D J King

University of Georgia, Атина, Georgia, United States

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Publications (10)19.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines in the United States is currently determined using vaccination and challenge of experimental animals against a velogenic strain of NDV. Because velogenic strains of NDV are now classified as select agents in the United States, all vaccine potency testing must be performed in live animals under biosafety level 3 agriculture conditions. If the minimum amount of inactivated viral antigen required for clinical protection can be determined using other methods, vaccines meeting these criteria might be considered of adequate potency. The linearity of correlation between the hemagglutination (HA) assay measurement and the 50% embryo infectious dose titer ofNDV Hitchner B1 vaccine virus was determined. Correlation between hemagglutinin units (HAU) per vaccine dose, clinical protection, and antibody response was then determined using a vaccinate-and-challenge model similar to Chapter 9 of the U.S. code of federal regulations approved method for vaccine potency testing. The dose providing 50% protection of an in-house water-in-oil emulsion vaccine formulated with inactivated NDV B1 was determined to be between 400 and 600 HAU from two separate trials. A positive correlation (R2 = 0.97) was observed between antibody response and HAU per vaccine dose. Serum antibody responses from vaccinated birds indicate HA inhibition titers >2(5) log2 would provide 100% protection from morbidity and mortality and require a minimum protective dose of 1000 HAU per bird. These are the first studies to examine establishing both a minimum protective HAU content for inactivated ND vaccines and a minimum serologic response necessary to ensure potency.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Avian Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from chickens during the 2002-2003 California outbreak (CA exotic Newcastle disease [END] virus) was inoculated into 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens, 3-week-old SPF Beltsville White turkeys, 6-week-old commercial Broad Breasted White turkeys, and 10- to 20-week-old racing pigeons, and the clinicopathologic features of disease were compared. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanized sequentially with collection of tissues. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry to detect viral nucleoprotein, and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA. Clinically, infected chickens and SPF turkeys showed severe depression, and all died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs by day 5 postinoculation. In these birds, histologic lesions were widespread and virus was detected in multiple organs. All infected commercial turkeys showed mild depression, and incoordination was observed in some birds. Histologic lesions were mild, and viral distribution was limited. In pigeons, only 1 bird showed overt clinical disease, and histologic lesions and viral distribution were present in limited organs. Consequently, susceptibility to highly virulent NDV was shown to vary among chickens, SPF turkeys, commercial turkeys, and pigeons. Additionally, we have evidence of CA END virus subclinical infections that suggest pigeons could be subclinical carriers of other virulent NDV.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Veterinary Pathology
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    A M Piacenti · D J King · B S Seal · J Zhang · C C Brown
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of five different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates representing all pathotypes was examined in commercial and specific pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys. Experimentally-infected birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized, with subsequent tissue collection, for examination by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry for the presence of NDV nucleoprotein, and by in situ hybridization for the presence of replicating virus. Clinically, the lentogenic pathotype did not cause overt clinical signs in either commercial or SPF turkeys. Mesogenic viruses caused depression in some birds. Turkeys infected with velogenic neurotropic and velogenic viscerotropic isolates showed severe depression, and neurologic signs. Histologic appearances for all strains had many similarities to lesions observed in chickens inoculated with the various isolates; that is, lesions were present predominantly in lymphoid, intestinal, and central nervous tissues. However, in general, disease among turkeys was less severe than in chickens, and turkeys could be considered a subclinical carrier for some of the isolates.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Veterinary Pathology
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    D A Senne · D J King · D R Kapczynski
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination for Newcastle disease (ND) is routinely practised in countries where virulent strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are endemic and in countries where virulent strains do not exist but ill-timed infection by a low virulent field strain may have significant economic consequences for the producer. The types of vaccines and vaccination schedules used vary depending on the potential threat, virulence of the field challenge virus, type of production, and production schedules. A combination of live and inactivated ND vaccine, administered simultaneously, is shown to provide better protection against virulent NDV and has been successfully used in control programmes in areas of intense poultry production. A potential limiting factor in the use of live vaccines to control virulent ND is that live virus can interfere with surveillance and laboratory diagnosis. However, a new assay, the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), differentiates low virulent from virulent NDV, thus minimizing the disadvantage of live virus vaccines in the face of an outbreak and may facilitate the use of such vaccines to control outbreaks of virulent ND in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Developments in biologicals
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of six pigeon-origin isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated in chickens. Four isolates were previously defined as the variant pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1), and two isolates were classified as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1). Birds inoculated with PPMV-1 isolates were euthanatized, and tissue samples were collected at 2, 5, and 10 days postinoculation (DPI). Birds inoculated with APMV-1 isolates died or were euthanatized, and tissue samples were collected at 2, 4, and 5 DPI. Tissues were examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the presence of NDV nucleoprotein, and in situ hybridization (ISH) for the presence of viral mRNA for the matrix gene. Spleen sections were stained by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and by IHC using an anti-active caspase-3 antibody (IHC-Casp) to detect apoptotic cells. Brain sections of PPMV-1-infected birds were examined by IHC to detect T and B lymphocytes and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Histologically, birds inoculated with PPMV-1 isolates had marked lesions in the heart and brain. Presence of viral nucleoprotein and viral mRNA in the affected tissues was confirmed by IHC and ISH, respectively. Numerous reactive astrocytes were observed in brain sections stained for GFAP Among all the isolates, the IHC-Casp demonstrated that apoptosis was very prominent in the ellipsoid-associated cells of the spleen at 2 DPI. Results of the TUNEL assay indicated that apoptotic cells were prominent at 5 DPI and were more randomly distributed. The clinical signs and gross and histopathologic changes observed in the APMV-1-infected birds were characteristic of an extensive infection with highly virulent NDV evident by IHC.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Veterinary Pathology
  • C.C. Brown · D.J. King · B.S. Seal
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    ABSTRACT: Two pathology-based techniques, immunohistochemistry and riboprobe in-situ hybridization, were applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from chickens infected with three different isolates of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV). With the immunohistochemical method, viral protein was consistently detectable in the spleen and caecum at the terminal phase of the infection. With in-situ hybridization, viral nucleic acid was consistently detected in the eyelid, spleen and caecum in both the acute and terminal phases. Hybridization with anti-sense probe to detect viral mRNA was often more intense than hybridization with sense probe to detect viral genomic RNA.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · Journal of Comparative Pathology
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    C Brown · D J King · B S Seal
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    ABSTRACT: Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1999 · Veterinary Pathology
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    B S Seal · D J King · D P Locke · D A Senne · M W Jackwood
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus [NDV (avian paramyxovirus type 1 [APMV1])] isolates were recovered from imported exotic birds confiscated following importation into the United States, from waterbirds in the United States, and from poultry. The exotic birds probably originated from Central and South America, Asia, and Africa. The NDV isolates were initially characterized as highly virulent because of a short mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs. The isolates were typed as neurotropic or viscerotropic velogenic by intracloacal inoculation of adult chickens. Intracerebral pathogenicity index values for the virulent NDV isolates ranged from 1.54 to 1.90, compared to a possible maximum value of 2.0. These isolates had a dibasic amino acid motif in the fusion protein cleavage site sequence required for host systemic replication. Sequence differences were detected surrounding the fusion protein cleavage site and the matrix protein nuclear localization signal, indicating evolution of highly virulent NDV. Phylogenetically, these isolates were categorized with other highly virulent NDV strains that caused outbreaks in southern California poultry during 1972 and in cormorants in the north central United States and southern Canada during 1990 and 1992. These isolates are related to NDV that may have the APMV1 strain chicken/Australia/AV/32 or a related virus as a possible progenitor. Recent virulent NDV isolates and those recovered during disease outbreaks since the 1970s are phylogenetically distinct from current vaccine viruses and standard challenge strains.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1998 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
  • D J King · B S Seal
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is frequently recovered from surveillance samples collected by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service personnel in live bird markets. Six NDV isolates, five from chickens and one from a pheasant, were characterized for comparison with reference NDV isolates from poultry and other birds. All isolates tested were of low virulence for chickens. Four of the six isolates were similar to reference lentogens B1 and La Sota, but two isolates, one from a chicken and one from a pheasant, were different. The aberrant chicken isolate had a monoclonal antibody-binding profile like an unusual Canadian pigeon isolate. Sequence analysis of the matrix gene of this isolate demonstrated that it differed from all isolates included in the comparison and therefore may represent a third phylogenetic NDV group. The pheasant isolate had a monoclonal antibody-binding profile typical of other U.S. NDV lentogens but had a matrix gene sequence and hemagglutinin thermostability similar to strains Ulster and Queensland V4 (QV4), viruses originally isolated in Northern Ireland and Australia, respectively. The pheasant virus is the first lentogen isolated in the United States known to be closely related phylogenetically to Ulster and QV4. The unusual chicken and pheasant isolates were readily shed from the intestinal tract during chicken passage, whereas the other isolates were shed from the respiratory tract with little or no intestinal shedding. The frequency in live bird markets of viruses similar to those previously thought to be exotic to the United States in unknown.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1997 · Avian Diseases
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    B.S. Seal · D.J. King · J.D. Bennett
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    ABSTRACT: Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were synthesized to amplify nucleotide sequences from portions of the fusion protein and matrix protein genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genomic RNA that could be used diagnostically. These primers were used in a single-tube reverse transcription PCR of NDV genomic RNA coupled to direct nucleotide sequencing of the amplified product to characterize more than 30 NDV isolates. In agreement with previous reports, differences in the fusion protein cleavage sequence that correlated genotypically with virulence among various NDV pathotypes were detected. By using sequences generated from the matrix protein gene coding for the nuclear localization signal, lentogenic viruses were again grouped phylogenetically separate from other pathotypes. These techniques were applied to compare neurotropic velogenic viruses isolated from an outbreak of Newcastle disease in cormorants and turkeys. Cormorant NDV isolates and an NDV isolate from an infected turkey flock in North Dakota had the fusion protein cleavage sequence 109SRGRRQKRFVG119. The R-for-G substitution at position 110 may be unique for the cormorant-type isolates. Although the amino acid sequences from the fusion protein cleavage site were identical, nucleotide sequence data correlate the outbreak in turkeys to a cormorant virus isolate from Minnesota and not to a cormorant virus isolate from Michigan. On the basis of sequence information, the cormorant isolates are virulent viruses related to isolates of psittacine origin, possibly genotypically distinct from other velogenic NDV isolates. These techniques can be used reliably for Newcastle disease epidemiology and for prediction of pathotypes of NDV isolates without traditional live-bird inoculations.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1995 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology