D Lu

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States

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Publications (31)182.77 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Biophysical Journal
  • No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Hypertension
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension produces pathophysiological changes that are often responsible for the mortality associated with the disease. However, it is unclear whether normalizing blood pressure (BP) with conventional therapy is effective in reversing the pathophysiological damage. The duration and initiation of treatment, site of administration, and agent used all appear to influence the reversal of the pathophysiological alterations associated with hypertension. We have previously established that retrovirally mediated delivery of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antisense (AT1R-AS) attenuates the development of high BP in the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat model of human essential hypertension. Our objective was to determine whether this attenuation of high BP is associated with prevention of other pathophysiological changes induced by the hypertensive state. Intracardiac delivery of AT1R-AS in neonates prevented the development of hypertension in SH rats for at least 120 days. Contractile experiments demonstrated an impaired endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation (acetylcholine) and an enhanced contractile response to vasoactive agents (phenylephrine and KCl) in the SH rat renal vasculature. In addition, the voltage-dependent K+ current density, which is believed to contribute to smooth muscle resting membrane potential and basal tone, was decreased in renal resistance artery cells of the SH rat. AT1R-AS treatment prevented each of these renal vascular alterations. Finally, AT1R-AS delivery prevented the pathological alterations observed in the SH rat myocardium, including left ventricular hypertrophy, multifocal fibrosis, and perivascular fibrosis. These observations demonstrate that viral-mediated delivery of AT1R-AS attenuates the development of hypertension on a long term basis, and this is associated with prevention of pathophysiological changes in SH rats.
    Preview · Article · Apr 1998 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • D Lu · H Yang · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both central and peripheral renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) are important in the development and establishment of hypertension. Thus, introducing genes relevant to RAS into neuronal and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells, two major targets for angiotensin (ANG) II action, is a prerequisite in considering a gene therapy approach for the control of ANG-dependent hypertension. In this study, we explored the use of adenoviral (Ad) vector to transfer AT1 receptor antisense cDNA (AT1R-AS) into neuronal and VSM cells with the anticipation of attenuation of ANG II-mediated cellular actions. Incubation of neurons and VSM cells with viral particles containing AT1R-AS (Ad-AT1R-AS) resulted in a robust expression of AT1R-AS in a majority (approximately 80%) of the cells. The expression was persistent for at least 28 days and was associated with decreases in the immunoreactive AT1 receptor protein and the maximal binding for AT1 receptor in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both cell types. ANG II stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation in VSM cells and norepinephrine transporter gene expression in neuronal cells were attenuated by Ad-AT1R-AS infection. Uninfected cells or cells infected with adenovirus particles containing a mutant AT1 receptor sense cDNA showed no effects on either AT1 receptor or on attenuation of ANG II's cellular affects. These observations show, for the first time, that adenovirus can be used to deliver AT1 receptor mutant sense and antisense cDNAs into two major ANG II target tissues. This consequently influences AT1 receptor-mediated cellular actions of ANG II.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1998 · The American journal of physiology
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    D Lu · H Yang · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic stimulation of brain neurons by angiotensin II (Ang II) results in a increase in norepinephrine (NE) uptake. This involves stimulation of transcription of NE transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase genes and is associated with translocation of signaling molecules and transcription factors from the cytoplasmic compartment into the neuronal nucleus (). We report here that the phosphorylation of p62, a glycoprotein nucleoporin of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), by MAP kinase is involved in this process. Ang II caused a time-dependent translocation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3) from the cytoplasmic compartment into the nucleus. This translocation was attenuated by pretreatment with antisense oligonucleotide (AON) to MAP kinase. Ang II also stimulated phosphorylation of p62, and a maximal phosphorylation of 12-fold was observed with 100 nM Ang II. This stimulation was blocked by losartan, an AT1 receptor subtype-specific antagonist. The conclusion that MAP kinase is involved in Ang II-induced phosphorylation of p62 and nuclear translocation of STAT3 is supported by the following. (1) p62 phosphorylation was blocked by a peptide that competes with p62 as a MAP kinase substrate both in vitro and in vivo; (2) AON to MAP kinase attenuated Ang II stimulation of p62 phosphorylation; and (3) in addition, it also blocked nuclear translocation of STAT3. Intracellular loading of the peptide containing MAP kinase substrate consensus of the p62 reduced Ang II stimulation of p62 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. These observations suggest that Ang II-induced phosphorylation of p62 may accelerate the activity of the NPC, which would result in an increase in the nuclear transport of transcription factors and signaling molecules. This will stimulate transcriptional processes associated with Ang II regulation of NE neuromodulation.
    Preview · Article · Mar 1998 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • D Lu · H Yang · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) interacts with the neuronal AT1 receptor subtype and initiates a cascade of signaling events involving activation of Ras-Raf-1-MAP kinase. Raf-1-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is the key in the chronic norepinephrine neuromodulatory actions of Ang II and is associated with the translocation of MAPK into the nucleus. In view of these observations, this study was designed to determine if Ang II causes cellular redistribution of Raf-1 in neuronal cells. Most of Raf-1 was localized in the cytoplasmic compartment in neurons. Ang II treatment resulted in a time-dependent increase in the translocation of immunoreactive Raf-1 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. A fourfold increase was observed in 15 min. The nuclear sequestration of Raf-1 was blocked by losartan, an AT1 receptor-specific antagonist, and not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor-specific antagonist. Confocal microscopic analysis of immunofluorescence data confirmed the nuclear translocation and further showed that Raf-1 was exclusively localized into the nucleolus. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that Ang II stimulates Raf-1 targeting into the neuronal nucleus, and they suggest that this translocation may play a direct role in the transcriptional regulation of Ang II actions.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Journal of Neurochemistry
  • No preview · Article · Oct 1997 · Circulation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin system by pharmacological manipulations attenuates high blood pressure (BP) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). However, these agents, such as losartan, need to be administered daily to maintain effective BP control. Therefore, we have hypothesized that a genetic intervention in the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) should attenuate development of hypertension on a long-term basis in SHR. A retroviral-mediated AT1R antisense cDNA gene delivery system (LNSV-AT1R-AS) was used to test this hypothesis and to compare its BP-lowering effects with those of losartan. Introduction of LNSV-AT1R-AS into 5-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHR resulted in a robust expression of AT1R antisense (AS) within 3 days and persisted for at least 30 days. This expression was associated with a selective attenuation of high BP in SHR by 25 to 30 mm Hg. Although basal lowering of BP was exclusive to SHR, the angiotensin II (Ang II) pressor response was significantly reduced in all LNSV-AT1R-AS-treated rats. The decreased response to Ang II was associated with a similar attenuation of Ang II-induced dipsogenic responses in both strains of rats. The BP-lowering effects of LNSV-AT1R-AS treatment and losartan treatment were similar and primarily observed in SHR. However, the antihypertensive effect lasted less than 24 hours in losartan-treated SHR compared with 90 days in LNSV-AT1R-AS-treated SHR. In addition, losartan was unable to further lower BP in LNSV-AT1R-AS-treated SHR. Collectively, these results suggest that both losartan and LNSV-AT1R-AS treatment produces an antihypertensive response selectively in SHR that is mediated by interruption of AT1R function. However, a single, acute genetic treatment with LNSV-AT1R-AS can result in long-term control of high BP at a similar level of effectiveness as losartan, without altering plasma Ang II levels.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1997 · Hypertension
  • H Yang · D Lu · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neuronal angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor is coupled to the Ras-Raf-1-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal-transduction pathway (Yang H, Lu D, Yu K, Raizada MK. Regulation of neuromodulatory actions of angiotensin II in the brain neurons by the Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Neurosci. 1996;16:4047-4058). In this study we compared the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on AT1 receptor phosphorylation and the ability of the phosphorylated receptor to bind Ang II in neuronal cultures of Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) brains to further our understanding of the Ang II signaling mechanism. Ang II caused a time-dependent phosphorylation of AT1 receptors in both WKY and SHR brain neurons. The level of phosphorylation was higher in the SHR brain neurons; this finding was consistent with increased AT1 receptors in these cells. MAP kinase was involved in this phosphorylation, a conclusion supported by the following evidence: (1) exogenous MAP kinase phosphorylated the AT1 receptor; (2) PD98059, a MAP kinase kinase inhibitor, attenuated Ang II-stimulated AT1 receptor phosphorylation; and (3) MAP kinase and AT1 receptors were coimmunoprecipitated in Ang II-stimulated neurons. Finally, MAP kinase phosphorylation was associated with the loss of 125I-[Sar1-Ile8]-Ang II binding ability of the AT1 receptor in both strains of neurons. These observations show that Ang II stimulates phosphorylation of the neuronal AT1 receptor by a mechanism involving MAP kinase and that the phosphorylated neuronal AT1 receptor does not exhibit Ang II binding activity in the brains of either WKY or SHR.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1997 · Hypertension
  • No preview · Article · Sep 1997 · Hypertension
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    H Yang · D Lu · G P Vinson · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MAP kinase stimulation is a key signaling event in the AT1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated chronic stimulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter in brain neurons by angiotensin II (Ang II). In this study, we investigated the involvement of MAP kinase in AT1R phosphorylation to further our understanding of these persistent neuromodulatory actions of Ang II. Ang II caused a time-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal AT1R. This phosphorylation was associated with internalization and translocation of AT1R into the nucleus. MAP kinase also stimulated phosphorylation of neuronal AT1R. The conclusion that MAP kinase participates in neuronal AT1R phosphorylation and its targeting into the nucleus is supported further by the following. (1) MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of AT1R was blocked by the AT1R antagonist losartan; (2) AT1R co-immunoprecipitated with MAP kinase; (3) MAP kinase-kinase inhibitor PD98059 attenuated Ang II-induced phosphorylation of AT1R; and (4) PD98059 blocked Ang II-induced nuclear translocation of AT1Rs. In summary, these observations demonstrate that Ang II-induced phosphorylation of AT1R is mediated by its activation of MAP kinase. A possible role of AT1R translocation into the nucleus on persistent neuromodulatory actions of Ang II has been discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1997 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) mediated chronic neuromodulation is associated with increased gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β hydroxylase, and the norepinephrine transporter. This upregulation involves the simulation of ungiotensin receptor subtype 1 (AT1) and the subsequent activation of the Ras-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Since it has been observed that Ang II induced nuclear translocation of MAP kinase is an important signaling mechanism in AT1 receptor mediated neuromodulation. MAP kinase is a major substrate of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and certain nuclear substrates of PP2A are involved in the general regulation of transcription, we sought to determine the effect of Ang II on PP2A distribution and its possible role in the signaling pathways of the AT1 receptor subtype. Immunofluorescence observations using a polyclonal PP2A specific antibody showed immunoreactivity in unstimulated cells was uniformly and diffusely distributed throughout the neuronal cell soma. Incubation with Ang II caused a translocation of PP2A immunoreactivty into the nucleus of the neurons. This nuclear translocation of PP2A immunoreactivity was blocked by losartan, an AT1 receptor subtype antagonist, and not by PD 123319, an AT2 specific antagonist, sugggesting that the AT1 receptor specifically induces this movement of PP2A into the nucleus. The relevance of this translocation in the chronic neuromodulatory action of Ang II in brain neurons remains to be elucidated.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · The FASEB Journal
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    D Lu · H Yang · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase was localized in the perinuclear region of the neuronal soma. Ang II caused activation of MAP kinase and its subsequent translocation from the cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, both effects being mediated by AT1 receptor subtype. Ang II also stimulated SRE- and AP1-binding activities and fos gene expression and its translocation in a MAP kinase-dependent process. These observations are the first demonstration of a downstream signaling pathway involving MAP kinase in Ang II-mediated neuromodulation in noradrenergic neurons.
    Preview · Article · Jan 1997 · The Journal of Cell Biology
  • D. Lu · R.H. Lenox · M.K. Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts chronic stimulatory actions on transcription of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta hydroxylase (DβH), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) genes. These neuro-modulatory actions of Ang II are mediated by the AT1 receptor subtype and involve the Ras-MAP kinase signalling pathway. We present evidence here that supports the participation of another signalling pathway in these actions of Ang II. It involves activation of protein kinase C β subtype (PKCβ), phosphorylation and redistribution of MARCKS in the neurites. A 4- to 5-fold stimulation of MARCKS phosphorylation was observed with 100 nM Ang II mediated by AT1 receptor. The phosphorylation was blocked by antisense oligonucleotides to PKCβ. Phosphorylation and redistribution of MARCKS was associated with an increased transport of TH, DβH and NET into synaptic vesicles as measured by immunoblotting and [3H]-norepinephrine uptake in synaptosomes from Ang II-treated neurons. Depletion of MARCKS by incubation of neurons with antisense oligonucleotide to MARCKS attenuated Ang II-induced transport of TH, DβH and NET. These observations, taken together, suggest that a coordinated stimulation of transcription of TH, DβH, and NET mediated by Ras-MAP kinase, and their transport mediated by PKCβ-MARCKS pathway, are key events in chronic action of Ang II on neuromodulation in brain neurons.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1-R) is a key in the persistent expression of high blood pressure (BP). Recent observations show that a specific antagonist for this receptor, Losartan (LOS), attenuates high BP in both human and animal models. Although effective, this pharmacological approach has many limitations. Thus, the objective of the present investigation was to compare the antihypertensive effects of LOS with a gene-therapy approach that uses retrovirally-mediated gene delivery of AT1-R antisense (AS). Our results demonstrate that the delivery of AT1-R-AS via a cardiac route in 5-day-old rats results in a selective attenuation of high BP in SHR by 25-30 mmHg. This antihypertensive action was associated with a decrease in the number of AT1-R in angiotensin target tissues and angiotensin-mediated changes in other physiological parameters such as BP and contractility. Thus, a single injection of AT1-R-AS, in developing SHR, selectively attenuates development of high BP on a long-term basis. In contrast, the antihypertensive effects of LOS lasted less than 24 hr compared to 90 days in the AT1-R-AS-treated SHR. Plasma Ang II levels were 30-fold higher, 4 hr post LOS treatment, compared to control SHR. In contrast, the AT1-R-AS treatment had no significant effect on plasma Ang II levels. Plasma renin was not significantly altered by either LOS or AT1-R-AS treatments. These results suggest that the antihypertensive effects of AT1-R-AS, using the gene-therapy approach, are far more effective and long-lasting in the control of hypertension than is the pharmacological management with LOS therapy. In addition, the gene therapy does not adversely affect plasma Ang II levels.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in the development and establishment of the hypertensive state in the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat. Interruption of this system's activity by pharmacological means results in the lowering of blood pressure (BP) and control of hypertension. However, such means are temporary and require the continuous use of drugs for the control of this pathophysiological state. Our objective in this investigation was to determine if a virally mediated gene-transfer approach using angiotensin type 1 receptor antisense (AT1R-AS) could be used to control hypertension on a long-term basis in the SH rat model of human essential hypertension. Injection of viral particles containing AT1R-AS (LNSV-AT1R-AS) in 5-day-old rats resulted in a lowering of BP exclusively in the SH rat and not in the Wistar Kyoto normotensive control. A maximal anti-hypertensive response of 33 +/- 5 mmHg was observed, was maintained throughout development, and still persisted 3 months after administration of LNSV-AT1R-AS. The lowering of BP was associated with the expression of AT1R-AS transcript and decreases in AT1-receptor in many peripheral angiotensin II target tissues such as mesenteric artery, adrenal gland, heart, and kidney. Attenuation of angiotensin II-stimulated physiological actions such as contraction of aortic rings and increase in BP was also observed in the LNSV-AT1R-AS-treated SH rat. These observations show that a single injection of LNSV-AT1R-AS normalizes BP in the SH rat on a long-term basis. They suggest that such a gene-transfer strategy can be successfully used to control the development of hypertension on a permanent basis.
    Preview · Article · Oct 1996 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • K Yu · D Lu · N E Rowland · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we investigated the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by angiotensin II (Ang II) in an attempt to provide cellular and molecular evidence that this hormone has increased neuromodulatory actions in the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat brain. Neuronal cells in primary culture from the hypothalamus-brain stem of both normotensive [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] and SH rats have been used. These cultures mimic in vivo situations. Ang II caused a time-dependent increase in TH activity in WKY rat brain neurons. A maximal increase of 2.5-fold was observed with 100 nM Ang II in an actinomycin- and cycloheximide-dependent process. In addition, Ang II caused a parallel increase in TH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, with a maximal stimulation of 5-fold in 4 h by 100 nM Ang II in WKY rat brain neurons. The stimulation of TH mRNA was mediated by the AT1 receptor subtype, resulted from an increase in its transcription, and involved activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C. Antisense oligonucleotide for c-fos attenuated Ang II stimulation of TH mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, indicating an involvement of c-fos as a putative third messenger in Ang II stimulation of TH. Ang II also caused stimulation of TH activity and its mRNA levels in neuronal cultures of SH rat brain by a mechanism similar to that observed for neuronal cultures of WKY rat brain, involving AT1 receptors, protein kinase C, and c-fos. However, the stimulation of TH activity and that of TH mRNA were approximately 30% and 80% higher, respectively, in the SH rat brain neurons than those in the WKY rat brain neurons. In vivo experiments have been carried out to validate the elevated response of TH gene expression to Ang II in SH rat brain neuronal cultures. Ang II stimulated both TH activity and TH mRNA levels in the hypothalami and brain stems of adult WKY and SH rats. The level of stimulation in the brain of the SH rat was significantly higher than that in the WKY rat. These observations are consistent with an increase in AT1, receptor gene expression and suggest that increased TH gene expression could be the cellular/molecular basis for the greater neuromodulatory action of Ang II in the SH rat brain.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1996 · Endocrinology
  • H Yang · D Lu · MK Raizada
    No preview · Article · Sep 1996 · Hypertension
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    H Yang · D Lu · K Yu · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates norepinephrine transporter (NET) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the neurons, but the signal transduction mechanism of this neuromodulation is not understood. Treatment of neuronal cultures of hypothalamus-brainstem with Ang II resulted in a time- and dose-dependent activation of Ras, Raf-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. This activation was mediated by the interaction of Ang II with the AT1, receptor subtype and was associated with the redistribution of AT1 receptor with Ras and Raf-1 on the neuronal membrane. Treatment with antisense oligonucleotide (AON) to mitogen-activated protein kinase decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase immunoreactivity by 70% and attenuated Ang II stimulation of c-fos, NET, and TH mRNA levels. This demonstrates that induction of these genes requires mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by Ang II. In contrast, AON to mitogen-activated protein kinase failed to inhibit Ang II stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA levels. These results suggest that AT1 receptors are coupled to a Ras-Raf-1 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway that is responsible for stimulation of NET and TH, two neuro-modulatory actions of Ang II in the brain.
    Preview · Article · Aug 1996 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • K Yu · D Lu · M R Paddy · S E Lenk · M K Raizada
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal cells in primary culture from the hypothalamus-brain stem areas of normotensive [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat brains have been used in the present study to investigate an interaction between the brain renin-angiotensin II system and the plasminogen activator system. This is an attempt to further our understanding of the role of brain Ang II in the control of neuronal development and differentiation through its regulation of the extracellular matrix. Ang II caused a 10-fold stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) in WKY rat brain neuronal cultures. The stimulation was mediated by the AT1 receptor subtype and was accompanied by an increase in PAI-1 gene transcription and the synthesis of cellular PAI-1 protein. The stimulation involved activation of protein kinase C, and alterations in the intracellular Ca2+ pool caused a significant inhibition of Ang II stimulation of PAI mRNA. Ang II stimulation of PAI-1 mRNA succeeded its action on c-fos mRNA and was attenuated by c-fos antisense oligonucleotide. Although PAI-1 gene expression was also stimulated by Ang II in neuronal cultures of SH rat brain, two differences between WKY and SH rat brain neurons were observed: 1) the level of Ang II stimulation in SH rat neurons was 50% of that in WKY rat neurons; and 2) Ang II stimulation of c-fos was 2.4-fold higher in SH neurons than in WKY neurons, but c-fos antisense oligonucleotide did not attenuate the stimulatory action of Ang II on PAI-1 mRNA in SH neurons. These observations suggest that the changes in the Ang II-mediated signaling pathways and/or the regulatory region(s) of the PAI-1 gene may contribute to the differential actions of Ang II in WKY and SH rat brain neurons.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1996 · Endocrinology