David R Jacobs

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (948)5594.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Importance Marijuana use is increasingly common in the United States. It is unclear whether it has long-term effects on memory and other domains of cognitive function.Objective To study the association between cumulative lifetime exposure to marijuana use and cognitive performance in middle age.Design, Setting, and Participants We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of 5115 black and white men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline from March 25, 1985, to June 7, 1986 (year 0), and followed up over 25 years from June 7, 1986, to August 31, 2011, to estimate cumulative years of exposure to marijuana (1 year = 365 days of marijuana use) using repeated measures and to assess associations with cognitive function at year 25. Linear regression was used to adjust for demographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, tobacco smoking, use of alcohol and illicit drugs, physical activity, depression, and results of the mirror star tracing test (a measure of cognitive function) at year 2. Data analysis was conducted from June 7, 1986, to August 31, 2011.Main Outcomes and Measures Three domains of cognitive function were assessed at year 25 using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (verbal memory), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (processing speed), and the Stroop Interference Test (executive function).Results Among 3385 participants with cognitive function measurements at the year 25 visit, 2852 (84.3%) reported past marijuana use, but only 392 (11.6%) continued to use marijuana into middle age. Current use of marijuana was associated with worse verbal memory and processing speed; cumulative lifetime exposure was associated with worse performance in all 3 domains of cognitive function. After excluding current users and adjusting for potential confounders, cumulative lifetime exposure to marijuana remained significantly associated with worse verbal memory. For each 5 years of past exposure, verbal memory was 0.13 standardized units lower (95% CI, −0.24 to −0.02; P = .02), corresponding to a mean of 1 of 2 participants remembering 1 word fewer from a list of 15 words for every 5 years of use. After adjustment, we found no associations with lower executive function (–0.03 [95% CI, −0.12 to 0.07]; P = .56) or processing speed (–0.04 [95% CI, −0.16 to 0.08]; P = .51).Conclusions and Relevance Past exposure to marijuana is associated with worse verbal memory but does not appear to affect other domains of cognitive function.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · JAMA Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Reduced heart rate variability, a marker of impaired cardiac autonomic function, has been linked to short-term exposure to airborne particles. This research adds to the literature by examining associations with long-term exposures to coarse particles (PM10-2.5). Methods: Using electrocardiogram recordings from 2,780 participants (45-84 years) from three Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis sites, we assessed the standard deviation of normal-tonormal intervals (SDNN) and root-mean square differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD) at a baseline (2000-2002) and follow-up (2010-2012) examination (mean visits/person=1.5). Annual average concentrations of PM10-2.5 mass, copper, zinc, phosphorus, silicon, and endotoxin were estimated using site-specific spatial prediction models. We assessed associations for baseline heart rate variability and rate of change in heart rate variability over time using multivariable mixed models adjusted for time, sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and neighborhood confounders, including co-pollutants. Results: In our primary models adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors and site, PM10-2.5 mass was associated with 1.0% (95% CI: -4.1, 2.1%) lower SDNN levels per interquartile range of 2 µg/m3. Stronger associations, however, were observed prior to site adjustment and with increasing residential stablity. Similar patterns were found for rMSSD. We found little evidence for associations with other chemical species and with with the rate of change in heart rate variability, though endotoxin was associated with increasing heart rate variability over time. Conclusion: We found only weak evidence that long-term PM10-2.5 exposures are associated with lowered heart rate variability. Stronger associations among residentially stable individuals suggest that confirmatory studies are needed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, mechanisms linking GDM to CVD beyond intervening incident diabetes are not well understood. We examined the relation of GDM with echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) structure and function, which are important predictors of future CVD risk. Research design and methods: We studied 609 women (43% black) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study who delivered one or more births during follow-up and had echocardiograms in 1990-1991 (mean age 28.8 years) and 2010-2011. Results: During the 20-year follow-up, 965 births were reported, with GDM developing in 64 women (10.5%). In linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, BMI, physical activity, parity, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol intake, family history of coronary heart disease, systolic blood pressure, and lipid levels, women with GDM had impaired longitudinal peak strain (-15.0 vs. -15.7%, P = 0.025), circumferential peak strain (-14.8 vs. -15.6%, P = 0.028), lateral peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') wave velocity (11.0 vs. 11.8 cm/s, P = 0.012), and septal e' wave velocity (8.6 vs. 9.3 cm/s, P = 0.015) in 2010-2011 and a greater 20-year increase in LV mass indexed to body surface area (14.3 vs. 6.0 g/m(2), P = 0.006) compared with women with non-GDM pregnancies. Further adjustment for incident type 2 diabetes after pregnancy did not attenuate these associations. Conclusions: Pregnancy complicated by GDM is independently associated with increased LV mass, and impaired LV relaxation and systolic function. Implementation of postpartum cardiovascular health interventions in women with a history of GDM may offer an additional opportunity to reduce future CVD risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes Care
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin C may reduce risk of hypertension, either in itself or by marking a healthy diet pattern. We assessed whether plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score relate to incident hypertension and whether they explain each other's predictive abilities. Data were from 2884 black and white adults (43% black, mean age 35 years) initially hypertension-free in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (study year 10, 1995-1996). Plasma ascorbic acid was assessed at year 10 and the diet quality score at year 7. Eight-hundred-and-forty cases of hypertension were documented between years 10 and 25. After multiple adjustments, each 12-point (1 SD) higher diet quality score at year 7 related to mean 3.7 μmol/L (95% CI 2.9 to 4.6) higher plasma ascorbic acid at year 10. In separate multiple-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio of hypertension per 19.6-μmol/L (1 SD) higher ascorbic acid was 0.85 (95% CI 0.79-0.92) and per 12-points higher diet score 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.94). These hazard ratios changed little with mutual adjustment of ascorbic acid and diet quality score for each other, or when adjusted for anthropometric variables, diabetes, and systolic blood pressure at year 10. Intake of dietary vitamin C and several food groups high in vitamin C content were inversely related to hypertension, whereas supplemental vitamin C was not. In conclusion, plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score independently predict hypertension. This suggests that hypertension risk is reduced by improving overall diet quality and/or vitamin C status. The inverse association seen for dietary but not for supplemental vitamin C suggests that vitamin C status is preferably improved by eating foods rich in vitamin C, in addition to not smoking and other dietary habits that prevent ascorbic acid from depletion.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Se-A Kim · Yu-Mi Lee · Ho-Won Lee · David R Jacobs · Duk-Hee Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood.Objective To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition.Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015.Main Outcomes and Measures We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (≥3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-thirds of the of the visits. We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.Results At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5%) were female, 1771 (54.5%) were white, and 3015 (92.9%) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3%) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, 1.47 (1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low television viewing and high physical activity, the odds of poor performance were almost 2 times higher for adults with both high television viewing and low physical activity in 107 of 3247 (3.3%) (DSST, 1.95 [1.19-3.22], and Stroop test, 2.20 [1.36-3.56]).Conclusions and Relevance High television viewing and low physical activity in early adulthood were associated with worse midlife executive function and processing speed. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that these risk behaviors may be critical targets for prevention of cognitive aging even before middle age.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · JAMA Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is located on both sides of the pericardium. We tested whether PAT was associated with prevalent diabetes at the year 25 exam of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods and results: The CARDIA Year 25 exam (2010-2011) included complete data for all covariates on 3107 participants. Prevalent diabetes (n = 436) was defined as high fasting (≥126 mg/dl) or 2-h postload glucose (≥200 mg/dl) or HbA1c (≥6.5%) or use of diabetes medications. Volume of PAT was measured from computed tomographic scans. Logistic regression was performed to examine the relationship between quartiles of PAT and diabetes. In regression models adjusted for field center, sex, race, age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, log triglycerides, and treatment with blood pressure and cholesterol lowering medication, PAT volume in the 4th quartile was significantly associated with diabetes status after adjustment for BMI (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.66, 3.98) or visceral adipose tissue (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.32, 3.29). PAT volume in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles was not significantly associated with diabetes status relative to the first quartile. Conclusions: Metabolically active pericardial adipose tissue is associated with prevalent diabetes only at higher volumes independent of overall obesity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
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    ABSTRACT: Diet guidelines recommend increasing dietary diversity. Yet, metrics for dietary diversity have neither been well-defined nor evaluated for impact on metabolic health. Also, whether diversity has effects independent of diet quality is unknown. We characterized and evaluated associations of diet diversity and quality with abdominal obesity and type II diabetes (T2D) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. At baseline (2000-02), diet was assessed among 5,160 Whites, Hispanic, Blacks, and Chinese age 45-84 y and free of T2D, using a validated questionnaire. Three different aspects of diet diversity were characterized including count (number of different food items eaten more than once/week, a broad measure of diversity), evenness (Berry index, a measure of the spread of the diversity), and dissimilarity (Jaccard distance, a measure of the diversity of the attributes of the foods consumed). Diet quality was characterized using aHEI, DASH, and a priori pattern. Count and evenness were weakly positively correlated with diet quality (r with AHEI: 0.20, 0.04), while dissimilarity was moderately inversely correlated (r = -0.34). In multivariate models, neither count nor evenness was associated with change in waist circumference (WC) or incident T2D. Greater food dissimilarity was associated with higher gain in WC (p-trend<0.01), with 120% higher gain in participants in the highest quintile of dissimilarity scores. Diet diversity was not associated with incident T2D. Also, none of the diversity metrics were associated with change in WC or incident T2D when restricted to only healthier or less healthy foods. Higher diet quality was associated with lower risk of T2D. Our findings provide little evidence for benefits of diet diversity for either abdominal obesity or diabetes. Greater dissimilarity among foods was actually associated with gain in WC. These results do not support the notion that "eating everything in moderation" leads to greater diet quality or better metabolic health.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about dietary scores and mortality risk in cardiac patients who are well treated with drugs with attendant relatively low risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Objective: We assessed whether healthy eating lowers the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in cardiac patients. Design: We included 4307 patients from the Alpha Omega Trial aged 60-80 y with a clinically diagnosed myocardial infarction and monitored mortality for 10 y. Diet was assessed at baseline (2002-2006) with a validated 203-item food-frequency questionnaire. We created 2 dietary scores on the basis of nonoverlapping sets of foods: the Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score (DHNaFS) and the Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score (DUNaFS). The associations of both dietary scores with CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed by using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Results: The median time after myocardial infarction at baseline was 3.7 y (IQR: 1.7-6.3 y). During a median of 6.5 y of follow-up (IQR: 5.3-7.6 y), 801 patients died; 342 of those died of CVD. One patient was lost to follow-up. A substantially higher average amount of DHNaFS foods (∼1750 g/d) than DUNaFS foods (∼650 g/d) was consumed. Almost all patients received drug treatment: 86% used statins, 90% used antihypertensive medication, and 98% used antithrombotic medication. Patients in the fifth quintile of the DHNaFS had a 30% (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.91) lower CVD risk and a 32% (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99) lower all-cause mortality risk than did patients in the first quintile. The DUNaFS was unrelated to both CVD and all-cause mortality. Conclusion: Beyond state-of-the-art drug treatment, healthy eating was associated with a lower risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in cardiac patients. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00127452.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • Jianling Bai · Pengcheng Xun · Steve Morris · David R. Jacobs · Kiang Liu · Ka He
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    ABSTRACT: Studies suggest that chromium deficiency is associated with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, circulating insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased proportion of lean body mass. However, data directly relating chromium levels to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk are lacking. A total of 3,648 American adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 20-32 years, were prospectively examined for the incidence of MetS and its five components from 1987-88 to 2010-11. Baseline toenail chromium levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident MetS was defined by the NCEP-ATP III criteria. During the 23-year follow-up, 878 incident MetS cases were identified. Baseline toenail chromium was inversely associated with incidence of MetS as well as its blood lipid components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MetS comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of toenail chromium levels was 0.80 (0.66-0.98; Plinear trend =0.006). The adjusted HRs were 0.82 (0.68-0.98; Ptrend =0.045) for having abnormal triglycerides levels and 0.75 (0.64-0.88; Ptrend =0.030) for having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels. Toenail chromium levels were inversely and longitudinally associated with incidence of MetS in American young adults. This inverse association was mainly explained by its relation to blood lipids.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Subclinical coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an established predictor of cardiovascular events. While a history of kidney stones has been linked to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, no study has examined its relationship with CAC. We studied the association between kidney stone history and prevalent CAC from the MESA study. Materials and methods: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a multi-site cohort study of participants aged 45-84 without known cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-2002). At follow up in 2010-2012, 3,282 participants underwent computed tomography to determine CAC and had kidney stone history assessed by self-report. CAC scores were categorized as none, mild (<100), moderate (101-400), or severe (>400). A cross-sectional analysis was performed adjusting for demographic and dietary factors related to kidney stones. Results: Prevalence of kidney stone disease history was approximately 9%, mean age was 69.5±9.3 years, 39% of participants were Caucasian, 47% were men, and 69% had detectable (CAC score >0). No difference in CAC score was seen between single stone formers and non-stone formers. Recurrent kidney stone formation was associated with moderate or severe CAC on multivariable logistic regression (versus none or mild CAC) (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.22-2.67). When CAC scores were separated into none, mild, moderate, and severe CAC, recurrent stone formation was associated with higher CAC score category on multivariable ordinal logistic regression (OR per category 1.44, 95% CI 1.04- 2.01). Conclusions: Recurrent kidney stone formation is associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. This association appeared stronger with CAC severity than with CAC presence.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to identify obesity-associated molecular features that may contribute to obesity-related diseases. Using circulating monocytes from 1,264 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants, we quantified the transcriptome and epigenome. We discovered that alterations in a network of co-expressed cholesterol metabolism genes are a signature feature of obesity and inflammatory stress. This network included 11 body mass index (BMI)-associated genes related to sterol uptake (↑LDLR, ↓MYLIP), synthesis (↑SCD, FADS1, HMGCS1, FDFT1, SQLE, CYP51A1, SC4MOL) and efflux (↓ABCA1, ABCG1) - producing a molecular profile expected to increase intracellular cholesterol. Importantly, these alterations were associated with T2D and coronary artery calcium (CAC), independent from cardiometabolic factors including serum lipid profiles. This network mediated the associations between obesity and T2D/CAC. Several genes in the network harbored CpG dinucleotides (e.g. ABCG1/cg06500161) which overlapped ENCODE-annotated regulatory regions, and had methylation profiles that mediated the associations between BMI/inflammation and expression of their cognate genes. Taken together with several lines of previous experimental evidence, these data suggest that alterations of the cholesterol metabolism gene network represent a molecular link between obesity/inflammation and T2D/CAC. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the associations of adiposity and insulin resistance with measures of vascular structure and function in children. Study design: A cross-sectional study included 252 children (age 15.1 ± 2.4 years; body mass index percentile 68.2 ± 26.5%; Tanner 2-5). Measurements of body fat percentage were obtained with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with computed tomography. Insulin resistance was measured with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Vascular measurements for endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT]), vascular stiffness (carotid incremental elastic modulus), and pulse wave velocity were analyzed by tertiles of adiposity and insulin resistance. Additional analyses with ANCOVA and linear regression were adjusted for Tanner, sex, race, and family relationship; FMD was also adjusted for baseline artery diameter. Results: FMD was positively associated with high adiposity (body mass index, body fat percentage, and VAT) (P < .01 all). Insulin resistance was not associated with FMD. cIMT was significantly, positively related to obesity, VAT, and insulin resistance (P < .05 all). No differences in carotid incremental elastic modulus and pulse wave velocity were observed in relation to adiposity or insulin resistance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that adiposity is associated with higher FMD, and insulin resistance and VAT are associated with higher cIMT in children. Further research is needed to clarify the progression of these relations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is controversy about whether serum urate (sUA) predicts future cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of classical risk factors, and the age at which any prediction starts. We studied the sUA-CVD association among generally healthy adults. Methods: CARDIA recruited 5115 black and white individuals aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986 (year-0). Fatal and nonfatal CVD events by year 27 (n = 164) were ascertained during annual contacts and classified using medical records. The association with sUA (year-0, 10, 15 and 20) was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression, pooling over gender-specific quartiles. Results: Mean sUA concentration was higher in men than women, but increased over time in both genders. Those with elevated sUA had worse metabolic profiles that substantially deteriorated over time. Adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors (the minimal model), baseline sUA concentration was positively associated with incident CVD (hazard ratio (HR) per mg/dL = 1.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.39; P = 0.005). This positive association attenuated to nonsignificance in the full model accounting simultaneously for classical CVD risk factors (HR = 1.09; 0.94, 1.27; P = 0.24). Both the minimal and full models appeared to show stronger associations (than year-0 sUA) between year-10 sUA and incident CVD (HR = 1.27 and 1.12, respectively), but sUA was not statistically significant in the full model. Despite fewer events, year-15 sUA showed a significant sUA-CVD association pattern, with minimal model association magnitude comparable to year-10, and remained significant in the full model (HR = 1.19; 1.02, 1.40; P = 0.03). Hyperuricemia at year-15 strongly predicted CVD risk (HR = 2.11; 1.34, 3.33; P = 0.001), with some attenuation in the full model (HR = 1.68; P = 0.04). Conclusions: sUA may be an early biomarker for CVD in adults entering middle age. The prediction of CVD by sUA appeared to strengthen with aging. The potential complex relation of sUA with deterioration of a cluster of metabolic abnormalities warrants future exploration.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have properties beyond reverse cholesterol transport. We hypothesized that their protection extends to inflammation-related disease. The predictive value of HDL particle subclasses and inflammatory markers was studied for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization, and for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results: A multiethnic, multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted in 6475 men and women (aged 45 to 84 years) free of known CVD at baseline with median follow-up of 10.1 years. Fasting venous samples were analyzed for baseline lipid profile and lipoprotein particles. We focused on the HDL family of variables (small-, medium-, and large-diameter HDL particles and HDL cholesterol). Analyses identified the sum of small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles as important. Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were inversely associated with diagnostic code-based noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization (n=1054) independent of covariates: relative risk per SD 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.91, P<0.0001). Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were also associated with adjudicated fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events (n=423): relative risk per SD 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98, P=0.02). Conclusions: Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles are an independent predictor for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization and for coronary heart disease events in subjects initially free of overt CVD. These findings support the hypothesis that smaller HDL particles of diameter <9.4 nm have anti-inflammatory properties in the general population.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether duration and degree of weight gain is differentially associated with diabetes risk in younger versus middle-aged black and white adults. Research design and methods: We combined data from three cohort studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), and the Framingham Heart Study. A total of 17,404 participants (56% women; 21% black) were stratified by baseline age (younger: ≥30 and <45 years; middle aged: ≥45 and <60 years) and examined for incident diabetes (median follow-up 9 years). Duration and degree of gain in BMI was calculated as "BMI-years" above one's baseline BMI. Results: Diabetes incidence per 1,000 person-years in the younger and middle-aged groups were 7.2 (95% CI 5.7, 8.7) and 24.4 (22.0, 26.8) in blacks, respectively; and 3.4 (2.8, 4.0) and 10.5 (9.9, 11.2) in whites, respectively. After adjusting for sex, baseline BMI and other cardiometabolic factors, and age and race interaction terms, gains in BMI-years were associated with higher risk of diabetes in the younger compared with middle-aged groups: hazard ratios for 1-unit increase in log BMI-years in younger vs. middle-aged blacks were 1.18 (P = 0.02) and 1.02 (P = 0.39), respectively (P for interaction by age-group = 0.047); and in whites were 1.35 (P < 0.001) and 1.11 (P < 0.001), respectively (P for interaction by age-group = 0.008). Conclusions: Although middle-aged adults have higher rates of diabetes, younger adults are at greater relative risk of developing diabetes for a given level of duration and degree of weight gain.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: The strength of the associations of dietary scores with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in elderly vary considerably between a priori scores. To assess whether healthy eating lowers the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality among elderly men. Methods and results: The Zutphen Elderly Study (age 65-84 years) was divided into men with (n = 210) and without (n = 616) cardiovascular-metabolic diseases at baseline in 1985. Diet was assessed with the cross-check dietary history method. We created the "Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score" (DHNaFS) and the "Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score" (DUNaFS). Associations of the scores with CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. Associations of scores with life years gained used general linear models. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years (IQR 5.8-15.9) 806 participants died, of whom 359 from CVD. In all men, diet scores did not predict death. Among men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases, DHNaFS was associated with lower CVD (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35-0.93) and all-cause mortality risk (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.94) comparing the highest vs. the lowest score tertiles. Men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases in the highest vs. the lowest tertile of the DHNaFS lived approximately 2.5 years longer. The DHNaFS was not associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in men without cardiovascular-metabolic diseases. The DUNaFS was not associated with any of the outcomes. Conclusion: A high quality diet was associated with a 40% lower mortality risk and 2.5 years longer life expectancy in elderly men with, but not without, cardiovascular-metabolic diseases.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Lower C2, a continuous blood pressure waveform characteristic asserted to represent small artery elasticity, predicts future cardiovascular disease events. It is hypothesized that the paradoxical positive association between body mass index (BMI) and C2 may reflect muscle instead of excess fat.Methods In a multi-ethnic, community-living cohort of 1,960 participants, computed tomography scans of the abdomen were used to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal muscle tissue (TAMT), and applanation tonometry of the radial arteries was used to assess C2. The period cross-sectional associations between BMI, TAMT, and VAT with C2 were ascertained.ResultsThe mean age was 62 ± 9 years and 51% were male. After adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, pack years smoking cigarettes, diabetes, hypertension, and total and HDL cholesterol, higher BMI (standardized beta = 0.09, P-value < 0.01) and more TAMT (standardized beta = 0.12, P-value < 0.01) were significantly associated with higher C2. In contrast, more VAT (standardized beta = −0.09, P-value < 0.01) was associated with lower C2.Conclusions In multivariable analysis, VAT, in contrast to TAMT and BMI, was associated with less compliant small arteries. Visceral fat may be a better marker for detrimental excess body fat than BMI.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Obesity

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

Publication Stats

52k Citations
5,594.35 Total Impact Points


  • 1976-2016
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • • Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
      • • Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
      • • Medical School
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2015
    • University of Wollongong
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2005-2015
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • • Division of Epidemiology and Community Health
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Vermont
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001-2015
    • University of Oslo
      • • Department of Nutrition
      • • Division of Medicine
      • • Paediatric Research Institute (PFI)
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
    • Gyeongsang National University
      Shinshū, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 1990-2015
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Division of Preventive Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2014
    • Vanderbilt University
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2002-2014
    • Loma Linda University
      • • Center for Health Research
      • • Department of Nutrition
      Loma Linda, California, United States
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • University of Western Australia
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2005-2013
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2003-2011
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1993-2010
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Nutrition
      North Carolina, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2007
    • Exponent
      San Mateo, California, United States
  • 2002-2007
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of General Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001-2007
    • University of Michigan
      • • Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health (CSEPH)
      • • Division of Pediatric Genetics
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Iowa
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Greifswald
      • Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 1999-2000
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Wayne State University
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Public Health and General Practice
      Kuopio, Northern Savo, Finland
  • 1995
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States
  • 1991
    • University of Bergen
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 1989
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1988
    • Dakota State University
      Fargo, North Dakota, United States
  • 1981
    • St Louis University Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States