[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and nature of neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) utilizing the combination of digital imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT).
A complete clinical examination was performed on 100 eyes of 93 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with neovascular ARMD. Digital fluorescein angiography, ICG angiography, and OCT were also used in evaluating those patients. Comparison of the imaging techniques to determine their value in studying the nature of the lesions.
On the basis of existing fluorescein standards, 15 eyes were diagnosed with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 15 with minimally classic CNV, and 70 with occult CNV. ICG angiography was superior for detecting the active vascular component in polypoidal CNV (16 eyes) and retinal angiomatous proliferation (14 eyes). OCT was more sensitive than FA for determining the presence of cystoid macular edema evident in the vast majority of eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP).
These results suggest that FA, ICG angiography, and OCT, when used in combination, will assist clinicians in best determining the precise nature of the neovascular process in ARMD.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · European journal of ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study sequenced combined therapy using intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide followed by photodynamic therapy for the treatment of retinal angiomatous proliferation.
Patients newly diagnosed as having retinal angiomatous proliferation underwent intravitreal triamcinolone injection to reduce intraretinal and subretinal exudation, followed 7 to 14 days later by indocyanine green angiography-guided photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. Complete ocular examination, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography were performed at baseline and at standard intervals thereafter.
Twenty-seven eyes of 26 patients underwent this sequenced combined treatment and were followed up for 12 months. The triamcinolone injection reduced the cystoid edema before photodynamic therapy. Complete resolution of the angiographic leakage was achieved in 89% of eyes. Visual acuity improved in 37% and was stable in 52% of eyes. Eight eyes developed recurrent leakage after 3 to 11 months. Complete resolution of leakage was observed after subsequent treatment.
This sequenced combined treatment in patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation was effective in reducing or eliminating the edema, achieving rapid regression of neovascularization, and stabilizing or improving visual acuity. To our knowledge, no study to date has achieved such promising results in the management of retinal angiomatous proliferation. A randomized clinical trial is under way to compare sequential and simultaneous combined therapy.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Archives of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the percentage and risk indicators leading to retinal redetachment in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients with CMV (cytomegalovirus) retinitis related retinal detachments that were repaired with silicone oil, and then subsequently underwent oil removal.
Retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series.
The study cohort consisted of a series of 15 eyes in 14 patients with HIV and CMV retinitis with a retinal detachment (RD) repaired with silicone oil at a single center and followed from the time of the CMV retinitis diagnosis through the time of silicone oil removal. Patient- and eye-specific data regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were collected retrospectively and statistical analyses were performed to compare differences between the eyes that had retinal detachments versus the eyes that remained attached following removal of silicone oil.
Eight eyes (53%) redetached after a median of 4.0 months following oil removal. Cataract surgery performed at the time of oil removal was a statistically significant risk factor for redetachment (P = .01). There was a trend for lower CD4 levels to be associated with a higher risk of retinal redetachment. The use of a scleral buckle at the time of surgery (initial RD repair or at the time of oil removal) did not reduce the risk of redetachment.
Approximately half of the eyes with CMV related retinal detachment may safely undergo oil removal. The risk factor for redetachment was simultaneous cataract extraction at the time of silicone oil removal. There was also a trend for lower CD4 levels to be associated with a higher risk of retinal redetachment.
No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · American Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in restoring immune function in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has led to changes in the incidence, natural history, management, and sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated retinopathies, especially cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.
The medical literature pertaining to HIV-associated retinopathies was reviewed with special attention to the differences in incidence, management strategies, and complications of these conditions in the eras both before and after the widespread use of HAART.
In the pre-HAART era, CMV retinitis was the most common HIV-associated retinopathy, occurring in 20%-40% of patients. Median time to progression was 47 to 104 days, mean survival after diagnosis was 6 to 10 months, and indefinite intravenous maintenance therapy was mandatory. Retinal detachment occurred in 24%-50% of patients annually. Herpetic retinopathy and toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis occurred in 1%-3% of patients and Pneumocystis carinii choroiditis, syphilitic retinitis, tuberculous choroiditis, cryptococcal choroiditis, and intraocular lymphoma occurred infrequently. In the HAART era the incidence of CMV retinitis has declined 80% and survival after diagnosis has increased to over 1 year. Immune recovery in patients on HAART has allowed safe discontinuation of maintenance therapy in patients with regressed CMV retinitis and other HIV-associated retinopathies. Immune recovery uveitis (IRU) is a HAART dependent inflammatory response that may occur in up to 63% of patients with regressed CMV retinitis and elevated CD4 counts and is associated with vision loss from epiretinal membrane, cataract, and cystoid macular edema.
The incidence, visual morbidity, and mortality of CMV retinitis and other HIV-associated retinopathies have decreased in the era of HAART and lifelong maintenance therapy may safely be discontinued in patients with restored immune function. Patients with regressed CMV retinitis, however, may still lose vision from epiretinal membrane, cystoid macular edema, and cataract secondary to IRU.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether treatment with valganciclovir will improve visual acuity in eyes with immune recovery uveitis complicated by macular edema.
Prospective open label controlled Phase II drug study.
Five patients with chronic macular edema as a result of immune recovery uveitis were studied. Baseline fluorescein angiograms, best-corrected ETDRS visions, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) lymphoproliferative T-cell function assays were obtained and repeated after three months of valganciclovir therapy (900 mg daily) and again three months after withdrawal of therapy.
Vision improved by a mean of 11 letters in the treatment phase (P =.05). Graded angiograms showed three patients had treatment reduction of macular edema. One patient had rebound increase in macular edema after the withdrawal phase. The CMV lymphoproliferative response was not affected by the valganciclovir.
Results suggest valganciclovir treatment may benefit visual acuity in patients with macular edema from immune recovery uveitis.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · American Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine whether treatment with valganciclovir will improve visual acuity in eyes with immune recovery uveitis complicated by macular edema. DESIGN: Prospective open label controlled Phase II drug study. METHODS : Five patients with chronic macular edema as a result of immune recovery uveitis were studied. Baseline fluorescein angiograms, best-corrected ETDRS visions, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) lymphoproliferative T-cell function assays were obtained and repeated after three months of valganciclovir therapy (900 mg daily) and again three months after withdrawal of therapy. RESULTS: Vision improved by a mean of 11 letters in the treatment phase (P =.05). Graded angiograms showed three patients had treatment reduction of macular edema. One patient had rebound increase in macular edema after the withdrawal phase. The CMV lympho proliferative response was not affected by the valganciclovir. CONCLUSION: Results suggest valganciclovir treatment may benefit visual acuity in patients with macular edema from immune recovery uveitis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · American Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Healed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the setting of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is complicated by inflammatory sequelae and vision loss.
To determine the long term visual outcome of AIDS patients with CMV retinitis who received HAART.
90 eyes of 63 consecutive AIDS patients with extramacular CMV retinitis were studied prospectively.
Immune recovery status was related to time to onset of epiretinal membrane (p=0.05) and cystoid macular oedema (p=0.06) as well as to the incidence of cataract (p=0.001) and moderate vision loss (p<0.0001). Severe vision loss was associated with retinal detachment (p<0.001).
AIDS patients with extramacular CMV retinitis lose vision while on HAART. HAART related immune recovery is associated with increased frequencies of epiretinal membrane, cystoid macular oedema, cataract, and retinal detachment with resultant vision loss in AIDS patients with healed CMV retinitis.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2003 · British Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of uveitic acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery vitritis. We conducted a long-term, follow-up examination of a 47-year-old male with AIDS and inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis caused by immune recovery on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We found vitritis and ultimate development of uveitic glaucoma in the postoperative periods following repair of retinal detachment and extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant. An episode of acute angle closure secondary to posterior synechiae and iris bombé subsequently developed, requiring peripheral laser iridotomy. Immune recovery in the setting of inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis can result in intraocular inflammation severe enough to cause angle closure glaucoma and profound ocular morbidity.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Ophthalmic surgery and lasers