David M Shahian

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (199)1391.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) has developed multidimensional composite quality measures for common cardiac surgery procedures. This first composite measure for general thoracic surgery evaluates STS participant performance for lobectomy in lung cancer patients. Methods: The STS lobectomy composite score is composed of two outcomes: risk-adjusted mortality; and any-or-none, risk-adjusted major complications. General Thoracic Surgery Database data were included from 2011 to 2014 to provide adequate sample size, and 95% Bayesian credible intervals were used to determine "star ratings." The STS participants were also compared with national benchmarks (including non-STS participants) using the National Inpatient Sample. Comparisons of discharge mortality, postoperative length of stay, and percent of stage I lung cancers resected using minimally invasive approaches are not included in star ratings but will be reported to participants in STS feedback reports. Results: The study population included 20,657 lobectomy patients from 231 participating centers. Operative mortality was 1.5%, major complication rate was 9.6%, and median postoperative length of stay was 4 days. Risk-adjusted mortality and major complication rates varied threefold from highest performing (three-star) to lowest performing (one-star) programs. Approximately 5% of participants were one-star, 7% were three-star, and 88% were two-star programs. Conclusions: The STS has developed the first general thoracic surgery quality composite measure to compare programs performing lobectomy for lung cancer. This measure will be used for quality assessment and provider feedback, and will be made available for voluntary public reporting.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Annals of thoracic surgery

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Annals of surgery
  • David M. Shahian

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Quality Measurement Task Force is developing a portfolio of composite performance measures for the most commonly performed procedures in adult cardiac surgery. We now describe the fourth in this series, the STS composite measure for mitral valve repair/replacement (MVRR). Methods: We examined all patients undergoing isolated MVRR, with or without concomitant performance of tricuspid valve repair, surgical arrhythmia ablation, or repair of atrial septal defect, between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014. In this two-domain model, risk-adjusted mortality and any-or-none major morbidity were combined into a composite score using 3 years of STS data and 95% Bayesian credible intervals to estimate composite scores and star ratings. Results: There were 61,201 MVRR patients studied at 867 participant sites. Mitral valve repair was performed in 57.4% (35,114 of 61,201) and mitral valve replacement in 42.6% (26,087 of 61,201). Mortality was 2.9% (1,773 of 61,201), and occurrence of any major morbidity was 17.0% (10,381 of 61,201). The median composite score was 93.2% (interquartile range, 92.3% to 94.2%). Star rating classifications included 23 of 867 (2.6%) 1-star programs (lower-than-expected performance), 795 of 867 (91.7%) 2-star programs (as-expected or average performance), and 49 of 867 (5.7%) 3-star programs (higher-than-expected performance). Conclusions: STS has developed an MVRR composite performance measure that will be used for participant feedback, quality performance assessment and improvement, and voluntary public reporting.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: -Prior studies have reported that blacks undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) had worse outcomes than white patients, even after accounting for patient factors. The degree to which clinician-, hospital- and care-factors account for these outcome differences remains unclear. Methods and results: -We evaluated procedural outcomes in 11697 blacks and 136,362 whites undergoing isolated CABG at 663 STS Database participating sites (1/1/2010-6/30/2011) adjusted for patients' clinical and socioeconomic features, hospital and surgeon effects and care processes (internal mammary artery [IMA] graft and perioperative medications use). Relative to whites, blacks undergoing CABG were younger, yet had higher comorbidities and more adverse presenting features. Blacks were also more likely to be treated at hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality. The use of IMA was marginally lower in blacks than whites (93.3% vs. 92.2%, p<0.0001). Unadjusted mortality and major morbidity rates were higher in blacks than whites (1.8% vs. 2.5%, p<0.0001) and (13.6% vs. 19.4%, p <0.0001), respectively. These racial differences in outcomes narrowed but still persisted after adjusting for surgeon, hospital and care processes in addition to patient and socioeconomic factors (OR 1.17 [1.00-1.36] and OR 1.26 [1.19-1.34], respectively). Conclusions: -The risks of procedural mortality and morbidity after CABG were higher among black compared with white patients. These differences were in part accounted for by patient comorbidities, socioeconomic status, as well as surgeon, hospital, and care factors as suggested by reduction in the strength of the race-outcomes association. However, black race remained an independent predictor of outcomes even after accounting for these differences.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) has been successfully linked to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) Medicare database, thereby facilitating comparative effectiveness research and providing information about long-term follow-up and cost. The present study uses this link to determine contemporary completeness, penetration, and representativeness of the STS ACSD. Methods: Using variables common to both STS and CMS databases, STS operations were linked to CMS data for all CMS coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery hospitalizations discharged between 2000 and 2012, inclusive. For each CMS CABG hospitalization, it was determined whether a matching STS record existed. Results: Center-level penetration (number of CMS sites with at least one matched STS participant divided by the total number of CMS CABG sites) increased from 45% in 2000 to 90% in 2012. In 2012, 973 of 1,081 CMS CABG sites (90%) were linked to an STS site. Patient-level penetration (number of CMS CABG hospitalizations done at STS sites divided by the total number of CMS CABG hospitalizations) increased from 51% in 2000 to 94% in 2012. In 2012, 71,634 of 76,072 CMS CABG hospitalizations (94%) occurred at an STS site. Completeness of case inclusion at STS sites (number of CMS CABG cases at STS sites linked to STS records divided by the total number of CMS CABG cases at STS sites) increased from 88% in 2000 to 98% in 2012. In 2012, 69,213 of 70,932 CMS CABG hospitalizations at STS sites (98%) were linked to an STS record. Conclusions: Linkage of STS and CMS databases demonstrates high and increasing penetration and completeness of the STS database. Linking STS and CMS data facilitates studying long-term outcomes and costs of cardiothoracic surgery.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Database is one of the longest-standing, largest, and most highly regarded clinical data registries in health care. It serves as the foundation for all quality measurement and improvement activities of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This report summarizes current aggregate national outcomes in adult cardiac surgery and reviews database-related activities in the areas of quality measurement and performance improvement.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) Transcatheter Valve Therapy (TVT) Registry has been a joint initiative of the STS and the ACC in concert with multiple stakeholders. The TVT Registry has important information regarding patient selection, delivery of care, science, education, and research in the field of structural valvular heart disease. Objectives: This report provides an overview on current U.S. TVT practice and trends. The emphasis is on demographics, in-hospital procedural characteristics, and outcomes of patients having transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) performed at 348 U.S. centers. Methods: The TVT Registry captured 26,414 TAVR procedures as of December 31, 2014. Temporal trends between 2012 and 2013 versus 2014 were compared. Results: Comparison of the 2 time periods reveals that TAVR patients remain elderly (mean age 82 years), with multiple comorbidities, reflected by a high mean STS predicted risk of mortality (STS PROM) for surgical valve replacement (8.34%), were highly symptomatic (New York Heart Association functional class III/IV in 82.5%), frail (slow 5-m walk test in 81.6%), and have poor self-reported health status (median baseline Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score of 39.1). Procedure performance is changing, with an increased use of moderate sedation (from 1.6% to 5.1%) and increase in femoral access using percutaneous techniques (66.8% in 2014). Vascular complication rates are decreasing (from 5.6% to 4.2%), whereas site-reported stroke rates remain stable at 2.2%. Conclusions: The TVT Registry provides important information on characteristics and outcomes of TAVR in contemporary U.S. clinical practice. It can be used to identify trends in practice and opportunities for quality improvement.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background-Risk prediction is a critical step in patient selection for aortic valve replacement (AVR), yet existing risk scores incorporate very few echocardiographic parameters. We sought to evaluate the incremental predictive value of a complete echocardiogram to identify high-risk surgical candidates before AVR. Methods and Results-A cohort of patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing surgical AVR with or without coronary bypass was assembled at 2 tertiary centers. Preoperative echocardiograms were reviewed by independent observers to quantify chamber size/function and valve function. Patient databases were queried to extract clinical data. The cohort consisted of 432 patients with a mean age of 73.5 years and 38.7% females. Multivariable logistic regression revealed 3 echocardiographic predictors of in-hospital mortality or major morbidity: E/e' ratio reflective of elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure; myocardial performance index reflective of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction; and small LV end-diastolic cavity size. Addition of these echocardiographic parameters to the STS risk score led to an integrated discrimination improvement of 4.1% (P<0.0001). After a median follow-up of 2 years, Cox regression revealed 5 echocardiographic predictors of all-cause mortality: small LV end-diastolic cavity size; LV mass index; mitral regurgitation grade; right atrial area index; and mean aortic gradient <40 mm Hg. Conclusions-Echocardiographic measures of LV diastolic dysfunction and RV performance add incremental value to the STS risk score and should be integrated in prediction when evaluating the risk of AVR. In addition, findings of small hypertrophied LV cavities and/or low mean aortic gradients confer a higher risk of 2-year mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: The futures of registries and performance measurement are intertwined. Theworldwide role of registries as tools to capture and analyze data will increase, and the parallel demand for performance measures will result in preferential use of these data because they are more credible and widely accepted than other sources and can be more fully risk adjusted. The nexus of clinical registries and performance measures will become even more important as risk-adjusted outcomes data are used for high-stakes applications, such as public report cards, preferred provider networks, and reimbursement. When feasible, limitations of clinical registries, such as their data collection burden, must be mitigated by automatic extraction of some data elements from EHRs. This will be possible only for those variables for which the integrity of clinical registry content will not be compromised by automatic EHR data extraction. Similarly, the value of clinical registries, the data of which historically have been limited to short-term outcomes, will be enhanced through linkages with other data sources, such as claims data. Sources such as claims data can provide information on long-term outcomes, resource use, rehospitalizations, and reinterventions. These linkages will require methods for identifying patients across data sources. Also needed is clarification by the federal government of Common Rule and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations, because lack of clarity in these rules sometimes dissuades providers from submitting data. By measuring and reporting registry performance to clinicians, individual sites, and integrated healthcare networks, as well as publicly reporting when appropriate, registries will be able to influence care profoundly. This will include iterative changes occurring as a result of routine, nationally benchmarked feedback reports, as well as randomized clinical trials embedded into ongoing registries, such as the TASTE (Thrombus Aspiration in ST-Elevation myocardial infarction) trial, which was performed in the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (31,32), and the SAFE PCI for Women (Study of Access Site for Enhancement of PCI for Women) study, which used the NCDR's CathPCI Registry (114). Measuring and reporting registry performance data would facilitate the empirical determination of specific process-improvement strategies that result in improved patient-centered outcomes. As clinical registries cover progressively more of the healthcare landscape and are supplemented by additional data from EHRs, claims databases, and other data sources (e.g., industry databases, patient-reported information from personal health records and websites ["big data"]), we will benefit from insights into real-world practice that have not yet been possible, ultimately improving healthcare delivery and patient outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate participant characteristics and outcomes during the first 4 years of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) public reporting program. This is the first detailed analysis of a national, voluntary, cardiac surgery public reporting program using STS clinical registry data and National Quality Forum-endorsed performance measures. The distributions of risk-adjusted mortality rates, multidimensional composite performance scores, star ratings, and volumes for public reporting versus nonreporting sites were studied during 9 consecutive semiannual reporting periods (2010-2014). Among 8929 unique observations (∼1000 STS participant centers, 9 reporting periods), 916 sites (10.3%) were classified low performing, 6801 (76.2%) were average, and 1212 (13.6%) were high performing. STS public reporting participation varied from 22.2% to 46.3% over the 9 reporting periods. Risk-adjusted, patient-level mortality rates for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were consistently lower in public reporting versus nonreporting sites (P value range: <0.001-0.0077). Reporting centers had higher composite performance scores and star ratings (23.2% high performing and 4.5% low performing vs 7.6% high performing and 13.8% low performing for nonreporting sites). STS public reporting sites had higher mean annualized coronary artery bypass grafting volumes than nonreporting sites (169 vs 145, P < 0.0001); high-performing programs had higher mean coronary artery bypass grafting volumes (n = 241) than average (n = 139) or low-performing (n = 153) sites. Risk factor prevalence (except reoperation) and expected mortality rates were generally stable during the study period. STS programs that voluntarily participate in public reporting have significantly higher volumes and performance. No evidence of risk aversion was found.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at risk for a variety of infections. Investigators have focused on predictors of these adverse sequelae, but less attention has been focused on characterizing hospital-level variability in these outcomes. Between July 2011 and December 2013, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database shows 365,686 patients underwent isolated CABG in 1,084 hospitals. Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) were defined as pneumonia, sepsis/septicemia, deep sternal wound infection/mediastinitis, vein harvest/cannulation site infection, or thoracotomy infection. Hospitals were ranked by their HAI rate as low (≤10th percentile), medium (10th to 90th percentile), and high (>90th percentile). Differences in perioperative factors and composite morbidity and mortality end points across these groups were determined using the Wilcoxon rank sum and χ(2) tests. HAIs occurred among 3.97% of patients overall, but rates varied across hospital groups (low: <0.84%, medium: 0.84% to 8.41%, high: >8.41%). Pneumonia (2.98%) was the most common HAI, followed by sepsis/septicemia (0.84%). Patients at high-rate hospitals more often smoked, had diabetes, chronic lung disease, New York Heart Association Functional Classification III to IV, and received blood products (p < 0.001); however, they less often were prescribed the appropriate antibiotics (p < 0.001). Major morbidity and mortality occurred among 12.3% of patients, although this varied by hospital group (low: 8.6%, medium: 12.3%, high: 17.9%; p < 0.001). Substantial hospital-level variation exists in postoperative HAIs among patients undergoing CABG, driven predominantly by pneumonia. Given the relatively small absolute differences in comorbidities across hospital groups, our findings suggest factors other than case mix may explain the observed variation in HAI rates. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: This study's objective was to develop a risk model incorporating procedure type and patient factors to be used for case-mix adjustment in the analysis of hospital-specific operative mortality rates after congenital cardiac operations. Included were patients of all ages undergoing cardiac operations, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, at centers participating in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database during January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013. Excluded were isolated patent ductus arteriosus closures in patients weighing less than or equal to 2.5 kg, centers with more than 10% missing data, and patients with missing data for key variables. Data from the first 3.5 years were used for model development, and data from the last 0.5 year were used for assessing model discrimination and calibration. Potential risk factors were proposed based on expert consensus and selected after empirically comparing a variety of modeling options. The study cohort included 52,224 patients from 86 centers with 1,931 deaths (3.7%). Covariates included in the model were primary procedure, age, weight, and 11 additional patient factors reflecting acuity status and comorbidities. The C statistic in the validation sample was 0.858. Plots of observed-vs-expected mortality rates revealed good calibration overall and within subgroups, except for a slight overestimation of risk in the highest decile of predicted risk. Removing patient preoperative factors from the model reduced the C statistic to 0.831 and affected the performance classification for 12 of 86 hospitals. The risk model is well suited to adjust for case mix in the analysis and reporting of hospital-specific mortality for congenital heart operations. Inclusion of patient factors added useful discriminatory power and reduced bias in the calculation of hospital-specific mortality metrics. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The empirically derived 2014 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model incorporates adjustment for procedure type and patient-specific factors. The purpose of this report is to describe this model and its application in the assessment of variation in outcomes across centers. All index cardiac operations in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013) were eligible for inclusion. Isolated patent ductus arteriosus closures in patients weighing less than or equal to 2.5 kg were excluded, as were centers with more than 10% missing data and patients with missing data for key variables. The model includes the following covariates: primary procedure, age, any prior cardiovascular operation, any noncardiac abnormality, any chromosomal abnormality or syndrome, important preoperative factors (mechanical circulatory support, shock persisting at time of operation, mechanical ventilation, renal failure requiring dialysis or renal dysfunction (or both), and neurological deficit), any other preoperative factor, prematurity (neonates and infants), and weight (neonates and infants). Variation across centers was assessed. Centers for which the 95% confidence interval for the observed-to-expected mortality ratio does not include unity are identified as lower-performing or higher-performing programs with respect to operative mortality. Included were 52,224 operations from 86 centers. Overall discharge mortality was 3.7% (1,931 of 52,224). Discharge mortality by age category was neonates, 10.1% (1,129 of 11,144); infants, 3.0% (564 of 18,554), children, 0.9% (167 of 18,407), and adults, 1.7% (71 of 4,119). For all patients, 12 of 86 centers (14%) were lower-performing programs, 67 (78%) were not outliers, and 7 (8%) were higher-performing programs. The 2014 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model facilitates description of outcomes (mortality) adjusted for procedural and for patient-level factors. Identification of low-performing and high-performing programs may be useful in facilitating quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Previous composite performance measures of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) were estimated at the STS participant level, typically a hospital or group practice. The STS Quality Measurement Task Force has now developed a multiprocedural, multidimensional composite measure suitable for estimating the performance of individual surgeons. The development sample from the STS National Database included 621,489 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures, isolated aortic valve replacement, aortic valve replacement plus coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral, or mitral plus coronary artery bypass grafting procedures performed by 2,286 surgeons between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014. Each surgeon's composite score combined their aggregate risk-adjusted mortality and major morbidity rates (each weighted inversely by their standard deviations) and reflected the proportion of case types they performed. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework. Composite star ratings were examined using 90%, 95%, or 98% Bayesian credible intervals. Measure reliability was estimated using various 3-year case thresholds. The final composite measure was defined as 0.81 × (1 minus risk-standardized mortality rate) + 0.19 × (1 minus risk-standardized complication rate). Risk-adjusted mortality (median, 2.3%; interquartile range, 1.7% to 3.0%), morbidity (median, 13.7%; interquartile range, 10.8% to 17.1%), and composite scores (median, 95.4%; interquartile range, 94.4% to 96.3%) varied substantially across surgeons. Using 98% Bayesian credible intervals, there were 207 1-star (lower performance) programs (9.1%), 1,701 2-star (as-expected performance) programs (74.4%), and 378 3-star (higher performance) programs (16.5%). With an eligibility threshold of 100 cases over 3 years, measure reliability was 0.81. The STS has developed a multiprocedural composite measure suitable for evaluating performance at the individual surgeon level. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: When transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) cannot be carried out through transfemoral access, alternative access TAVR is indicated. The purpose of this study was to explore inhospital and 1-year outcomes of patients undergoing alternative access TAVR through the transapical (TA) or transaortic (TAo) techniques in the United States. Clinical records of 4,953 patients undergoing TA (n = 4,085) or TAo (n = 868) TAVR from 2011 to 2014 in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry were linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hospital claims. Inhospital and 1-year clinical outcomes were stratified by operative risk; and the risk-adjusted association between access route and mortality, stroke, and heart failure repeat hospitalization was explored. Mean age for all patients was 82.8 ± 6.8 years. The median STS predicted risk of mortality was significantly higher among patients undergoing TAo (8.8 versus 7.4, p < 0.001). When compared with TA, TAo was associated with an increased risk of unadjusted 30-day mortality (10.3% versus 8.8%) and 1-year mortality (30.3% versus 25.6%, p = 0.006). There were no significant differences between TAo and TA for inhospital stroke rate (2.2%), major vascular complications (0.3%), and 1-year heart failure rehospitalizations (15.7%). Examination of high-risk and inoperable subgroups showed that 1-year mortality was significantly higher for TAo patients classified as inoperable (p = 0.012). Patients undergoing TAo TAVR are older, more likely female, and have significantly higher STS predicted risk of mortality scores than patients operated on by TA access. There were no risk-adjusted differences between TA and TAo access in mortality, stroke, or readmission rates as long as 1 year after TAVR. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Initiated in 1989, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) includes more than 1085 participating centers, representing 90%-95% of current US-based adult cardiac surgery hospitals. Since its inception, the primary goal of the STS ACSD has been to use clinical data to track and improve cardiac surgical outcomes. Patients' preoperative risk characteristics, procedure-related processes of care, and clinical outcomes data have been captured and analyzed, with timely risk-adjusted feedback reports to participating providers. In 2006, STS initiated an external audit process to evaluate STS ACSD completeness and accuracy. Given the extremely high inter-rater reliability and completeness rates of STS ACSD, it is widely regarded as the "gold standard" for benchmarking cardiac surgery risk-adjusted outcomes. Over time, STS ACSD has expanded its quality horizons beyond the traditional focus on isolated, risk-adjusted short-term outcomes such as perioperative morbidity and mortality. New quality indicators have evolved including composite measures of key processes of care and outcomes (risk-adjusted morbidity and risk-adjusted mortality), longer-term outcomes, and readmissions. Resource use and patient-reported outcomes would be added in the future. These additional metrics provide a more comprehensive perspective on quality as well as additional end points. Widespread acceptance and use of STS ACSD has led to a cultural transformation within cardiac surgery by providing nationally benchmarked data for internal quality assessment, aiding data-driven quality improvement activities, serving as the basis for a voluntary public reporting program, advancing cardiac surgery care through STS ACSD-based research, and facilitating data-driven informed consent dialogues and alternative treatment-related discussions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,391.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001-2015
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of Thoracic Surgery
      • • Division of Cardiac Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1984-2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2008-2011
    • The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Cardiac Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • FACC Aerostructures Engines & Nacelles Interiors
      Neuhofen, Lower Austria, Austria
  • 2005-2006
    • St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1986-2001
    • Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
      • Department of Vascular Surgery
      Burlington, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996
    • Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center
      LEB, New Hampshire, United States