David R Jacobs

University of Wollongong, City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (731)

  • Source
    Andrew O. Odegaard · David R. Jacobs · Otto A. Sanchez · [...] · Myron D. Gross
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are interrelated factors in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, but their linkage to type 2 diabetes is less clear. We examined the association of these biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Analysis of 2339 participants in the community-based coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. Participants (age 40.1 ± 3.6 years, 44 % Black, 58 % women) were free of diabetes, and were followed 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident T2D adjusting for the other biomarkers under study, demographic and lifestyle measures, dietary biomarkers, BMI (kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome components. Results F2-isoprostanes and oxidized LDL (oxidative stress) were positively associated with incident T2D, but the associations were attenuated by adjustment for BMI. C-reactive protein was positively associated with T2D even with full adjustment: HR (95 % CI) = 2.21 (1.26–3.88) for quartile 4 (Q4) v. quartile 1 (Q1). The HR (95 % CI) for T2D for biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction ICAM-1 and E-selectin for Q4 v. Q1 were 1.64 (0.96–2.81) and 1.68 (1.04–2.71) respectively, with full adjustment. Including these two markers in a common risk score incorporating BMI and clinical measures improved the prediction probability of T2D: relative risk for the average person classified up compared to the average person classified down: 1.09, (1.06–1.13), P < 0.0001. Conclusions Biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were positively associated with incident T2D. ICAM-1 and E-selectin add to the prediction of T2D beyond a common risk score.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2016 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
  • Gareth R. Dutton · Yongin Kim · David R. Jacobs · [...] · Cora E. Lewis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine 25-year trends in weight gain, partitioned by time-related and aging-related changes, during early and middle adulthood. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), a prospective, non-nationally representative cohort study conducted at four urban field centers that began in 1985 to 1986 with 5,109 Black (B) and White (W) men (M) and women (W) aged 18 to 30 years, has followed participants for 25 years (aged 43–55 years in 2010–2011). Time-related and aging-related components of weight change were estimated to construct longitudinal models of linear and nonlinear trends. There were nonlinear trends in time-related weight gain in W, with larger weight gains early that attenuated at subsequent exams. Time-related trends were linear in M. There were nonlinear trends in aging-related weight gain in BM, BW, and WM, with the greatest weight gains at younger ages. Aging-related trends were linear in WW. Participants with overweight or obesity in early adulthood had greater attenuation of aging-related weight gain during middle adulthood. These findings partially support recent surveys indicating slower increases in obesity prevalence in recent years. Findings further suggest that aging-related weight gain is greatest in the 20s and may begin attenuating as early as the mid-30s among some groups.
    Article · Sep 2016 · Obesity
  • Tian Hu · David R. Jacobs · Nicole I. Larson · [...] · Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To examine the previously validated A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS), and weight change among adolescents transitioning into young adulthood. Study design: Young people were recruited in middle/high schools and followed for 10 years. Participants reported diet and weight in 1999 (mean age, 15 years), 2004 (20 years), and 2009 (25 years). The analytic sample (n = 2656) had dietary intake assessments in 1999 and at least one other assessment. The APDQS (without alcoholic items) was based on 13 beneficial food groups, 12 adverse food groups, and 9 neutral food groups to capture aspects of Mediterranean/prudent diets, focusing on foods that are varied, based on nutritionally rich plants, and less processed. Results: From mean age 15 to 25 years, mean (SD) weight increased from 61.0 (14.7) kg to 76.1 (18.8) kg, and APDQS increased from 43.1 (11.1) points to 45.6 (10.7) points. Within-person tracking correlation of the APDQS was 0.35 at mean age 15-20 years, increasing to 0.49 at 20-25 years. Independent of lifestyle factors and energy intake, a 15-point (IQR) higher APDQS in 1999 was associated with 1.5 kg (95% CI, 0.7-2.3 kg) less weight gain over 10 years, The increase in APDQS over time was similarly associated with less concurrent weight gain. Findings were stronger for models of excess weight gain. Conclusion: Higher diet quality, based on an assessment of dietary patterns in and after adolescence, was associated with reduced weight gain during the next 10 years. Establishment of high-quality dietary patterns in adolescence may help mitigate excess weight gain by young adulthood.
    Article · Sep 2016 · The Journal of pediatrics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study sought to investigate how cumulative exposure to glycemic abnormalities and trajectories of insulin resistance (IR) relate to left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function during young to middle adulthood. Background: Cumulative exposure to glycemic abnormalities and trajectories of IR may adversely influence LV remodeling and function over a 25-year period in subjects who were young adults, predisposing individuals to heart failure later in life. Methods: In the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Year 25 examination, 3,179 participants were identified with information on glucose metabolism; these participants were stratified into 4 subgroups: group 1 normal glucose tolerance (NGT), group 2 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose, group 3 late diabetes mellitus (DM) (DM diagnosed at year 15 or later), and group 4 early DM (DM diagnosed at year 0 to year 15). Among the subgroup without DM, 3 trajectory groups of change in the homeostasis model assessment of IR were identified: low IR, moderate IR, and high IR. LV mass, relative wall thickness, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), longitudinal systolic strain (Ell), and early diastolic strain rate (Ell_SRe) at year 25 were assessed by echocardiography. Clinically relevant systolic and diastolic dysfunction were defined as LVEF <50% for systolic dysfunction, and E/e' ≥13 for diastolic dysfunction. Results: The early DM group had less favorable LV mass (coefficient = 11.04; p < 0.001), LVEF (coefficient = -2.72; p < 0.05), Ell (coefficient = 1.53; p < 0.001), and Ell_SRe (coefficient = -0.09; p < 0.05) than did the NGT group. Being in the early DM group and having high hemoglobin A1c were independently associated with greater odds of having systolic dysfunction (odds ratio = 5.44; p < 0.005) compared with the NGT group. High IR was associated with worse relative wall thickness (coefficient = 0.019; p < 0.0001) and worse Ell, E', and Ell_SRe, depending on obesity level. Conclusions: Cumulative exposure to DM or higher IR beginning in early adulthood adversely impacts LV remodeling and function at middle age.
    Article · Aug 2016 · JACC. Cardiovascular imaging
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Data are limited on the relation between dietary patterns and left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Objective: We examined cross-sectional associations of a diet-score assessment of a Mediterranean dietary pattern with LV mass, volume, mass-to-volume ratio, stroke volume, and ejection fraction. Design: We measured LV variables with the use of cardiac MRI in 4497 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study who were aged 45-84 y and without clinical cardiovascular disease. We calculated a Mediterranean diet score from intakes of fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fish, red meat, the monounsaturated fat:saturated fat ratio, and alcohol that were self-reported with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression with adjustment for body size, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors to model associations and assess the shape of these associations (linear or quadratic). Results: The Mediterranean diet score had a slight U-shaped association with LV mass (adjusted means: 146, 145, 146, and 147 g across quartiles of diet score, respectively; P-quadratic trend = 0.04). The score was linearly associated with LV volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction: for each +1-U difference in score, LV volume was 0.4 mL higher (95% CI: 0.0, 0.8 mL higher), the stroke volume was 0.5 mL higher (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 mL higher), and the ejection fraction was 0.2 percentage points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 0.3 percentage points higher). The score was not associated with the mass-to-volume ratio. Conclusions: A higher Mediterranean diet score is cross-sectionally associated with a higher LV mass, which is balanced by a higher LV volume as well as a higher ejection fraction and stroke volume. Participants in this healthy, multiethnic sample whose dietary patterns most closely conformed to a Mediterranean-type pattern had a modestly better LV structure and function than did participants with less-Mediterranean-like dietary patterns. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005487.
    Article · Aug 2016 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP) activity may have a role in preventing cardiovascular calcification, but has not previously been studied in large, generally healthy populations. Methods: Using an elevated ankle-brachial index (ABI) as a measure of medial vascular calcification, we performed a case-cohort analysis within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, measuring Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) to estimate VKDP activity. In secondary analyses of the weighted subcohort, we examined the cross-sectional associations between DCP and prevalent vascular calcification of the coronary vessels, aortic and mitral valves, and aortic wall, and with vascular stiffness. Results: In adjusted analysis, cases (n = 104) had 0.21 ng/ml (-0.94-0.52) lower DCP concentrations than the subcohort (n = 613). Furthermore, amongst the 717 participants in the weighted cohort, VKDP activity was not associated with coronary artery, mitral valve, aortic valve or aortic wall calcification, nor was it associated with vascular stiffness. Conclusions: Our negative results do not support a role of circulating VKDP activity in cardiovascular calcification in community-dwelling adults.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2016 · Atherosclerosis
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cross-sectional analyses suggest that total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) trends that had been declining are now reversing. We examined longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to examine secular trends in total cholesterol, LDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides over 25 years. We also assessed whether modifiable lifestyle factors (body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and lipid-lowering medications) are associated with these trends. Methods and results: CARDIA recruited 5115 black and white men and women ages 18 to 30 years from 4 US communities in 1985-1986, and re-examined them 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years later. Secular trends, modeled as age-matched time trends, were estimated using repeated-measures regression stratified on race and sex. Total cholesterol and LDL-c initially decreased ≈5 to 8 mg/dL between visits before plateauing and moving toward adverse trends in all groups, except black women, by year 25. HDL-c showed an upward secular trend of 1 to 3 mg/dL between visits starting at year 15 in all groups; triglyceride trends were largely flat. Obesity and use of lipid-lowering medications, which both increased over follow-up, had strong independent, but opposite, associations with lipid trends over time. In aggregate, associations of modifiable lifestyle factors counterbalanced one another, minimally influencing secular trends. Conclusions: Over 25 years, initially favorable trends in total cholesterol and LDL-c have leveled off and may be reversing, persisting after control for modifiable risk factors. Factors such as dietary changes over 25 years and poor adherence to medications are candidates for additional investigation.
    Article · Jul 2016 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    Kara M Whitaker · Andrew O Odegaard · David R Jacobs · [...] · Mark A Pereira
    Full-text Poster · Jun 2016
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    Daniel A Duprez · James Otvos · Otto A Sanchez · [...] · David R Jacobs
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: GlycA is a biomarker that reflects integrated concentrations and glycosylation states of several acute-phase proteins. We studied the association of GlycA and inflammatory biomarkers with future death and disease. Methods: A total of 6523 men and women in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were free of overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in generally good health had a baseline blood sample taken. We assayed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and d-dimer. A spectral deconvolution algorithm was used to quantify GlycA signal amplitudes from automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) LipoProfile® test spectra. Median follow-up was 12.1 years. Among 4 primary outcomes, CVD events were adjudicated, death was by death certificate, and chronic inflammatory-related severe hospitalization and death (ChrIRD) and total cancer were classified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. We used Poisson regression to study baseline GlycA, hsCRP, IL-6, and d-dimer in relation to total death, CVD, ChrIRD, and total cancer. Results: Relative risk per SD of GlycA, IL-6, and d-dimer for total death (n = 915); for total CVD (n = 922); and for ChrIRD (n = 1324) ranged from 1.05 to 1.20, independently of covariates. In contrast, prediction from hsCRP was statistically explained by adjustment for other inflammatory variables. Only GlycA was predictive for total cancer (n = 663). Women had 7% higher values of all inflammatory biomarkers than men and had a significantly lower GlycA prediction coefficient than men in predicting total cancer. Conclusions: The composite biomarker GlycA derived from NMR is associated with risk for total death, CVD, ChrIRD, and total cancer after adjustment for hsCRP, IL-6, and d-dimer. IL-6 and d-dimer contribute information independently of GlycA.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · Clinical Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims: N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is inversely associated with diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome. We aim to characterize the association between NT-proBNP and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods: 4529 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) free of cardiovascular disease, without self-reported liver disease and not diabetic at their baseline visit in 2000-2002 were included in this analysis. NAFLD was defined by a liver attenuation <40 HU. Relative prevalence (RP) for NAFLD was assessed adjusted for age, race, and sex, percentage of dietary calories derived from fat, total intentional exercise, alcoholic drinks per week, and interleukin-6 by quintiles of NT-proBNP. Adjusted linear spline model was used to characterize a non-linear association between NT-proBNP and liver fat. The inflection point (IP) was the NT-proBNP concentration where there was a change in slope in the association between liver attenuation and NT-proBNP. Results: RP for NAFLD decreased by 30% from the lowest to the highest quintile of NT-proBNP, p=0.01. We observed an inverse linear association between NT-proBNP and liver fat, which plateaued (IP) at an NT-proBNP concentration of 45pg/mL. Linear regression coefficient (SE) per unit of NT-proBNP less than and greater than or equal to IP was of 0.05 (0.02), p=0.001 and 0.0006 (0.0008), p=0.5, respectively; differences between slopes, p<0.0001. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study of a community based multiethnic sample of non-diabetic adults, low levels of NT-proBNP are associated with greater prevalence of NAFLD.
    Article · May 2016 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
  • David R. Jacobs · Ravi Kalhan
    Article · May 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2·5 μm in diameter (PM2·5) and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk. The disease process underlying these associations remains uncertain. We aim to assess association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and progression of coronary artery calcium and common carotid artery intima-media thickness.
    Article · May 2016 · The Lancet
  • Payman Zamani · Scott M Lilly · Patrick Segers · [...] · Julio A Chirinos
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Left Ventricular (LV) afterload is composed of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and components of pulsatile load, including total arterial compliance (TAC) and reflection magnitude (RM). RM, which impacts the LV systolic loading sequence, has been shown to strongly predict HF. Effective arterial elastance is a commonly used parameter initially proposed to be a lumped index of resistive and pulsatile afterload. We sought to assess how various LV afterload parameters predict heart failure (HF) risk and whether RM predicts HF independent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: We studied 4345 MESA participants who underwent radial arterial tonometry and cardiac output (CO) measurements using cardiac MRI. RM was computed as the ratio of the backward (Pb) to forward (Pf) waves. TAC was approximated as the ratio of stroke volume (SV) to central pulse pressure. SVR was computed as mean pressure/CO. Ea was computed as central end-systolic pressure/SV. Results: During 10.3 years of follow-up, 91 definite HF events occurred. SVR (P=0.74), TAC (P=0.81) and Ea (P=0.81) were not predictive of HF risk. RM was associated with an increased HF risk, even after adjustment for other parameters of arterial load, various confounders, and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (standardized HR=1.49; 95%CI=1.18-1.88; P=0.001). Pb was also associated with an increased risk of HF after adjustment for Pf (standardized HR=1.43; 95%CI=1.17-1.75]; P=0.001). Conclusion: RM is an important independent predictor of HF risk, whereas; TAC, SVR, and Ea are not. Our findings support the importance of the systolic LV loading sequence on HF risk, independent of subclinical atherosclerosis.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of cardiac failure
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    Full-text Dataset · Apr 2016
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    Duk-Hee Lee · P. Monica Lind · David R. Jacobs · [...] · Lars Lind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Background exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides was recently linked to cognitive impairment and dementia in cross-sectional and case-control studies. This prospective study was performed to evaluate if OC pesticides at baseline are associated with the future risk of cognitive impairment in elderly, with particular focus on weight change. Methods: Plasma concentrations of 3 OC pesticides (p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured among 989 men and women aged 70years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Cognitive impairment was validated by reviewing medical records. During the ten year follow-up, cognitive impairment was developed in 75 subjects. When weight change from age 70 to 75 was considered in analyses, elderly with incident cases before age 75 were excluded to keep the prospective perspective, leaving 795 study subjects and 44 incident cases. Results: The summary measure of 3 OC pesticides predicted the development of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates, including weight change. Compared to subjects with OC pesticides <25th percentile, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in those with 25th-<75th and ≥75th percentiles were 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-8.5) and 3.2 (1.1-7.6), respectively (Ptrend=0.04). Among 506 subjects who maintained or gained body weight, adjusted HRs were 6.9 and 11.6 (1.4-92.6) among the elderly in the 25th-<75th and ≥75th percentiles compared to <25th percentile (Ptrend<0.01). Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates that background exposure to OC pesticides are linked to the risk of developing cognitive impairment in elderly. The role of the chronic exposure to low dose OC pesticides in the development of dementia should be further evaluated in other populations.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2016 · Environment international
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We studied the longitudinal association between adiponectin and cardiac structure and function 10 years later stratified by hypertension status. Methods: Multicenter longitudinal study of black and white men and women that began in 1985-1986, when participants were 18-30 years old. Adiponectin was measured at year 15(2000-2001). Echocardiograms were completed at year 25(2010-2011). Participants were stratified by the presence of hypertension. Risk factor-adjusted echocardiographic variables were compared across adiponectin quintiles. Linear and quadratic regression models were also derived for risk factor-adjusted echocardiographic variables. Results: Relative to the lowest quintile of adiponectin, participants from the highest quintile had a 6% lower LV mass index (LVMi) among normotensives, and an 8% higher LVMi among hypertensives. Among normotensive participants, regression analysis demonstrated a linear inverse relationship between adiponectin and LV mass, LVMi, posterior wall thickness (PWT) and ventricular septal thickness (VST) (all p≤0.05). Among hypertensive participants, regression analysis demonstrated a U-shaped relationship between adiponectin and LV mass, LVMi, PWT and VST (p≤0.005 for all quadratic terms). Conclusions: Among normotensive participants, higher adiponectin may be a useful marker of less adverse future cardiac structure. Further study is required to see if adiponectin receptor agonists may provide a benefit among these individuals. Among hypertensive participants, further study is required to assess the prognostic and therapeutic use of adiponectin.
    Article · Apr 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in arterial wave reflections have been associated with increased risk for heart failure and mortality. Whether these measures are also associated with kidney function decline is not well established. Reflection magnitude (RM, defined as the ratio of the backward wave [Pb] to that of the forward wave [Pf]), augmentation index (AIx), and pulse pressure amplification (PPA) were derived from radial tonometry measures among 5232 participants free of cardiovascular disease who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Kidney function was estimated by creatinine and cystatin C measurements, as well as albumin-to-creatinine ratio. We evaluated the associations of Pb, Pf, RM, AIx, and PPA with annualized estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change and rapid kidney function decline over 5 years, using generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression, respectively. Of the study participants, 48% were male, mean age was 62 years, mean eGFR and median albumin-to-creatinine ratio at baseline were 84 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 5.3 mg/g, respectively. In demographically adjusted models, both Pb and Pf had similarly strong associations with kidney function decline; compared to those in the lowest tertiles, the persons in the highest tertiles of Pb and Pf had a 1.01 and 0.99 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year faster eGFR decline, respectively (P < .05). However, these associations were attenuated after adjustment for systolic blood pressure. We found no significant associations between RM, AIx, or PPA and kidney function decline. In conclusion, the reflected and forward wave components were similarly associated with kidney function decline, and these associations were explained by differences in systolic blood pressure.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH)
  • Akira Fujiyoshi · Lynda E. Polgreen · Myron D. Gross · [...] · David R. Jacobs
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conflicting results have been reported concerning a relationship between smoking and serum PTH. Our study objective was to examine whether smoking was associated with serum PTH independent of correlates of PTH among young adults, and explore potential mechanisms.This was a cross-sectional study of healthy individuals, 24-36. years old, examined during 1992 through 1993 in California, USA (a subset of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study).Linear regression was used to obtain adjusted means of PTH according to smoking habit (current, former, never). Biomarkers for calcium metabolism and bone turnover (including serum concentrations of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium) and bone mineral density were similarly compared by smoking.376 participants were analyzed (171 women, 181 black). Over half reported never smoking. We observed lower PTH in current smokers compared to non-smokers and found no evidence of an interaction by race and sex. PTH was lowest in current smokers, intermediate in former smokers, and highest in never smokers (geometric mean PTH: 23.6, 26.7, 27.4 pg/mL, respectively: P for trend, 0.006) after adjusting for potential confounders including calcium intake. Among the biomarkers, serum osteocalcin concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium were lowest in current smokers. We observed no smoking-related difference in bone mineral density.In this community-based sample of young adult men and women, smoking was associated with significantly lower PTH concentration. The mechanism and clinical implication of the finding, however, remains uncertain.
    Article · Apr 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whites have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Blacks. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Left atrial (LA) size is an important AF risk factor, and studies in older adults suggest Whites have larger LA diameters. However, because AF itself causes LA dilation, LA size differences may be due to greater subclinical AF among older Whites. We therefore assessed for racial differences in LA size among young adults at low AF risk. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled White and Black participants between 18 and 30 years of age. LA diameter was measured in a subset of participants using echocardiography at Year 5 (n = 4,201) and Year 25 (n = 3,373) of follow up. LA volume was also assessed at Year 5 (n = 2,489). Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between race and LA size. In unadjusted analyses, mean LA diameter was significantly larger among Blacks compared to Whites both at Year 5 (35.5 ± 4.8 mm versus 35.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.01) and Year 25 (37.4 ± 5.1 mm versus 36.8 ± 4.9 mm, p = 0.002). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic parameters, Whites demonstrated an increased LA diameter (0.7 mm larger at Year 5, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, p<0.001; 0.6 mm larger at Year 25, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.001). There was no significant association between race and adjusted Year 5 LA volume. In conclusion, in a young, well-characterized cohort, the larger adjusted LA diameter among White participants suggests inherent differences in atrial structure may partially explain the higher risk of AF in Whites. The incongruent associations between race, LA diameter, and LA volume suggest that LA geometry, rather than size alone, may have implications for AF risk.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    Dataset: S1 Table
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association Between European Ancestry and Left Atrial Size. (DOCX)
    Full-text Dataset · Mar 2016

Publication Stats

46k Citations


  • 2015
    • University of Wollongong
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2001-2015
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
    • Gyeongsang National University
      Shinshū, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 1999-2015
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Division of Preventive Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Public Health and General Practice
      Kuopio, Northern Savo, Finland
    • Wayne State University
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Western Australia
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2003-2011
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1995-2009
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Nutrition
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2007
    • Exponent
      San Mateo, California, United States
    • Kaiser Permanente
      Oakland, California, United States
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2002-2007
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of General Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2001-2007
    • University of Michigan
      • • Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health (CSEPH)
      • • Division of Pediatric Genetics
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Iowa
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Vermont
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Greifswald
      • Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 1981
    • St Louis University Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States