[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyamine analogs have demonstrated considerable activity against many important solid tumor models including breast cancer. However, the precise mechanisms of antitumor activities of polyamine analogs are not entirely understood. The cytotoxicity of a newly developed polyamine analog compound, SL11144, against human breast cancer was assessed. Treatment of human breast cancer cell lines in culture with SL11144 decreased cell proliferation and induced programmed cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. SL11144 also profoundly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenografts in host nude mice without overt toxic effects. Treatment of MDA-MB-435 cells with SL11144 led to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, activation of caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. SL11144 decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax protein levels in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, activator protein 1 transcriptional factor family member c-Jun was up-regulated by SL11144 in MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 cells, but not in MCF7 cells. In addition, significant inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity and a decrease in polyamine pools were demonstrated. These results demonstrate that the novel polyamine analog SL11144 has effective antineoplastic action against human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and that multiple apoptotic mechanisms are associated with its cytotoxic effect in specific human breast cancer cell lines.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2003 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formation of transcriptional repression complexes such as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1/histone deacetylase (HDAC) or methyl-CpG binding protein/HDAC is emerging as an important mechanism in silencing a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes. Our previous studies showed that treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha-negative human breast cancer cells with the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) led to ER mRNA and protein re-expression. Also, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) could induce ER transcript about 5-fold. Here we show that 5-aza-dC alone induced ER transcript about 30-40-fold, and the addition of TSA elevated ER mRNA expression about 10-fold more in the human ER-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435. Overall, the combination of 5-aza-dC and TSA induced a 300-400-fold increase in ER transcript. Restoration of estrogen responsiveness was demonstrated by the ability of the induced ER protein to elicit estrogen response element-regulated reporter activity from an exogenous plasmid as well as induce expression of the ER target gene, progesterone receptor. The synergistic activation of ER occurs concomitantly with markedly reduced soluble DNMT1 expression and activity, partial demethylation of the ER CpG island, and increased acetylation of histones H(3) and H(4). These data suggest that the activities of both DNMT1 and HDAC are key regulators of methylation-mediated ER gene silencing.