[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Splanchnic vein thrombosis includes thrombosis of the hepatic venous system (Budd-Chiari syndrome) and thrombosis of the portal venous system. Both conditions share uncommon prothrombotic disorders as causal factors, among which myeloproliferative neoplasms rank first. Budd-Chiari syndrome presents with acute or chronic, asymptomatic or severe liver disease. Diagnosis depends on noninvasive imaging of the obstructed hepatic venous outflow tract. A spontaneously fatal course can be prevented by a stepwise approach: (1) anticoagulation therapy, specific therapy for underlying disease, and medical or endoscopic management of liver-related complications, (2) angioplasty/stenting in a second step, and (3) eventually the insertion of transjugular intrahepatic stent shunt or liver transplantation. Recent portal vein thrombosis mostly jeopardizes the gut. Early anticoagulation prevents thrombus extension but is incompletely successful in achieving recanalization. Chronic portal vein thrombosis is complicated by bleeding related to portal hypertension, which can be prevented by usual pharmacological and endoscopic means. The prevention of recurrent thrombosis is achieved by anticoagulation therapy the impact of which on the risk of bleeding remains unclear. Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis is likely neither a direct consequence of nor a direct cause for liver disease progression. Therefore, the indications and effects of anticoagulation therapy for portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis remain uncertain.
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No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. This life-threatening condition usually arises from complications of cirrhosis. While variceal bleeding is the most acute and probably best studied, several other complications of liver cirrhosis are more insidious in their onset but nevertheless more important for the long-term management and outcome of these patients. This review summarizes the topics discussed during the UEG-EASL Hepatology postgraduate course of the United European Gastroenterology Week 2013 and discusses emergency surgical conditions in cirrhotic patients, the management of hepatic encephalopathy, ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, coagulation disorders, and liver cancer.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · United European Gastroenterology Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular disorders of the liver frequently affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancy and the postpartum are prothrombotic states. Pregnancy seems to be a trigger for Budd-Chiari syndrome in patients with an underlying prothrombotic disorder. Whether pregnancy is a risk factor for other vascular liver disorders is unknown. In women with a known vascular liver disorder and a desire for pregnancy, stabilisation of the liver disease, including the use of a portal decompressive procedure when indicated, should be reached prior to conception. The presence of esophageal varices should be screened and adequate prophylaxis of bleeding applied in a manner similar to what is recommended for patients with cirrhosis. Most women likely benefit from anticoagulation during pregnancy and the postpartum. Labor and delivery are best managed by a multidisciplinary team with experience in this situation. Assisted vaginal delivery is the preferred mode of delivery. Although the risk of miscarriage and premature birth is heightened, current management of these diseases makes it very likely to see the birth of a live baby when pregnancy reaches 20 weeks of gestation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly recognized in patients with cirrhosis due to the routine use of accurate noninvasive imaging studies, including Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, for the detection and diagnosis of complications of end-stage liver disease. Possible risk factors for PVT in patients with cirrhosis include advanced liver disease, underlying thrombophilia, slowing of portal venous blood flow, and previous surgical or endoscopic treatment for portal hypertension. Possible consequences of PVT in patients with cirrhosis include progression of liver disease, ascites, refractory gastrointestinal bleeding, losing veins that can be used for providing portal venous inflow to the liver allograft, and decreased survival after liver transplantation. Differentiating PVT from malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma is crucial but now facilitated by contrast-enhanced imaging. Treatment recommendations are based on limited data. Although placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and anticoagulation therapy appear to be feasible in many patients without an obviously increased risk of complications, the impact of these interventions on outcome is still unclear. Promising preliminary results using anticoagulation to prevent PVT and liver disease progression require confirmation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To prospectively compare the technical success rate and accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) and transient elastography (TE) for the detection of clinically significant portal hypertension (PH) in patients with advanced cirrhosis who are undergoing hepatic vein pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements.
Materials and methods:
The institutional ethics committee approved the study, and written informed consent was obtained. Seventy-nine consecutive patients with cirrhosis who were undergoing SWE and TE at the time of HVPG measurement were studied. The technical success rate of SWE and TE was compared with the diagnostic value of liver stiffness (LS) and spleen stiffness (SS) measurements and composite scores (LS spleen-diameter-to-platelet-ratio score [LSPS] and PH risk score) by using SWE and TE to detect clinically significant PH (HVPG ≥ 10 mm Hg) and esophageal varices at high risk of bleeding. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the DeLong test were used.
The technical success rate of SWE was significantly better than that of TE for both LS and SS (97% and 97% vs 44% and 42%, respectively; P < .001). LS of more than 24.6 kPa with SWE had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for clinically significant PH of 81%, 88%, and 82%, respectively. Diagnostic performance of LS by using SWE was significantly better than that for SS for the diagnosis of clinically significant PH (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 vs 0.64, P = .003). LS, SS, LSPS, and PH risk score (according to SWE or TE) did not differ between patients with and those without high-risk esophageal varices (P = .09-.42).
In patients with advanced cirrhosis who are undergoing HVPG measurements, LS measurements obtained by using SWE have a higher technical success rate and a better diagnostic value than TE for clinically significant PH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aimsBehcet¿s disease (BD) is a well-known cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). Data are lacking on the presentation and outcome of BCS related to BD.Methods
We investigated the relationship between BD and BCS in 14 patients with both diseases and compared the results to 92 BCS patients without BD.ResultsMale gender (p¿=¿0.003), North African origin (P¿=¿0.007) and inferior vena cava obstruction (P <0.0001) were more frequent in patients with BD and BCS than in those with BCS alone and the plasma C-reactive protein level was higher (p¿=¿0.003). Two of the patients with the combined diseases underwent recanalization of the vena cava and the hepatic veins, none received transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS), one received a surgical shunt and one underwent liver transplantation. TIPS were less frequent in patients with BD and BCS than in those with BCS alone (P¿=¿0.019). Eighty six per cent of patients with BCS and BD received corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. The 5-year transplantation-free survival rate was 63% in patients with BCS alone and 91% in those without BD (P¿=¿0.11). In our series and in the literature, a high number of patients [12 (61.5%) and 11 (64.7%) respectively] treated with anticoagulation and corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants did not require invasive treatment.Conclusion
This study shows a higher frequency of IVC obstruction in patients with BCS and BD. Medical treatment with anticoagulation and immunosuppressive agents may improve the symptoms of BCS. Therefore early management with immunosuppressive and anticoagulation therapy appears to be the treatment of choice in patients with BCS and BD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
In patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis is associated with age, gender, diabetes, alcohol abuse, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV). The effect of these factors on the outcome of cirrhosis is unknown. This study in CHC patients with cirrhosis aimed to assess the influence of these factors on decompensation, liver transplantation, and death. Consecutive patients with CHC and cirrhosis hospitalized between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008 were followed up until death, transplantation, or study closure in March 2013. Gender, age, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, diabetes, alcohol abuse, HIV, or HBV coinfection were collected at inclusion. The complications of cirrhosis, death, and liver transplantation were recorded at inclusion and during follow-up. The association between baseline factors and liver-related outcomes at inclusion and during follow-up were tested using logistic regression and Cox's model, respectively. A total of 348 patients with CHC and cirrhosis (68% men; median age: 59 years; median MELD: 10) were included. At baseline, 40% of the patients had diabetes, 29% alcohol abuse, and 6% HIV or HBV coinfection. Baseline MELD≥10 (P<0.001), diabetes (P=0.027), and HBV coinfection (P=0.001) were independently associated with transplantation-free survival. Baseline diabetes was independently associated with ascites (P=0.05), bacterial infections (P=0.001), and encephalopathy (P<0.001) at inclusion. Baseline diabetes was independently associated with development of ascites (P=0.057), renal dysfunction (P=0.004), bacterial infections (P=0.007), and hepatocellular carcinoma (P=0.016) during the follow-up.
In patients with CHC and cirrhosis, diabetes is an independent prognostic factor. Improving diabetes control may improve the outcome of cirrhosis.