of early, untreated PD, and compare marker concentrations between PD patients with and without MCI and healthy, age-matched controls. Methods: 414 early, untreated PD (34% with mild cognitive impairment) and 189 healthy, cognitively intact controls with baseline neuropsychological testing and CSF abeta42, t-tau, p-tau181 and α-synuclein results were included. Multiple linear regression models were constructed with a composite cognition factor, or memory-, or visuospatial- or executive-attention domains as dependent variables, and CSF markers, demographic characteristics and MDS-UPDRS III score as predictors. Results: Lower α-synuclein was associated with reduced performance on the executive-attention domain and the composite cognition factor in the whole PD-group. Abeta42 was significantly decreased in PD with mild cognitive impairment compared with controls after adjusting for covariates, while values in PD without MCI were identical to healthy controls. Conclusions: The association between reduced CSF α-synuclein concentrations and cognition suggests that α-synuclein pathology contributes to early cognitive impairment in PD, in particular to executive-attentional dysfunction. Longitudinal analyses are needed to determine if this and other CSF biomarkers in early Parkinson's disease are associated with the risk of future cognitive decline and dementia.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • Kara M Smith · Sharon X Xie · Daniel Weintraub
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the incidence of, and clinical and neurobiological risk factors for, new-onset impulse control disorder (ICD) symptoms and related behaviours in early Parkinson disease (PD). Methods The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative is an international, multicenter, prospective study of de novo patients with PD untreated at baseline and assessed annually, including serial dopamine transporter imaging (DAT-SPECT) and ICD assessment (Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease short form, QUIP). Participants were included if they screened negative on the QUIP at baseline. Kaplan-Meier curves and generalised estimating equations examined frequency and predictors of incident ICD symptoms. Results Participants were seen at baseline (n=320), year 1 (n=284), year 2 (n=217) and year 3 (n=96). Estimated cumulative incident rates of ICD symptoms and related behaviours were 8% (year 1), 18% (year 2) and 25% (year 3) and increased each year in those on dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) and decreased in those not on DRT. In participants on DRT, risk factors for incident ICD symptoms were younger age (OR=0.97, p=0.05), a greater decrease in right caudate (OR=4.03, p=0.01) and mean striatal (OR=6.90, p=0.04) DAT availability over the first year, and lower right putamen (OR=0.06, p=0.01) and mean total striatal (OR=0.25, p=0.04) DAT availability at any post-baseline visit. Conclusions The rate of incident ICD symptoms increases with time and initiation of DRT in early PD. In this preliminary study, a greater decrease or lower DAT binding over time increases risk of incident ICD symptoms, conferring additional risk to those taking DRT. Clinical trial registration NCT01141023.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To report the rates and predictors of progression from normal cognition to either mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia using standardized neuropsychological methods. Methods: A prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD) and baseline normal cognition was assessed for cognitive decline, performance, and function for a minimum of 2 years, and up to 6. A panel of movement disorders experts classified patients as having normal cognition, MCI, or dementia, with 55/68 (80.9%) of eligible patients seen at year 6. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine cognitive decline and its predictors. Results: We enrolled 141 patients, who averaged 68.8 years of age, 63% men, who had PD on average for 5 years. The cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment was 8.5% at year 1, increasing to 47.4% by year 6. All incident MCI cases had progressed to dementia by year 5. In a multivariate analysis, predictors of future decline were male sex (p = 0.02), higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (p ≤ 0.001), and worse global cognitive score (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Approximately half of patients with PD with normal cognition at baseline develop cognitive impairment within 6 years and all new MCI cases progress to dementia within 5 years. Our results show that the transition from normal cognition to cognitive impairment, including dementia, occurs frequently and quickly. Certain clinical and cognitive variables may be useful in predicting progression to cognitive impairment in PD.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Neurology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Neurology
  • Mark Terrelonge · Karen S. Marder · Daniel Weintraub · Roy N. Alcalay
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    ABSTRACT: Low CSF β-amyloid 1-42 has been associated with cognitive decline in advanced Parkinson's disease; data from a single cohort suggest β-amyloid 1-42 may be an early marker of cognitive impairment. Newly diagnosed Parkinson's participants (mean duration, 6.9 months) in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (n = 341) were assessed at baseline (untreated state) and followed for 2 years. CSF β-amyloid 1-42, α-synuclein, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 were collected at baseline. Participants were classified as having cognitive impairment (CI) if scores on two of six cognitive tests were 1.5 standard deviations below the standardized mean based on published norms in healthy controls. Multivariable regression analyses were used to determine the association between baseline CSF markers with cognitive impairment, defined by neuropsychological testing performance at 2-year follow-up. Fifty-five participants (16.1 %) had CI at baseline and were not included in further analyses. Thirty-seven of the 286 participants without CI at baseline (12.9 %) developed CI at 2 years. Participants with CI at 2 years had significantly lower mean baseline CSF β-amyloid 1-42 levels than non-CI participants (343.8 vs. 380.4 pg/mL, p < 0.01); no significant difference was seen for α-synuclein, T-tau, or P-tau 181. In a regression model of 286 participants without baseline CI adjusted for age, gender, disease duration, education, motor severity, and depression status, lower baseline β-amyloid 1-42 levels were associated with higher odds of CI at 2 years. (OR10pg/mL = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.08, p < 0.05). CSF β-amyloid 1-42 level at disease onset is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD). Methods: In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression. Results: Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure. Conclusions: We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International Psychogeriatrics
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    ABSTRACT: To assess potential genetic influences on citalopram treatment efficacy for agitation in individuals with Alzheimer dementia (AD). Six functional genetic variants were studied in the following genes: serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A-T102C), serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C-Cys23Ser), serotonin transporter (5HTT-LPR), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF-Val66Met), apolipoprotein E (ε2, ε3, ε4 variants), and cytochrome P450 (CYP2C19). Treatment response by genotype was measured by (1) the agitation domain of the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, (2) the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change scale (mADCS-CGIC), (3) the agitation domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and (4) the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. We utilized data from the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) database. CitAD was a 9-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial showing significant improvement in agitation and caregiver distress in patients treated with citalopram. Proportional odds logistic regression and mixed effects models were used to examine the above-mentioned outcome measures. Significant interactions were noted on the NPI agitation domain for HTR2A (likelihood ratio [LR] = 6.19, df = 2, P = .04) and the mADCS-CGIC for HTR2C (LR = 4.33, df = 2, P = .02) over 9 weeks. Treatment outcomes in CitAD showed modest, although statistically significant, influence of genetic variation at HTR2A and HTR2C loci. Future studies should continue to examine the interaction of known genetic variants with antidepressant treatment in patients with AD having agitation. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
  • Jennifer G Goldman · Daniel Weintraub
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent complication, with significant interindividual variability in clinical symptoms, severity, timing, and neural substrates. Recent studies have focused not only on understanding PD dementia, but also mild cognitive impairment in PD, which may represent a prodromal stage for dementia. In recent years, there have been important advances regarding clinical characterizations, definitions, associated biomarkers, and risk factors for both mild cognitive impairment in PD and PD dementia. However, there is a paucity of effective therapies for cognitive impairment in PD, whether for mild symptoms or for moderate to severe dementia. At present, only rivastigmine is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for PD dementia, an indication received nearly a decade ago. Given the frequency of PD cognitive impairment and its substantial impact on both patients and families, the lack of available and effective treatments represents a striking gap in the field, especially when compared to the large number of available therapies for PD motor symptoms and complications. Improved symptomatic therapies, as well as potential disease-modifying agents, for PD cognitive impairment are needed. Most therapeutic trials for PD dementia and mild cognitive impairment in PD have focused on drugs developed for and tested in Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, though recent and ongoing trials examine the effects of pharmacological agents affecting other neurotransmitters, as well as nonpharmacological therapies, including mental and physical exercise and neurostimulation. This review summarizes the design and outcomes of trials for PD cognitive impairment published since 2013 and highlights future therapeutic research opportunities and challenges. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Movement Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: The Parkinson Associated Risk Syndrome Study identified a cohort of healthy adults with hyposmia and dopamine transporter binding reduction to characterize individuals at risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). We describe the cognitive profile of this cohort. Individuals older than 50 y without PD were recruited. Two hundred twenty-five completed cognitive testing and were included in the final analysis. A neuropsychological test battery was administered and normative scores created for global cognition, memory, executive function/working memory, processing speed/attention, visuospatial abilities, and language domains. Other non-motor symptoms (constipation, depression, anxiety, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder) were assessed through questionnaires. Individuals with both hyposmia and reduced dopamine transporter binding (n = 38) had lower mean scores for global cognition, executive function/working memory, and memory compared with all other participants (n = 187). In separate multivariate logistic regression models, lower global cognition (odds ratio, 1.97, P = 0.004), and specifically executive function/working memory (odds ratio, 1.84, P = 0.004) scores were associated with membership in the hyposmia with dopamine transporter reduction group. Combining hyposmia with relative impairment on specific cognitive domains increased the odds of dopamine transporter binding reduction compared with hyposmia alone, with the greatest increase in odds for hyposmia plus executive function/working memory relative impairment (68% increase in odds from 4.14 to 6.96). Changes in global cognitive abilities, and specifically executive function/working memory, are present in individuals at risk for PD. Combining non-motor features, including cognition, improves prediction of dopamine transporter binding reduction. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Movement Disorders

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,038.62 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2016
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Geriatric Psychiatry Section
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008-2015
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2014
    • University Hospital Donostia
      San Sebastián, Basque Country, Spain
  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Brown University
      • Department of Neurology
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2005-2007
    • The Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2004
    • Drexel University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States