D. Heitz

Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland

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Publications (44)

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to identify factors predictive of 6-month institutionalization or mortality in frail elderly patients after acute hospitalization. A prospective cohort of elderly subjects 75 years and older was set up in nine French teaching hospitals. Data obtained from a comprehensive geriatric assessment were used in a Cox model to predict 6-month institutionalization or mortality. Institutionalization was defined as incident admission either to a nursing home or other long-term care facility during the follow-up period. Crude institutionalization and death rates after 6 months of follow-up were 18% and 24%, respectively. Independent predictors of institutionalization were: living alone (HR=1.83; 95% CI=1.27-2.62) or a higher number of children (HR=0.86; 95% CI=0.78-0.96), balance problems (HR=1.72; 95% CI=1.19-2.47), malnutrition or risk thereof (HR=1.93; 95% CI=1.24-3.01), and dementia syndrome (HR=1.88; 95% CI=1.32-2.67). Factors found to be independently related to 6-month mortality were exclusively medical factors: malnutrition or risk thereof (HR=1.92; 95% CI=1.17-3.16), delirium (HR=1.80; 95% CI=1.24-2.62), and a high level of comorbidity (HR=1.62; 95% CI=1.09-2.40). Institutionalization (HR=1.92; 95% CI=1.37-2.71) and unplanned readmission (HR=4.47; 95% CI=3.16-2.71) within the follow-up period were also found as independent predictors. The main factors predictive of 6-month outcome identified in this study are modifiable by global and multidisciplinary interventions. Their early identification and management would make it possible to modify frail elderly subjects' prognosis favorably.
    Full-text Article · May 2012 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ObjectivesTo evaluate the predictive ability of four clinical frailty indexes as regards one-year rapid cognitive decline (RCD — defined as the loss of at least 3 points on the MMSE score), and one-year institutional admission (IA) and mortality respectively; and to measure their agreement for identifying groups at risk of these severe outcomes. DesignOne-year follow-up and multicentre study of old patients participating in the SAFEs cohort study. Setting: Nine university hospitals in France. Participants1,306 patients aged 75 or older (mean age 85±6 years; 65% female) hospitalized in medical divisions through an Emergency department. MeasurementsFour frailty indexes (Winograd; Rockwood; Donini; and Schoevaerdts) reflecting the multidimensionality of the frailty concept, using an ordinal scoring system able to discriminate different grades of frailty, and constructed based on the accumulation of identified deficits after comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted during the first week of hospital stay, were used to categorize participants into three different grades of frailty: Gl — not frail; G2 — moderately frail; and G3 — severely frail. Comparisons between groups were performed using Fisher’s exact test. Agreement between indexes was evaluated using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient. ResultsAll patients were classified as frail by at least one of the four indexes. The Winograd and Rockwood indexes mainly classified subjects as G2 (85% and 96%), and the Donini and Schoevaerdts indexes mainly as G3 (71% and 67%). Among the SAFEs cohort population, 250, 1047 and 1,306 subjects were eligible for analyses of predictability for RCD, 1-year IA and 1-year mortality respectively. At 1 year, 84 subjects (34%) experienced RCD, 377 (36%) were admitted into an institutional setting, and 445 (34%) had died With the Rockwood index, all subjects who expenenced RCD were classified in G2; and in G2 and G3 when the Donini and Schoevaerdts indexes were used No significant difference was found between frailty grade and RCD, whereas frailty grade was significantly associated with an increased risk of IA and death, whatever the frailty index considered. Agreement between the different indexes of frailty was poor with Kappa coefficients ranging from −0.02 to 0.15. ConclusionThese findings confirm the poor clinimetric properties of these current indexes to measure frailty, underlining the fact that further work is needed to develop a better and more widely-accepted definition of frailty and therefore a better understanding of its pathophysiology. Key wordsFrailty syndrome–frailty index–screening–comprehensive geriatric assessment–SAFES cohort
    Full-text Article · Oct 2011 · The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging
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    M Dramé · J-L Novella · D Jolly · [...] · P-O Lang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the predictive ability of four clinical frailty indexes as regards one-year rapid cognitive decline (RCD - defined as the loss of at least 3 points on the MMSE score), and one-year institutional admission (IA) and mortality respectively; and to measure their agreement for identifying groups at risk of these severe outcomes. One-year follow-up and multicentre study of old patients participating in the SAFEs cohort study. Setting: Nine university hospitals in France. 1,306 patients aged 75 or older (mean age 85±6 years; 65% female) hospitalized in medical divisions through an Emergency department. Four frailty indexes (Winograd; Rockwood; Donini; and Schoevaerdts) reflecting the multidimensionality of the frailty concept, using an ordinal scoring system able to discriminate different grades of frailty, and constructed based on the accumulation of identified deficits after comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted during the first week of hospital stay, were used to categorize participants into three different grades of frailty: G1 - not frail; G2 - moderately frail; and G3 - severely frail. Comparisons between groups were performed using Fisher's exact test. Agreement between indexes was evaluated using Cohen's Kappa coefficient. All patients were classified as frail by at least one of the four indexes. The Winograd and Rockwood indexes mainly classified subjects as G2 (85% and 96%), and the Donini and Schoevaerdts indexes mainly as G3 (71% and 67%). Among the SAFEs cohort population, 250, 1047 and 1,306 subjects were eligible for analyses of predictability for RCD, 1-year IA and 1-year mortality respectively. At 1 year, 84 subjects (34%) experienced RCD, 377 (36%) were admitted into an institutional setting, and 445 (34%) had died. With the Rockwood index, all subjects who experienced RCD were classified in G2; and in G2 and G3 when the Donini and Schoevaerdts indexes were used. No significant difference was found between frailty grade and RCD, whereas frailty grade was significantly associated with an increased risk of IA and death, whatever the frailty index considered. Agreement between the different indexes of frailty was poor with Kappa coefficients ranging from -0.02 to 0.15. These findings confirm the poor clinimetric properties of these current indexes to measure frailty, underlining the fact that further work is needed to develop a better and more widely-accepted definition of frailty and therefore a better understanding of its pathophysiology.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2011 · The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative delirium is common in the elderly and is associated with a significant increase in mortality, complications, length of hospital stay and admission in long care facility. Although several interventions have proved their effectiveness to prevent it, the Cochrane advises an assessment of multifaceted intervention using rigorous methodology based on randomized study design. Our purpose is to present the methodology and expected results of the CONFUCIUS trial, which aims to measure the impact of a multifaceted program on the prevention of postoperative delirium in elderly. Study design is a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial within 3 surgical wards of three French university hospitals. All patients aged 75 and older, and admitted for scheduled surgery will be included. The multifaceted program will be conducted by mobile geriatric team, including geriatric preoperative consultation, training of the surgical staff and implementation of the Hospital Elder Life Program, and morbidity and mortality conference related to delirium cases. The primary outcome is based on postoperative delirium rate within 7 days after surgery. This program is planned to be implemented along four successive time periods within all the surgical wards. Each one will be affected successively to the control arm and to the intervention arm of the trial and the order of program introduction within each surgical ward will be randomly assigned. Based on a 20% reduction of postoperative delirium rate (ICC = 0.25, α = 0.05, β = 0.1), three hundred sixty patients will be included i.e. thirty patients per service and per time period. Endpoints comparison between intervention and control arms of the trial will be performed by considering the cluster and time effects. Better prevention of delirium is expected from the multifaceted program, including a decrease of postoperative delirium, and its consequences (mortality, morbidity, postoperative complications and length of hospital stay) among elderly patients. This study should allow better diagnosis of delirium and strengthen the collaboration between surgical and mobile geriatric teams. Should the program have a substantial impact on the prevention of postoperative delirium in elderly, it could be extended to other facilities. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01316965.
    Full-text Article · May 2011 · BMC Geriatrics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even though the efforts in research have detailed further the physiopathology and the dynamics of the frailty process an operational definition of frailty is still far from being unequivocal. Studies carried out from the SAFEs cohort study allowed a pragmatic approach in the identification of the at-risk groups for the lost of independency during the hospital stay and factors influencing their future at short-, mid- and long-term. Based upon these results, we propose to discuss the relevance of the current operational indicators of frailty in order to show that clinical markers or indicators are insufficient to differentiate the frailty process from normal ageing. Finally we give rise to the imperative necessity to detect frailty at a preclinical stage with the help of biological and more particularly inflammatory markers.
    Full-text Article · May 2011 · Geriatrie et psychologie neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to identify factors related to institutionalisation within one-year follow up of subjects aged 75 or over, hospitalised via the emergency department (ED). Prospective multicentre cohort. Nine French university teaching hospitals. One thousand and forty seven (1 047) non institutionalised subjects aged 75 or over, hospitalised via ED. A sub-group analysis was performed on the 894 subjects with a caregiver. Patients were assessed using Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) tools. Cox survival analysis was performed to identify predictors of institutionalisation at one year. Within one year after hospital admission, 210 (20.1%) subjects were institutionalised. For the overall study population, age >85 years (HR 1.6; 95%CI 1.1-2.1; p=0.005), inability to use the toilet (HR 1.6; 95%CI 1.1-2.4; p=0.007), balance disorders (HR 1.6; 95%CI 1.1-2.1; p=0.005) and presence of dementia syndrome (HR 1.9; 95%CI 1.4-2.6; p<0.001) proved to be independent predictors of institutionalisation; while a greater number of children was inversely linked to institutionalisation (HR 0.8; 95%CI 0.7-0.9; p<0.001). Bathing was of borderline significance (p=.09). For subjects with a caregiver, initial caregiver burden was significantly linked to institutionalisation within one year, in addition to the predictors observed in the overall study population. CGA performed at the beginning of hospitalisation in acute medical wards is useful to predict institutionalisation. Most of the predictors identified can lead to targeted therapeutic options with a view to preventing or delaying institution admission.
    Full-text Article · May 2011 · The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify factors predictive of nursing home admission (NHA) over a period of 1 year among elderly subjects with dementia. The study population was drawn from the SAFES cohort that was formed within a national research program into the recruitment of emergency departments in 9 teaching hospitals. Subjects were to have been hospitalized in a medical ward in the same hospital as the emergency department to which they were initially admitted. Subjects who experienced NHA before emergency department admission were excluded. Those with a confirmed diagnosis of dementia were considered in the present analysis. NHA has been defined as the incident admission into either a nursing home or other long term care facility within the follow-up period. Data obtained from a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment were used in a Cox model to predict 1-year NHA. The 425 subjects of the study were 86 ± 6 years old, and were mainly women (63%). NHA rate was 40% (n = 172). Four factors were identified to increase NHA risk: age 85 or older (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.1), inability to use the toilet (HR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.5-4.2), balance disorders (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1), and living alone (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1). Three factors decreased this risk significantly: inability to transfer (HR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-0.8), increased number of children (HR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.96-0.99), and increased initial Mini-Mental State Examination score (HR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.8-0.9). NHA determinants in dementia are strongly linked to the patient's own characteristics but also to his or her physical or social environment. Interventions should target both members of the dyad "patient-caregiver" because both are affected by the disease.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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    Full-text Article · May 2009 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
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    Full-text Article · Jan 2009 · The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging
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    M Dramé · J L Novella · P O Lang · [...] · D Jolly
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify predictive factors for 2-year mortality in frail elderly patients after acute hospitalisation, and from these to derive and validate a Mortality Risk Index (MRI). A prospective cohort of elderly patients was set up in nine teaching hospitals. This cohort was randomly split up into a derivation cohort (DC) of 870 subjects and a validation cohort (VC) of 436 subjects. Data obtained from a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment were used in a Cox model to predict 2-year mortality and to identify risk groups for mortality. A ROC analysis was performed to explore the validity of the MRI. Five factors were identified and weighted using hazard ratios to construct the MRI: age 85 or over (1 point), dependence for the ADL (1 point), delirium (2 points), malnutrition risk (2 points), and co-morbidity level (2 points for medium level, 3 points for high level). Three risk groups were identified according to the MRI. Mortality rates increased significantly across risk groups in both cohorts. In the DC, mortality rates were: 20.8% in the low-risk group, 49.6% in the medium-risk group, and 62.1% in the high-risk group. In the VC, mortality rates were respectively 21.7, 48.5, and 65.4%. The area under the ROC curve for overall score was statistically the same in the DC (0.72) as in the VC (0.71). The proposed MRI appears as a simple and easy-to-use tool developed from relevant geriatric variables. Its accuracy is good and the validation procedure gives a good stability of results.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2008 · European Journal of Epidemiology
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    Pierre-Olivier Lang · Damien Heitz · Nicolas Meyer · [...] · François Blanchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify early indicators of prolonged hospital stays by elderly patients. This prospective pilot study, conducted at Strasbourg University Hospital, included patients aged 75 years or older who were hospitalized via the emergency department (SAFES cohort: Sujet Agé Fragile: Evaluation et suivi, that is, Frail Elderly Subjects: Evaluation and Follow-up). A gerontologic evaluation of these patients during the first week of their hospitalization furnished the data for an exact logistic regression. Two definitions were used for prolonged hospitalization: 30 days and a composite number adjusted for diagnosis-related group according to the French classification (f-DRG). The analysis examined 137 hospitalizations. More than two thirds of the patients were women (73%), with a mean age of 84 years. Twenty-four hospitalizations (17%) lasted more than 30 days, but only 6 (4%) lasted beyond the DRG-adjusted limit. No social or demographic variables appeared to affect the length of stay, regardless of the definition of prolonged stay. No indicator was associated with the 30-day limit, but clinical markers were linked to prolongation assessed by f-DRG adjustment. A "risk of malnutrition" (OR=14.07) and "mood disorders" (OR=2,5) were both early markers for prolonged hospitalization. Although not statistically significant, "walking difficulties" (OR=2.72) and "cognitive impairment" (OR=5.03) appeared to be associated with prolonged stays. No association was seen with either the variables measured by Katz's Activities of Daily Living Index or its course during hospitalization. Our study shows that when generally recognized indicators of frailty are taken into account, a set of simple items enables a predictive approach to the prolongation of emergency hospitalizations of the elderly.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2007 · La Presse Médicale
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    Pierre-Olivier Lang · Damien Heitz · Nicolas Meyer · [...] · François Blanchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was to identify early indicators of prolonged hospital stays by elderly patients. Methods This prospective pilot study, conducted at Strasbourg University Hospital, included patients aged 75 years or older who were hospitalized via the emergency department (SAFES cohort: Sujet Âgé Fragile: Évaluation et suivi, that is, Frail Elderly Subjects: Evaluation and Follow-up). A gerontologic evaluation of these patients during the first week of their hospitalization furnished the data for an exact logistic regression. Two definitions were used for prolonged hospitalization: 30 days and a composite number adjusted for diagnosis-related group according to the French classification (f-DRG). Results The analysis examined 137 hospitalizations. More than two thirds of the patients were women (73%), with a mean age of 84 years. Twenty-four hospitalizations (17%) lasted more than 30 days, but only 6 (4%) lasted beyond the DRG-adjusted limit. No social or demographic variables appeared to affect the length of stay, regardless of the definition of prolonged stay. No indicator was associated with the 30-day limit, but clinical markers were linked to prolongation assessed by f-DRG adjustment. A “risk of malnutrition” (OR = 14.07) and “mood disorders” (OR = 2,5) were both early markers for prolonged hospitalization. Although not statistically significant, “walking difficulties” (OR = 2.72) and “cognitive impairment” (OR = 5.03) appeared to be associated with prolonged stays. No association was seen with either the variables measured by Katz's Activities of Daily Living Index or its course during hospitalization. Conclusion Our study shows that when generally recognized indicators of frailty are taken into account, a set of simple items enables a predictive approach to the prolongation of emergency hospitalizations of the elderly.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2007 · La Presse médicale
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    Pierre-Olivier Lang · Nicolas Meyer · Damien Heitz · [...] · François Blanchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preservation of autonomy and the ability of elderly to carry out the basic activities of daily living, beyond the therapeutic care of any pathologies, appears as one of the main objectives of care during hospitalization. To identify early clinical markers associated with the loss of independence in elderly people in short stay hospitals. Among the 1,306 subjects making up the prospective and multicenter SAFEs cohort study (Sujet Agé Fragile: Evolution et suivi-Frail elderly subjects, evaluation and follow-up), 619 medical inpatients, not disabled at baseline and hospitalized through an emergency department were considered. Data used in a multinomial logistic regression were obtained through a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) conducted in the first week of hospitalization. Dependency levels were assessed at baseline, at inclusion and at 30 days using Katz's ADL index. Baseline was defined as the dependence level before occurrence of the event motivating hospitalization. To limit the influence of rehabilitation on the level of dependence, only stays shorter than 30 days were considered. About 514 patients were eligible, 15 died and 90 were still hospitalized at end point (n = 619). Two-thirds of subjects were women, with a mean age of 83. At day 30 162 patients (31%) were not disabled; 61 (12%) were moderately disabled and 291 severely disabled (57%). No socio-demographic variables seemed to influence the day 30 dependence level. Lack of autonomy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.6), walking difficulties (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.3-5.6), fall risk (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-6.8) and malnutrition risk (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-7.6) were found in multifactorial analysis to be clinical markers for loss of independence. Beyond considerations on the designing of preventive policies targeting the populations at risk that have been identified here, the identification of functional factors (lack of autonomy, walking difficulties, risk of falling) suggests above all that consideration needs to be given to the organization per se of the French geriatric hospital care system, and in particular to the relevance of maintaining sector-type segregation between wards for care of acute care and those involved in rehabilitation.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2007 · European Journal of Epidemiology
  • P.-O. Lang · D. Fernandez · D. Heitz · [...] · F. Kuntzmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To describe home living conditions of an elderly population aged 75 years and over between 1996 and 1999. Methods: Mail survey nearby 10,036 old persons aged 75 years and over, living at home in Alsace region, and have been participating in the first survey conducted in 1996. The mailed questionnaire permitted the outcome's description of their living conditions and their dependency according to Iso-Resource Grades (IRG) criteria. Results: In 1999, the outcome of 8 565 persons has been known: 77% were still living at home and 6% at institution. Mortality rate was 17%. The 3-years institutionalization rate was 9%. Resort to institution concerned mainly older and disadvantaged persons. The onset or worsening of dependency, assessed by IRG, was a major factor for nursing home placement (46%), in particular dependency with regard to coherence and orientation (46% us 5%). Living with a spouse limited institutionalization (OR=O.8). Elderly outcome depended on sex: the mortality was higher in men (OR=2.6) and the resort to institution was more frequent among women (OR=1.1). Family support was the most essential cause of delaying institutionalization. Professional support increased, but was limited to technical interventions and did not concern more than 3 activities on average. Conclusion: This work highlights the elderly needs in Alsace. Patients and caregivers information, precaution and family support have to be developed. It confirms families' implication in maintaining home life of their elderly. The weak increase of professional support points to the physical and psychological burdens on caregivers in order that dependant elderly continue their home life.
    Article · Dec 2006
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    Pierre-Olivier Lang · Damien Heitz · Guy Hédelin · [...] · François Blanchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify early markers of prolonged hospital stays in older people in acute hospitals. A prospective, multicenter study. Nine hospitals in France. One thousand three hundred six patients aged 75 and older were hospitalized through an emergency department (Sujet Agé Fragile: Evaluation et suivi (SAFEs)--Frail Elderly Subjects: Evaluation and follow-up). Data used in a logistic regression were obtained through a gerontological evaluation of inpatients, conducted in the first week of hospitalization. The center effect was considered in two models as a random and fixed effect. Two limits were used to define a prolonged hospital stay. The first was fixed at 30 days. The second was adjusted for Diagnosis Related Groups according to the French classification (f-DRG). Nine hundred eight of the 1,306 hospital stays that made up the cohort were analyzed. Two centers (n=298) were excluded because of a large volume of missing f-DRGs. Two-thirds of subjects in the cohort analyzed were women (64%), with a mean age of 84. One hundred thirty-eight stays (15%) lasted more than 30 days; 46 (5%) were prolonged beyond the f-DRG-adjusted limit. No sociodemographic variables seemed to influence the length of stay, regardless of the limit used. For the 30-day limit, only cognitive impairment (odds ratio (OR)=2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-4.0) was identified as a marker for prolongation. f-DRG adjustment revealed other clinical markers. Walking difficulties (OR=2.6, 95% CI=1.2-16.7), fall risk (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.7-5.3), cognitive impairment (OR=7.1, 95% CI=2.3-49.9), and malnutrition risk (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.7-19.6) were found to be early markers for prolonged stays, although dependence level and its evolution, estimated using the Katz activity of daily living (ADL) index, were not identified as risk factors. When the generally recognized parameters of frailty are taken into account, a set of simple items (walking difficulties, risk of fall, risk of malnutrition, and cognitive impairment) enables a predictive approach to the length of stay of elderly patients hospitalized under emergency circumstances. Katz ADLs were not among the early markers identified.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
  • F Imbert · P-O Lang · N Meyer · [...] · F Kuntzmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to describe the living conditions of disabled elderly subjects aged 75 years and more living at home. This study was conducted in 1996-97 in the Alsace region in France and included two parts. First, a sample survey was mailed to 15,600 subjects randomly selected from a pension funds list. This survey provided with a reliable representation of the study population in terms of disabilities using the Colvez classification. In the second part, the most disabled individuals were selected and, among them, 1,259 subjects were visited at home. Their disabilities and living conditions were noted using a predefined set of questions. An estimated 71,000 subjects aged 75 years and more lived at home in the study region. The vast majority were free of significant disability. Help to wash and dress was needed by 6,000 until 1,500 were bedridden or confined to an armchair. Between 4,350 and 5,400 met the criteria for iso-resource grades (IRG) 1 to 3. Disability was associated with age, female gender, cognitive impairment and some social and professional characteristics. Family support was routine in almost every aspect of everyday life including personal hygiene. Professional support was mostly limited to technical interventions. Professional nursing care concerned only the most dependent persons. Nevertheless, needs for help in home and social activities remained high even in the least dependent individuals and were strongly age-dependent. Only 10% of individuals with IRG 1 to 3 complained of inadequate help. More than 80% of the elderly felt comfortable with their living conditions at home and were not thinking of moving from home to an institution for old people. The present study confirms the important commitment of family members and their close relationships toward their elderly.
    Article · May 2005 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ObjectifEstimation de la dépendance, description des conditions de vie (aides apportées par des professionnels et l’entourage non professionnel, équipement technique et aménagement du logement), des besoins non comblés et des perspectives de maintien à domicile des personnes âgées vivant à domicile en Alsace.MéthodeRéalisée en 1996-97 en Alsace, cette enquête se compose de deux parties. Une enquête postale sur un échantillon de 15 600 personnes âgées de 75 ans et plus, tiré au sort à partir des listes d’affiliation des caisses de retraites. Cette enquête apporte une image fiable de la population en terme de désavantage selon la classification de Colvez. Dans un second temps, une enquête à domicile auprès de 1 259 personnes sélectionnées essentiellement parmi les plus désavantagées au sein de l’échantillon initial, a été réalisée afin de décrire leurs conditions de vie et leur dépendance. La situation des différents groupes de dépendance (GIR) a été comparée en matière d’aides humaines, d’équipements techniques et de conditions de logement.RésultatsOn a estimé la population des 75 ans ou plus vivant à domicile à près de 71 000 individus en Alsace. Selon l’enquête postale, la grande majorité (68 %) vit sans désavantage. Mais 6 000 personnes (8 %) ont besoin d’une aide pour la toilette et l’habillage dont 1 500 (2 %) restent confinées au lit ou au fauteuil. Selon l’enquête à domicile, entre 4 350 et 5 400 appartiennent aux groupes iso-ressources (GIR) 1 à 3. Dans notre enquête, la dépendance est liée à l’âge et au sexe. L’aide apportée par l’entourage familial et/ou les proches est systématique et concerne l’ensemble des activités de la vie quotidienne, même les plus intimes. Les professionnels n’interviennent le plus souvent qu’en complément et pour des activités techniques. Les services de gardes à domicile et en soins infirmiers ne concernent que les plus dépendants. Chez ceux-ci, l’aide de l’entourage est trois fois plus important que l’aide des professionnels en terme de nombre d’activités prises en charge. Seuls 11 % des personnes GIR 1 à 3 considèrent être insuffisamment aidés. L’équipement technique des logements est correcte, exclusion faite de la téléalarme. Dans ce cas, l’absence d’équipement correspond soit à un manque d’information soit à un refus d’aménagement. Plus de 80 % des personnes âgées sont satisfaites de cette situation et n’envisagent pas d’entrée en institution.ConclusionCette étude confirme l’importante solidarité des familles et des proches envers leurs aînés.Objective Our aim was to describe the living conditions of disabled elderly subjects aged 75 years and more living at home.DesignThis study was conducted in 1996-97 in the Alsace region in France and included two parts. First, a sample survey was mailed to 15,600 subjects randomly selected from a pension funds list. This survey provided with a reliable representation of the study population in terms of disabilities using the Colvez classification. In the second part, the most disabled individuals were selected and, among them, 1,259 subjects were visited at home. Their disabilities and living conditions were noted using a predefined set of questions.ResultsAn estimated 71,000 subjects aged 75 years and more lived at home in the study region. The vast majority were free of significant disability. Help to wash and dress was needed by 6,000 until 1,500 were bedridden or confined to an armchair. Between 4,350 and 5,400 met the criteria for iso-resource grades (IRG) 1 to 3. Disability was associated with age, female gender, cognitive impairment and some social and professional characteristics. Family support was routine in almost every aspect of everyday life including personal hygiene. Professional support was mostly limited to technical interventions. Professional nursing care concerned only the most dependent persons. Nevertheless, needs for help in home and social activities remained high even in the least dependent individuals and were strongly age-dependent. Only 10% of individuals with IRG 1 to 3 complained of inadequate help. More than 80 % of the elderly felt comfortable with their living conditions at home and were not thinking of moving from home to an institution for old people.Conclusion The present study confirms the important commitment of family members and their close relationships toward their elderly.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2005 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
  • Article · Sep 2004 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
  • D. Heitz · F. Mairot
    Article · Sep 2004 · Journal Européen des Urgences
  • D. Heitz · F. Mairot
    Article · Sep 2004 · JEUR

Publication Stats

309 Citations

Institutions

  • 2007
    • Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève
      • Secteur gériatrie et réhabilitation
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2002-2004
    • CHRU de Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
    • University of Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France