D. L. Lambert

University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States

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Publications (629)2281.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chemical abundance studies of the Sun and solar twins have demonstrated that the solar composition of refractory elements is depleted when compared to volatile elements, which could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. In order to further examine this scenario, we conducted a line-by-line differential chemical abundance analysis of the terrestrial planet host Kepler-10 and fourteen of its stellar twins. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances of Kepler-10 and its stellar twins were obtained with very high precision using a strictly differential analysis of high quality CFHT, HET and Magellan spectra. When compared to the majority of thick disc twins, Kepler-10 shows a depletion in the refractory elements relative to the volatile elements, which could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets in the Kepler-10 system. The average abundance pattern corresponds to ~ 13 Earth masses, while the two known planets in Kepler-10 system have a combined ~ 20 Earth masses. For two of the eight thick disc twins, however, no depletion patterns are found. Although our results demonstrate that several factors (e.g., planet signature, stellar age, stellar birth location and Galactic chemical evolution) could lead to or affect abundance trends with condensation temperature, we find that the trends give further support for the planetary signature hypothesis.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    N. Kameswara Rao · S. Muneer · David L. Lambert · B. A. Varghese
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution spectral profiles of Na i D lines from the interstellar medium towards 64 stars in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant are presented. This survey conducted mostly between 2011 and 12 complements an earlier survey of the same stars by Cha & Sembach done in the 1993–96 period. The interval of 15–18 yr provides a base line to search for changes in the interstellar profiles. Dramatic disappearance of strong absorption components at low radial velocity is seen towards three stars – HD 63578, HD 68217, HD 76161 – over 15–18 yr; HD 68217 and HD 76161 are associated with the Vela SNR but HD 63578 is likely associated with the wind bubble of γ2 Velorum. The vanishing of these cold neutral clouds in the short time of 15–18 yr needs some explanation. Other changes are seen in high-velocity Na D components.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Arumalla B. S. Reddy · David L. Lambert
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed high-dispersion echelle spectra of main-sequence stars in five nearby young associations -- Argus, Carina-Near, Hercules-Lyra, Orion and Subgroup B4 -- and derived abundances for elements ranging from Na to Eu. These are the first chemical abundance measurements for two of the five associations, while the remaining three associations are analysed more extensively in our study. Our results support the presence of chemical homogeneity among association members with a typical star-to-star abundance scatter of about 0.06 dex or less over many elements. The five associations show log$\epsilon$(Li) consistent with their age and share a solar chemical composition for all elements with the exception of Ba. We find that all the heavy elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Eu) exhibit solar ratios, i.e., [X/Fe] $\simeq$ 0, while Ba is overabundant by about 0.2-0.3 dex. The origin of the overabundance of Ba is a puzzle. Within the formulation of the s-process, it is difficult to create a higher Ba abundance without a similar increase in the s-process contributions to other heavy elements (La-Sm). Given that Ba is represented by strong lines of Ba II and La-Sm are represented by rather weak ionized lines, the suggestion, as previously made by other studies, is that the Ba abundance may be systematically overestimated by standard methods of abundance analysis perhaps because the upper reaches of the stellar atmospheres are poorly represented by standard model atmospheres. A novel attempt to analyse the Ba I line at 5535 \AA\ gives a solar Ba abundance for stars with effective temperatures hotter than about 5800 K but increasingly subsolar Ba abundances for cooler stars with apparent Ba deficiencies of 0.5 dex at 5100 K. This trend with temperature may signal a serious non-LTE effect on the Ba I line.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The structure and properties of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) on small scales, sub-au to 1 pc, are poorly understood. We compare interstellar absorption-lines, observed towards a selection of O- and B-type stars at two or more epochs, to search for variations over time caused by the transverse motion of each star combined with changes in the structure in the foreground ISM. Two sets of data were used: 83 VLT- UVES spectra with approximately 6 yr between epochs and 21 McDonald observatory 2.7m telescope echelle spectra with 6 - 20 yr between epochs, over a range of scales from 0 - 360 au. The interstellar absorption-lines observed at the two epochs were subtracted and searched for any residuals due to changes in the foreground ISM. Of the 104 sightlines investigated with typically five or more components in Na I D, possible temporal variation was identified in five UVES spectra (six components), in Ca II, Ca I and/or Na I absorption-lines. The variations detected range from 7\% to a factor of 3.6 in column density. No variation was found in any other interstellar species. Most sightlines show no variation, with 3{\sigma} upper limits to changes of the order 0.1 - 0.3 dex in Ca II and Na I. These variations observed imply that fine-scale structure is present in the ISM, but at the resolution available in this study, is not very common at visible wavelengths. A determination of the electron densities and lower limits to the total number density of a sample of the sightlines implies that there is no striking difference between these parameters in sightlines with, and sightlines without, varying components.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Using high-quality spectra of the twin stars in the XO-2 binary system, we have detected significant differences in the chemical composition of their photospheres. The differences correlate strongly with the elements' dust condensation temperature. In XO-2N, volatiles are enhanced by about 0.015 dex and refractories are overabundant by up to 0.090 dex. On average, our error bar in relative abundance is 0.012 dex. We present an early metal-depletion scenario in which the formation of the gas giant planets known to exist around these stars is responsible for a 0.015 dex offset in the abundances of all elements while 20 M_Earth of non-detected rocky objects that formed around XO-2S explain the additional refractory-element difference. An alternative explanation involves the late accretion of at least 20 M_Earth of planet-like material by XO-2N, allegedly as a result of the migration of the hot Jupiter detected around that star. Dust cleansing by a nearby hot star as well as age or Galactic birthplace effects can be ruled out as valid explanations for this phenomenon.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • A. M. Ritchey · S. R. Federman · D. L. Lambert
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first detection of C15N in diffuse molecular gas from a detailed examination of CN absorption lines in archival spectra, obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope of stars probing local diffuse clouds. Absorption from the C15N isotopologue is confidently detected (at ) in three out of the four directions studied and appears as a very weak feature between the main 12CN and 13CN absorption components. Column densities for each CN isotopologue are determined through profile fitting, after accounting for weak additional line-of-sight components of 12CN, which are seen in the absorption profiles of CH and CH+ as well. The weighted mean value of C14N/C15N for the three sight lines with detections of C15N is 274 ± 18. Since the diffuse molecular clouds toward our target stars have relatively high gas kinetic temperatures and relatively low visual extinctions, their C14N/C15N ratios should not be affected by chemical fractionation. The mean C14N/C15N ratio that we obtain should therefore be representative of the ambient 14N/15N ratio in the local interstellar medium. Indeed, our mean value agrees well with that derived from millimeter-wave observations of CN, HCN, and HNC in local molecular clouds.
    No preview · Article · May 2015
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    Arumalla B. S. Reddy · Sunetra Giridhar · David L. Lambert
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed high-dispersion echelle spectra of red giant members in the five open clusters (OCs) NGC 1342, NGC 1662, NGC 1912, NGC 2354 and NGC 2447 and determined their radial velocities and chemical compositions. These are the first chemical abundance measurements for all but NGC 2447. We combined our clusters from this and previous papers with a sample drawn from the literature for which we remeasured the chemical abundances to establish a common abundance scale. With this homogeneous sample of OCs, we study the relative elemental abundances of stars in OCs in comparison with field stars as a function of age and metallicity. We find a range of mild enrichment of heavy (Ba–Eu) elements in young OC giants over field stars of the same metallicity. Our analysis supports that the youngest stellar generations in cluster might be underrepresented by the solar neighbourhood field stars.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Adam M. Ritchey · Steven R. Federman · David L. Lambert
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first detection of C$^{15}$N in diffuse molecular gas from a detailed examination of CN absorption lines in archival VLT/UVES spectra of stars probing local diffuse clouds. Absorption from the C$^{15}$N isotopologue is confidently detected (at $\gtrsim4\sigma$) in three out of the four directions studied and appears as a very weak feature between the main $^{12}$CN and $^{13}$CN absorption components. Column densities for each CN isotopologue are determined through profile fitting, after accounting for weak additional line-of-sight components of $^{12}$CN, which are seen in the absorption profiles of CH and CH$^+$ as well. The weighted mean value of C$^{14}$N/C$^{15}$N for the three sight lines with detections of C$^{15}$N is $274\pm18$. Since the diffuse molecular clouds toward our target stars have relatively high gas kinetic temperatures and relatively low visual extinctions, their C$^{14}$N/C$^{15}$N ratios should not be affected by chemical fractionation. The mean C$^{14}$N/C$^{15}$N ratio that we obtain should therefore be representative of the ambient $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N ratio in the local interstellar medium. Indeed, our mean value agrees well with that derived from millimeter-wave observations of CN, HCN, and HNC in local molecular clouds.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    N. Kameswara Rao · David L. Lambert
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-infrared photometry of R Coronae Borealis stars obtained from various satellites from IRAS to WISE has been utilized in studying the variations of the circumstellar dust's contributions to the spectral energy distribution of these stars. The variation of the fractional coverage (R) of dust clouds and their blackbody temperatures (T$_d$) have been used in trying to understand the dust cloud evolution over the three decades spanned by the satellite observations. In particular, it is shown that a prediction R $ \propto T_d^4$ developed in this paper is satisfied, especially by those stars for which a single collection of cloud dominates the IR fluxes. Correlations of R with photospheric abundance and luminosity of the stars are explored.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Based on our prior accurate determination of fundamental parameters for 36 Galactic A-, F- and G-type supergiants and bright giants (luminosity classes I and II), we undertook a non-LTE analysis of the carbon abundance in their atmospheres. It is shown that the non-LTE corrections to the C abundances derived from C I lines are negative and increase with the effective temperature Teff; the corrections are especially significant for the infrared C I lines with wavelengths 9060-9660 \AA. The carbon underabundance as a general property of the stars in question is confirmed; a majority of the stars studied has the carbon deficiency [C/Fe] between -0.1 and -0.5 dex, with a minimum at -0.7 dex. When comparing the derived C deficiency with the N excess found by us for the same stars earlier, we obtain a pronounced N vs. C anti-correlation, which could be expected from predictions of the theory.We found that the ratio [N/C] spans mostly the range from 0.3 to 1.7 dex. Both these enhanced [N/C] values and the C and N anomalies themselves are an obvious evidence of the presence on a star's surface of mixed material from stellar interiors; so, a majority of programme stars passed through the deep mixing during the main sequence (MS) and/or the first dredge-up (FD) phase. Comparison with theoretical predictions including rotationally-induced mixing shows that the stars are either post-MS objects with the initial rotational velocities V0 = 200-300 km/s or post-FD objects with V0 = 0-300 km/s. The observed N vs. C anti-correlation reflects a dependence of the C and N anomalies on the V0 value: on average the higher V0 the greater the anomalies. It is shown that an absence of detectable lithium in the atmospheres of the stars, which is accompanied with the observed N excess and C deficiency, is quite explainable.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: DY Cen has shown a steady fading of its visual light by about 1 magnitude in the last 40 years suggesting a secular increase in its effective temperature. We have conducted non-LTE and LTE abundance analyses to determine the star's effective temperature, surface gravity, and chemical composition using high-resolution spectra obtained over two decades. The derived stellar parameters for three epochs suggest that DY Cen has evolved at a constant luminosity and has become hotter by about 5000 K in 23 years. We show that the derived abundances remain unchanged for the three epochs. The derived abundances of the key elements, including F and Ne, are as observed for the extreme helium stars resulting from a merger of an He white dwarf with a C-O white dwarf. Thus, DY Cen by chemical composition appears to be also a product of a merger of two white dwarfs. This appearance seems to be at odds with the recent suggestion that DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    N. Kameswara Rao · David L. Lambert · Vincent M. Woolf · B. P. Hema
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star V532 Oph at light maximum are discussed. The absolute visual magnitude M_V of the star is found to be -4.9 \pm 0.5. The elemental abundances suggest the star belongs to the majority class of RCB stars but is among the most O-poor of this class with mild enhancements of heavy elements Y, Zr, Ba and La. The C_2 Swan bands are weak in V532 Oph relative to R CrB. Other aspects of the high-resolution spectrum confirm that V532 Oph is representative of majority RCBs, i.e., the radial velocity is variable, circumstellar material is present and the photosphere feeds a high-velocity stellar wind.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    Jens Adamczak · David L. Lambert
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    ABSTRACT: We derived atmospheric parameters and spectroscopic abundances for C and?O for a large sample of stars located in the Hertzsprung gap in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in order to detect chemical peculiarities and get a comprehensive overview of the population of stars in this evolutionary state. We have observed and analyzed high-resolution spectra (R?= 60,000) of 188 stars in the mass range 2-5 M ? with the 2.7?m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory including 28 stars previously identified as Am/Ap stars. We find that the C and?O?abundances of the majority of stars in the Hertzsprung gap are in accordance with abundances derived for local lower-mass dwarfs but detect expected peculiarities for the Am/Ap stars. The C and?O?abundances of stars with T eff < 6500 K are slightly lower than for the hotter objects but the C/O ratio is constant in the analyzed temperature domain. No indication of an alteration of the C and?O?abundances of the stars by mixing during the evolution across the Hertzsprung gap could be found before the homogenization of their atmospheres by the first dredge-up.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for metal-poor stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] $\lesssim-5$, as well as two CEMP-no stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excess. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g. a warm debris disk ($T\!\le\!290$ K), or debris disks with inner radii $\le1$ AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-AGB spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g. a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 microns is detected at the 2-$\sigma$ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Residual Spitzer/IRS spectra for a sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are presented and discussed in terms of narrow emission features superimposed on the quasi-blackbody continuous infrared emission. A broad ~6-10 um dust emission complex is seen in the RCBs showing an extreme H-deficiency. A secondary and much weaker ~11.5-15 um broad emission feature is detected in a few RCBs with the strongest ~6-10 um dust complex. The Spitzer infrared spectra reveal for the first time the structure within the ~6-10 um dust complex, showing the presence of strong C-C stretching modes at ~6.3 and 8.1 um as well as of other dust features at ~5.9, 6.9, and 7.3 um, which are attributable to amorphous carbonaceous solids with little or no hydrogen. The few RCBs with only moderate H-deficiencies display the classical 'unidentified infrared bands (UIRs)' and mid-infrared features from fullerene-related molecules. In general, the characteristics of the RCB infrared emission features are not correlated with the stellar and circumstellar properties, suggesting that the RCB dust features may not be dependent on the present physical conditions around RCB stars. The only exception seems to be the central wavelength of the 6.3 um feature, which is blue-shifted in those RCBs showing also the UIRs, i.e., the RCBs with the smallest H deficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first spectroscopic identification of massive Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at the beginning of the thermal pulse (TP) phase. These stars are the most Li-rich massive AGBs found to date, super Li-rich AGBs with logE(Li)~3-4. The high Li overabundances are accompanied by weak or no s-process element (i.e. Rb and Zr) enhancements. A comparison of our observations with the most recent hot bottom burning (HBB) and s-process nucleosynthesis models confirms that HBB is strongly activated during the first TPs but the 22Ne neutron source needs many more TP and third dredge-up episodes to produce enough Rb at the stellar surface. We also show that the short-lived element Tc, usually used as an indicator of AGB genuineness, is not detected in massive AGBs which is in agreement with the theoretical predictions when the 22Ne neutron source dominates the s-process nucleosynthesis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Arumalla B. S. Reddy · Sunetra Giridhar · David L. Lambert
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed high-resolution echelle spectra of red giant members for seven open clusters in the Galactic anticentre direction to explore their chemical positions. Cluster membership has been confirmed by radial velocity. The spread in temperatures and gravities being very small among the red giants, nearly the same stellar lines were employed for all stars thereby reducing the abundance errors: the errors of the average abundance for a cluster were generally in the 0.02 to 0.05 dex range. Our present sample covers Galactocentric distances of 8.3 to 11.3 kpc and an age range of 0.2 to 4.3 Gyr. A careful comparison of our results for the cluster NGC 2682 (M 67) to other high-resolution abundance studies in the literature shows general good agreement for almost all elements in common.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Timur Sahin · David L. Lambert · Carlos Allende Prieto
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to reveal the nature of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) stars: SDSSJ100921.40+375233.9, SDSSJ015717.04+135535.9, and SDSSJ171422.43+283657.2, showing apparently high NUV excesses for their g-z colors, as expected for extremely low-metallicity stars. High resolution (R=60 000) spectra of the stars with a wide wavelength coverage were obtained to determine their chemical compositions with the Tull echelle spectrograph on the 2.7 m telescope at the McDonald Observatory. We derived the spectroscopic parameters Teff =5820+-125 K, log g =3.9+-0.2, and vt =1.1+-0.5 km/s for SDSSJ100921.40+375233.9, Teff=6250+-125 K, log g =3.7+-0.2, and vt =4.0+-0.5 km/s for SDSSJ015717.04+135535.9, and Teff=6320+-125 K, log g =4.1+-0.3, and vt =1.5+-0.5 km/s for SDSS J171422.43+283657.2, and elemental abundances were computed for 21 elements for J100921 and J171422 and for 19 elements for J015717 for the first time. We find metallicities of [Fe/H]= -1.30, -0.94, and -0.80 for SDSSJ100921.40+375233.9, J015717.04+135535.9, and J171422.43+283657.2, respectively. On the basis of calculated abundance ratios for J171422.43+283657.2 and J015717.04+135535.9, we also report that these two program stars have the expected composition of main-sequence halo turnoff stars, but with low-alpha abundances, i.e., the [alpha/Fe] ratio is ~0.0 for J171422.43+283657.2 and ~0.1 for J015717.04+135535.9. The latter one shows typical halo or thick-disk alpha-element abundances, but has a substantial rotational line broadening and vsini=40 +- 0.5 km/s.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Among the distinguishing characteristics of the remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis star DY Centauri, which was recently found to be a spectroscopic binary, is the presence of nebular forbidden lines in its optical spectrum. A compilation of photometry from 1970 to the present suggests that the star has evolved to higher effective temperatures. A comparison of spectra from 2010 with earlier spectra has shown that between 2003 and 2010, the 6717 and 6730 Å emission lines of [S ii] underwent a dramatic change in their fluxes. This suggests that there was an increase in the nebula's electron density from 290 to 3140 cm−3 between 1989 and 2010, while the stellar temperature increased from 19 500 to 25 000 K. The nebular radius is about 0.02 pc, which is 60 000 times larger than the semimajor axis of the DY Cen binary system. The rapid changes of stellar temperature and the nebula's response to these changes demonstrate stellar evolution in action.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

17k Citations
2,281.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 4-2015
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2004-2011
    • Indian Institute of Astrophysics
      Bengalūru, Karnātaka, India
    • University of Texas System
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2003-2007
    • University of Texas at El Paso
      • Department of Physics
      El Paso, Texas, United States
  • 2006
    • New Mexico State University
      Las Cruces, New Mexico, United States
  • 2005
    • Concordia University Texas
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2001-2002
    • Macalester College
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States
  • 1986
    • University of Liège
      • Department of Astrophysics, Geophysics and Oceanography
      Luik, Walloon, Belgium
  • 1983-1985
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 1981-1985
    • Louisiana State University
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1982
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1979-1981
    • Sierra Tucson
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1969
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1966-1968
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom