Christopher G Scott

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (141)906.84 Total impact

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    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Bileaflet mitral valve prolapse (BiMVP) is common among survivors of otherwise unexplained sudden cardiac death, but prognostic implications of BiMVP are unknown. This study evaluated whether patients with BiMVP are at higher risk for ventricular dysrhythmias, ICD placement, or death compared to controls with either single-leaflet mitral valve prolapse (SiMVP) or no mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Methods and results: This retrospective, matched cohort study included 18,786 patients who underwent echocardiography at Mayo Clinic between June 1990 and September 2014. The study included three cohorts: BiMVP, SiMVP, and controls without MVP. We assessed rates of ventricular dysrhythmias, ICD placement, and all-cause mortality between groups. BiMVP was associated with higher rates of ventricular tachycardia compared to SiMVP and controls (adjusted HR 1.48 [1.14-1.92], p = 0.003 and 1.40 [1.04-1.88], p = 0.026 respectively); however, there were no statistically significant differences in rates of ventricular fibrillation/cardiac arrest or ICD placement between groups. BiMVP was associated with a lower rate of all-cause mortality compared to SiMVP and controls (adjusted HR 0.86 [0.79-0.94], p = 0.0008, and 0.55 [0.50-0.60], p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion: Although BiMVP is associated with ventricular tachycardia, it is not associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrest/ventricular fibrillation or ICD implantation and is, paradoxically, associated with a better survival compared to SiMVP or matched controls. The findings suggest that, despite its association with ventricular tachycardia, BiMVP in the absence of other risk factors does not seem to portend a poor prognosis at the population level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We recently reported that normal aldosterone levels are associated with cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic disease in a sample of the US general community (Visit 1). For the current analyses we used the same cohort in a new 4-year follow-up study (Visit 2). Methods and results: We measured aldosterone at Visit 1 and analyzed its predictive role for new diseases at Visit 2 (n=1140). We measured aldosterone at Visit 2 and investigated its associations with disease at Visit 2 (n=1368). We analyzed aldosterone continuously and we also dichotomized the variable as whether subjects were in the third tertile versus second and first tertiles. As continuous variable at Visit 1, aldosterone predicted new onset hypertension (HTN) (OR=1.36, CI=1.13-1.63, P=0.001), central obesity (OR=1.36, CI=1.07-1.73, P=0.011), and use of lipid-lowering drugs (OR=1.25, CI=1.05-1.48, P=0.012) at Visit 2, after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. When in the third tertile (8.5-88.6 ng/dL), aldosterone predicted type 2 diabetes (T2DM, OR=1.96, CI=1.03-3.70, P=0.039). At Visit 2, aldosterone remained associated with HTN, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), as reported for Visit 1. However, aldosterone was not associated with heart failure (HF) at Visit 1 and 2, nor was aldosterone a predictor of HF between visits. Conclusions: Aldosterone predicts new HTN, central obesity, T2DM, and use of lipid-lowering drugs in the general community and remains associated with HTN, obesity, and CKD over 4 years. Aldosterone is not associated nor predicts HF. Further studies are warranted to evaluate aldosterone as therapeutic target in the general community.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare the classification of breast density with two automated methods, Volpara (version 1.5.0; Matakina Technology, Wellington, New Zealand) and Quantra (version 2.0; Hologic, Bedford, Mass), with clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classifications and to examine associations of these measures with breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods In this study, 1911 patients with breast cancer and 4170 control subjects matched for age, race, examination date, and mammography machine were evaluated. Participants underwent mammography at Mayo Clinic or one of four sites within the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2006 and 2012 and provided informed consent or a waiver for research, in compliance with HIPAA regulations and institutional review board approval. Digital mammograms were retrieved a mean of 2.1 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) before cancer diagnosis, with the corresponding clinical BI-RADS density classifications, and Volpara and Quantra density estimates were generated. Agreement was assessed with weighted κ statistics among control subjects. Breast cancer associations were evaluated with conditional logistic regression, adjusted for age and body mass index. Odds ratios, C statistics, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results Agreement between clinical BI-RADS density classifications and Volpara and Quantra BI-RADS estimates was moderate, with κ values of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.59) and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.47), respectively. Differences of up to 14% in dense tissue classification were found, with Volpara classifying 51% of women as having dense breasts, Quantra classifying 37%, and clinical BI-RADS assessment used to classify 43%. Clinical and automated measures showed similar breast cancer associations; odds ratios for extremely dense breasts versus scattered fibroglandular densities were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2), 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.5), and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) for Volpara, Quantra, and BI-RADS classifications, respectively. Clinical BI-RADS assessment showed better discrimination of case status (C = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.61) than did Volpara (C = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.59) and Quantra (C = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.58) BI-RADS classifications. Conclusion Automated and clinical assessments of breast density are similarly associated with breast cancer risk but differ up to 14% in the classification of women with dense breasts. This could have substantial effects on clinical practice patterns. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The recent report that appropriately performed echocardiographic examinations result in active changes in management in only one third of patients has challenged the validity of current appropriate use criteria. Limited information exists about the clinical importance of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to guide management and rule out important alternative pathology. Methods: The clinical impact of inpatient TTE performed at the Mayo Clinic over a 20-week period between October 14, 2013, and March 3, 2014, was investigated. Studies were included if they were ordered within 72 hours of admission, and treating physicians participated in a real-time survey regarding the clinical importance of TTE. Appropriate use was determined by two independent investigators, with differences adjudicated by a third investigator. Clinical impact was derived from physicians' survey responses and independently confirmed by chart review. Results: Of the 539 transthoracic echocardiographic examinations included in this study, 512 (95%) were appropriate, 16 (3%) may be appropriate and 11 (2%) rarely appropriate. Although only 48% of participating physicians actively changed management on the basis of findings on TTE, 97% responded that TTE answered their clinical questions, and 95% would still order TTE in similar clinical contexts. Conclusions: Most early inpatient transthoracic echocardiographic studies at our institution were appropriate and answered specific clinical questions important for management decisions in the opinion of the treating physician. Confirming a plan of care already in place and ruling out alternative pathology may be as important clinically as uncovering new findings or changing management.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · BMC pharmacology & toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Frailty is prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease, but few studies have evaluated relations between frailty and echocardiographically determined cardiac indexes. To assess the prevalence of frailty and its association with echocardiographic characteristics, we prospectively measured frailty in 257 patients ≥65 years who underwent echocardiography (transthoracic echocardiography [TTE]) from June 2012 to February 2013. Deficits of weight loss, exhaustion, physical activity, gait speed, and handgrip strength were used to categorize patients as frail (≥3 features), intermediately frail (1 or 2 features), or nonfrail (0 features). Pearson correlation was used to examine bivariate associations between TTE variables and frailty. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate overall survival based on frailty status. A multivariable model was used to examine TTE indexes associated with frailty while accounting for age and baseline cardiac co-morbidities. Of the 257 patients studied, 40 (15.6%) were nonfrail, 167 (65.0%) intermediately frail, and 50 (19.4%) frail. Left atrial volume (r = 0.14; p = 0.03), stroke volume (r = -0.19; p <0.01), E/A ratio (r = 0.26; p <0.001), and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = 0.33; p <0.001) correlated with fraility. After age and baseline cardiac comorbidities were accounted for, larger left atrial volumes, lower stroke volumes, and higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures remained independently associated with frailty. Frail patients had worse survival compared with nonfrail and intermediately frail patients (p = 0.016 by log-rank). In conclusion, 1/5 of older patients who underwent clinically indicated TTE were frail, with worse survival and a unique fingerprint of TTE findings distinguishing them from nonfrail patients.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The American journal of cardiology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015
  • Amit K. Jain · Christopher G. Scott · Horng H. Chen

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Blood pressure (BP) responses during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) have not been systematically studied. Consequently, it is not known what constitutes a normal or an abnormal BP response to dobutamine stress. We sought to define the typical BP response during DSE of patients not known to have cardiovascular disease. Methods and results: Of 24 134 patients who underwent DSE from November 2003 to December 2012 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2968 were selected for inclusion in this retrospective study. Excluded were patients with a history of hypertension, diabetes, or coronary artery disease, and those taking vasoactive medications. Patients who had baseline and/or stress-induced wall motion abnormalities were also excluded. The distribution of the study population's BP responses during DSE was Gaussian; we defined cut-point values for normative BP responses at 2 SD for each decade of age and for the whole study population. During DSE, systolic BP (SBP) increased from baseline to peak stress (Δ +2.9 ± 24 mmHg, P < 0.0001) and diastolic BP (DBP) decreased (Δ -7.4 ± 14 mmHg). BP changes were age and sex dependent; men and younger patients had greater ΔSBP and lesser ΔDBP, compared with women and older patients. Patients who received atropine had higher peak BP values than patients who did not receive atropine, due to greater ΔSBP (+7.4 ± 26 vs. -0.5 ± 22 mmHg, P < 0.0001) and lesser ΔDBP (-4 ± 14 vs. -9.7 ± 12 mmHg, P < 0.0001). This atropine effect was present in men and women, and was more pronounced in younger patients. The normative peak SBP values ranged from 82 to 182 mmHg. Conclusion: BP responses during DSE vary and depend on patients' age, gender, and the use of atropine. We describe the typical BP responses seen during DSE and report normative reference values, which can be used for defining normal and abnormal BP responses to dobutamine stress.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Percent mammographic density (PD) estimates the proportion of stromal, fat, and epithelial breast tissues on the mammogram image. Adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), PD is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer [1]. Inherited factors are hypothesized to explain between 30 and 60% of the variance in this trait [2-5]. However, previously identified common genetic variants account for less than 6% of the variance in PD, leaving much of the genetic contribution to this trait unexplained. We performed the first study to examine whether germline copy number variation (CNV) are associated with PD. Two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of percent density conducted on the Illumina 660W-Quad were used to identify and replicate the association between candidate CNVs and PD: the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study (MBCFS) and controls from the Mayo Venous Thromboembolism (Mayo VTE) Case-Control Study, with 585 and 328 women, respectively. Linear models were utilized to examine the association of each probe with PD, adjusted for age, menopausal status and BMI. Segmentation was subsequently performed on the probe-level test statistics to identify candidate CNV regions that were associated with PD. Sixty-one probes from five chromosomal regions [3q26.1 (2 regions), 8q24.22, 11p15.3, and 17q22] were significantly associated with PD in MBCFS (p-values <0.0001). A CNV at 3q26.1 showed the greatest evidence for association with PD; a region without any known SNPs. Conversely, the CNV at 17q22 was largely due to the association between SNPs and PD in the region. SNPs in the 8q24.22 region have been shown to be associated with risk of many cancers; however, SNPs in this region were not responsible for the observed CNV association. While we were unable to replicate the associations with PD, two of the five CNVs (3q26.1 and 11p15.3) were also observed in the Mayo VTE controls. CNVs may help to explain some of the variability in PD that is currently unexplained by SNPs. While we were able to replicate the existence of two CNVs across the two GWAS studies, we were unable to replicate the associations with PD. Even so, the proximity of the identified CNV regions to loci known to be associated with breast cancer risk suggests further investigation and potentially shared genetic mechanisms underlying the PD and breast cancer association.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary fibroelastomas (PFE) are benign neoplasms with little available outcome data. This study sought to describe the frequency and clinical course of patients with surgically removed PFE and echocardiographically suspected, but unoperated, PFE. Mayo Clinic pathology and echocardiography databases (January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2010) were queried, resulting in 511 patients: group 1 (n = 185), including patients with surgically removed, histopathologically confirmed PFE; group 1a (n = 94; 51%) with PFE removed at primary surgery; and group 1b (n = 91; 49%) with PFE removal at time of another cardiac surgery. Group 2 (n = 326) patients had echocardiographic evidence of PFE but no cardiac surgery to remove PFE. Group 1 had mean age of 63 ± 14 years (116 women [63%]). During the study period, we identified 112 cardiac myxomas in the pathology database and 142 in the echocardiographic database. Mean age in group 2 was 67 ± 14 years (162 women [50%]). PFE occurred most commonly on cardiac valves (n = 400 [78%]). In group 1, transient ischemic attack or stroke was the presenting symptom in 58 patients (32%). With surgical removal of valvular PFE, the valve was preserved in 92 (98%). Recurrence was documented in 3 patients (1.6%). Follow-up stroke risk in groups 1, 1a, and 1b at 1 year was 2%, 0%, and 4%; at 5 years, 8%, 5%, and 11%, respectively. Cerebrovascular accident risk in group 2 at 1 and 5 years was 6% and 13%. In patients with echocardiographically suspected PFE who do not undergo surgical removal, rates of cerebrovascular accident and mortality are increased. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether a 76-locus polygenic risk score (PRS) and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density were independent risk factors within three studies (1643 case patients, 2397 control patients) using logistic regression models. We incorporated the PRS odds ratio (OR) into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk-prediction model while accounting for its attributable risk and compared five-year absolute risk predictions between models using area under the curve (AUC) statistics. All statistical tests were two-sided. BI-RADS density and PRS were independent risk factors across all three studies (P interaction = .23). Relative to those with scattered fibroglandular densities and average PRS (2(nd) quartile), women with extreme density and highest quartile PRS had 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.74 to 4.12) increased risk, while those with low density and PRS had reduced risk (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.51). PRS added independent information (P < .001) to the BCSC model and improved discriminatory accuracy from AUC = 0.66 to AUC = 0.69. Although the BCSC-PRS model was well calibrated in case-control data, independent cohort data are needed to test calibration in the general population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced stroke volume index (SVI) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved ejection fraction (EF) is associated with adverse outcomes even after aortic valve replacement (AVR), although specific reasons for impaired survival in this group are unknown. We investigated predictors of post-AVR survival and specific cause of death in patients with AS according to SVI. Among 1120 consecutive patients with severe AS (aortic valve area <1.0 cm(2)) and preserved EF (≥50%) using 2-D and Doppler echocardiography who had AVR, 61 (5%) patients had reduced SVI [<35 mL/m(2) (low flow, LF)] and 1059 (95%) had normal SVI [≥35 mL/m(2) (normal flow, NF)]. Survival post-AVR was lower in patients with LF compared with NF [3-year survival in LF group 76% (95% CI 70-82) vs. 89% (95% CI 88-90%), P = 0.03] primarily due to higher cardiac mortality [3-year event rate 13% (95% CI 8-18%) in LF vs. 5% (95% CI 5-7%) in NF, P = 0.02]. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was the most common cause of cardiac death in the LF group (57% of post-AVR cardiac deaths) and was a more frequent cause of death in LF compared with NF (3-year risk 7 vs. 2%, P = 0.008). Multivariable predictors of post-AVR mortality included age, creatinine, haemoglobin, right ventricular systolic pressure, SVI, and cognitive impairment. Reduced SVI is associated with higher cardiac mortality after AVR. CHF is the predominant cause of cardiac mortality after AVR in patients with LF, suggesting the presence of persistent myocardial impairment in this population. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is an endothelium-derived peptide that is released as a protective mechanism in response cardiovascular injury or disease. However, no studies have investigated circulating CNP, identifying clinical factors that may influence CNP and its relationship to cardiovascular disease in the general population. We studied 1841 randomly selected subjects from Olmsted County, MN (mean age, 63±11 years; 48% men). Plasma CNP was measured by a well-established radioimmunoassay and echocardiography, clinical characterization, and detailed medical record review were performed. We report that CNP circulates at various concentrations (median, 13 pg/mL), was unaffected by sex, was weakly associated by age, and that highest quartile of CNP identified a high-risk phenotype. Subjects with CNP in the highest quartile were associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.09; P=0.01) but not heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents, or death during a follow-up of 12 years. Addition of the highest quartile of CNP to clinical variables led to a modest increase in the integrated discrimination improvement for risk of myocardial infarction. In a large community-based cohort, elevated circulating CNP identified a high-risk phenotype that included cardiovascular comorbidities and left ventricular dysfunction, and provided evidence that highest concentrations of CNP potentially has prognostic value in predicting future risk of myocardial infarction. Together, these data from the general population highlight the potential value of CNP and support the need for additional studies to evaluate whether mechanisms regulating CNP could improve outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: In asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, guidelines recommend left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of <50% as the threshold for referral for aortic valve replacement. We investigated the importance of LVEF on long-term outcome after aortic valve replacement in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis. We retrospectively identified 2017 patients with severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area<1 cm(2), mean gradient≥40 mm Hg, or indexed aortic valve area<0.6 cm(2)/m(2)) who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement from January 1995 to June 2009. Patients were divided into 4 groups depending on preoperative LVEF (<50% in 300 [15%] patients, 50%-59% in 331 [17%], 60%-69% in 908 [45%], and ≥70% in 478 [24%]). During follow-up of 5.3±4.4 years, 1056 (52%) patients died. A decrease in mortality was observed with increasing LVEF, P<0.0001; 5-year mortality estimates (95% confidence interval) were 0.41 (0.35-0.47), LVEF<50%; 0.35 (0.29-0.41), LVEF 50% to 59%; 0.26 (0.23-0.29), LVEF 60% to 69%; and 0.22 (0.18-0.26), LVEF≥70%. Compared with patients with LVEF≥60%, patients with LVEF 50% to 59% had increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; P<0.001), with similar risk increase in both symptomatic (HR, 1.56; P<0.001) and asymptomatic patients (HR, 1.58; P=0.006). Correcting for risk factors, LV mass index, aortic valve area, and stroke volume index, LVEF was independently predictive of mortality (HR, 0.88 per 10%; P<0.001). When this analysis was repeated in the subset of 1333 patients without history of coronary artery disease, LVEF remained associated with mortality (HR, 0.90 per 10%; P=0.009). LVEF is a powerful predictor of outcome in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement, independent of the presence of valve-related symptoms. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Among patients with severe aortic stenosis (sAS) and preserved LVEF, those with low-flow, low-gradient sAS (LFLG-sAS) have an adverse prognosis. It has been proposed that LFLG-sAS represents an end-stage point of sAS, but longitudinal information has not been described. The aim was to determine whether LFLG-sAS represents an end-stage consequence of normal-flow, high-gradient sAS (NFHG-sAS) or a different entity. From our transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) database, we identified patients with sAS (aortic valve area <1 cm(2)) and preserved LVEF (≥50%), and from these, patients with LFLG-sAS (stroke volume index <35 mL/m(2) and mean transvalvular gradient <40 mm Hg) who had ≥1 additional TTE within five years prior to the index TTE. Patients were age/sex/date matched 2:1 with patients with NFHG-sAS and normal-flow, low-gradient (NFLG)-sAS who also had ≥1 TTE. Included were 1203 TTEs (383 index studies and 820 preceding studies). In 78 patients with LFLG-sAS, an HG stage preceded the index TTE in only 4 (5%). During the five years preceding the index TTE, patients with LFLG-sAS developed increasing relative wall thickness (0.42 to 0.49; p<0.001) without change in LV mass index. Patients with NFHG-sAS had a marked increase in LV mass index (87 to 115 g/m(2); p<0.001). Patients with LFLG-sAS demonstrated the greatest reduction in LV end-diastolic diameters (-3 vs -1 for NFLG-sAS vs +2 mm for NFHG-sAS; p=0.001), deceleration time (-55 vs -3 vs +3 ms, respectively; p<0.01) and LVEF (-4 vs 0 vs 0%, respectively; p=0.01). LFLG-sAS is a distinct presentation of sAS preceded by a unique remodelling pathway and is uncommonly preceded by an HG stage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)

Publication Stats

4k Citations
906.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Diseases
      • • Department of Health Science Research
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Minnesota Rochester
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States