Christopher J Rhodes

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (159)1126.27 Total impact

  • Brandon B. Boland · Cristina Alarcón · Almas Ali · Christopher J. Rhodes
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    ABSTRACT: Monomethyladenines have effects on DNA repair, G-protein-coupled receptor antagonism and autophagy. In islet ß-cells, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) has been implicated in DNA-repair and autophagy, but its mechanism of action is unclear. Here, the effect of monomethylated adenines was examined in rat islets. 3-MA, N6-methyladenine (N6-MA) and 9-methyladenine (9-MA), but not 1- or 7-monomethylated adenines, specifically potentiated glucose-induced insulin secretion (3-4 fold; p ≤ 0.05) and proinsulin biosynthesis (˜2-fold; p ≤ 0.05). Using 3-MA as a 'model' monomethyladenine, it was found that 3-MA augmented [cAMP]i accumulation (2-3 fold; p ≤ 0.05) in islets within 5 minutes. The 3-, N6- and 9-MA also enhanced glucose-induced phosphorylation of the cAMP/protein kinase-A (PKA) substrate cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Treatment of islets with pertussis or cholera toxin indicated 3-MA mediated elevation of [cAMP]i was not mediated via G-protein-coupled receptors. Also, 3-MA did not compete with 9-cyclopentyladenine (9-CPA) for adenylate cyclase inhibition, but did for the pan-inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Competitive inhibition experiments with PDE-isoform specific inhibitors suggested 3-MA to have a preference for PDE4 in islet ß-cells, but this was likely reflective of PDE4 being the most abundant PDE isoform in ß-cells. In vitro enzyme assays indicated that 3-, N6- and 9-MA were capable of inhibiting most PDE isoforms found in ß-cells. Thus, in addition to known inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3'K)/m Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, 3-MA also acts as a pan-phosphodiesterase inhibitor in pancreatic ß-cells to elevate [cAMP]i and then potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion and production in parallel.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Islets
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ß-cells normally produce adequate insulin to control glucose homeostasis, but in obesity-related diabetes there is a presumed deficit in insulin production and secretory capacity. Here, insulin production was assessed directly in obese diabetic mouse models and found that proinsulin biosynthesis was contrastingly increased, coupled with significant expansion of the RER (without ER-stress) and Golgi apparatus, increased vesicular trafficking, and a depletion of mature ß-granules. As such, ß-cells have a remarkable capacity to produce substantial quantities of insulin in obesity, which then made available for immediate secretion in an effort to meet increased metabolic demand, but this comes at the price of insulin secretory dysfunction. Notwithstanding, it is reversible. Upon exposing isolated pancreatic islets of obese mice to normal glucose concentrations, ß-cells revert back to their typical morphology with restoration of regulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate an unrealized dynamic adaptive plasticity of pancreatic ß-cells and underscores the rationale for transient 'ß-cell rest' as a treatment strategy for obese diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) contains a heterogeneous cluster of Sim1-expressing cell types that comprise a major autonomic output nucleus and play critical roles in the control of food intake and energy homeostasis. The roles of specific PVH neuronal subtypes in energy balance have yet to be defined, however. The PVH contains nitric oxide synthase-1 (Nos1)-expressing (Nos1(PVH)) neurons of unknown function; these represent a subset of the larger population of Sim1-expressing PVH (Sim1(PVH)) neurons. To determine the role of Nos1(PVH) neurons in energy balance, we used Cre-dependent viral vectors to both map their efferent projections and test their functional output in mice. Here we show that Nos1(PVH) neurons project to hindbrain and spinal cord regions important for food intake and energy expenditure control. Moreover, pharmacogenetic activation of Nos1(PVH) neurons suppresses feeding to a similar extent as Sim1(PVH) neurons, and increases energy expenditure and activity. Furthermore, we found that oxytocin-expressing PVH neurons (OXT(PVH)) are a subset of Nos1(PVH) neurons. OXT(PVH) cells project to preganglionic, sympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and increase energy expenditure upon activation, though not to the same extent as Nos1(PVH) neurons; their activation fails to alter feeding, however. Thus, Nos1(PVH) neurons promote negative energy balance through changes in feeding and energy expenditure, whereas OXT(PVH) neurons regulate energy expenditure alone, suggesting a crucial role for non-OXT Nos1(PVH) neurons in feeding regulation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoglycemia initiates the counter-regulatory response (CRR), in which the sympathetic nervous system, glucagon and glucocorticoids restore glucose to appropriate concentrations. During starvation, low leptin levels restrain energy utilization, enhancing long-term survival. To ensure short-term survival during hypoglycemia in fasted animals, the CRR must overcome this energy-sparing program and nutrient depletion. Here we identify in mice a previously unrecognized role for leptin and a population of leptin-regulated neurons that modulate the CRR to meet these challenges. Hypoglycemia activates neurons of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) that coexpress leptin receptor (LepRb) and cholecystokinin (CCK) (PBN LepRb(CCK) neurons), which project to the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Leptin inhibits these cells, and Cck(cre)-mediated ablation of LepRb enhances the CRR. Inhibition of PBN LepRb cells blunts the CRR, whereas their activation mimics the CRR in a CCK-dependent manner. PBN LepRb(CCK) neurons are a crucial component of the CRR system and may be a therapeutic target in hypoglycemia.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Nature Neuroscience

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This article examines the foundation of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and suggests areas for future research on the underlying mechanisms that may lead to improved prevention and treatment.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA group of experts participated in a conference on 14-16 October 2013 cosponsored by the Endocrine Society and the American Diabetes Association. A writing group prepared this summary and recommendations.RESULTSThe writing group based this article on conference presentations, discussion, and debate. Topics covered include genetic predisposition, foundations of β-cell failure, natural history of β-cell failure, and impact of therapeutic interventions.CONCLUSIONSβ-Cell failure is central to the development and progression of T2D. It antedates and predicts diabetes onset and progression, is in part genetically determined, and often can be identified with accuracy even though current tests are cumbersome and not well standardized. Multiple pathways underlie decreased β-cell function and mass, some of which may be shared and may also be a consequence of processes that initially caused dysfunction. Goals for future research include to 1) impact the natural history of β-cell failure; 2) identify and characterize genetic loci for T2D; 3) target β-cell signaling, metabolic, and genetic pathways to improve function/mass; 4) develop alternative sources of β-cells for cell-based therapy; 5) focus on metabolic environment to provide indirect benefit to β-cells; 6) improve understanding of the physiology of responses to bypass surgery; and 7) identify circulating factors and neuronal circuits underlying the axis of communication between the brain and β-cells.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Diabetes care
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) control motivated behaviors such as feeding and ambulatory activity, in part by modulating mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuits. The hormone, leptin, acts via the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb) in the brain to signal the repletion of body energy stores, thereby decreasing feeding and promoting activity. LHA LepRb neurons, most of which contain neurotensin (Nts; LepRb(Nts) neurons) link leptin action to the control of mesolimbic DA function and energy balance. To understand potential roles for Nts in these processes, we examined mice null for Nts receptor 1 (NtsR1KO). While NtsR1KO mice consume less food than controls on a chow diet, they eat more and become obese when fed a high-fat, high-sucrose palatable diet; NtsR1KO mice also exhibit augmented sucrose preference, consistent with increased hedonic feeding in these animals. We thus sought to understand potential roles for NtsR1 in the control of the mesolimbic DA system and LHA leptin action. LHA Nts cells project to DA-containing midbrain areas, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra (SN), where many DA neurons express NtsR1. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, intra-LHA leptin treatment increased feeding and decreased VTA Th expression in NtsR1KO mice, consistent with a role for NtsR1 signaling from LHA LepRb neurons in the suppression of food intake and control of mesolimbic DA function. Additionally, these data suggest that other leptin-regulated LHA neurotransmitters normally oppose aspects of Nts action to promote balanced responses to leptin.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Molecular Metabolism
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    Christopher J Rhodes · Morris F White · John L Leahy · Steven E Kahn
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years there has been a growing interest in the possibility of a direct autocrine effect of insulin on the pancreatic β-cell. Indeed, there have been numerous intriguing articles and several eloquent reviews written on the subject (1-3); however, the concept is still controversial. Although many in vitro experiments, a few transgenic mouse studies, and some human investigations would be supportive of the notion, there exist different insights, other studies, and circumstantial evidence that question the concept. Therefore, the idea of autocrine action of insulin remains a conundrum. Here we outline a series of thoughts, insights, and alternative interpretations of the available experimental evidence. We ask, how convincing are these, and what are the confusing issues? We agree that there is a clear contribution of certain downstream elements in the insulin signaling pathway for β-cell function and survival, but the question of whether insulin itself is actually the physiologically relevant ligand that triggers this signal transduction remains unsettled.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Diabetes
  • Wilfredo Rosario · Christopher Rhodes · Martin Myers
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    ABSTRACT: For over 150 years it has been known that certain brain injuries perturb metabolism. Within the last 30 years it has been known that there is a degree of neuronal control of insulin and glucagon secretion in response to nutrients, hormones and incretins. However, the precise neuronal pathway involved in regulating these pancreatic secretions remains largely unknown. In this study, we unveil a map of the brain that traces this pathway and indicates which parts of the brain connect to pancreatic islets, likely involved in regulating their function. We infected the pancreas of mice with a retrograde neuronal tracer, an attenuated pseudorabies virus expressing the LacZ gene reporter (PRV-BaBlu) and then probed brain beta-galactosidase detection at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. This enabled us to detect specific areas reached by the virus via autonomic nervous system from the pancreas. Viral tracing ends in the hypothalamus at the longest time point, indicating a major link of the hypothalamus to the endocrine pancreas. Very little PRV-BaBlu could be traced to other areas of the CNS. A characterization of this viral map co-localizes hypothalamic glucokinase to PRV-BaBlu positive neurons, indicating this tracing map overlaps with metabolic homeostasis control centers. In summary, we have generated the first map of the CNS link to the endocrine pancreas, directed to the hypothalamus, a central regulator of metabolic homeostasis and, now, also likely of endocrine pancreas physiology. Having this map will enable ongoing studies to establish the functional significance of hypothalamic control of pancreatic islet function.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
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    H Guan · K M Chow · R Shah · C J Rhodes · L B Hersh
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    ABSTRACT: A progressive loss of pancreatic beta cell function, a decrease in beta cell mass and accumulation of islet amyloid is characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The main constituent of islet amyloid is islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). In this study, we examined the ability of the peptidase neprilysin to cleave IAPP and prevent human IAPP-induced pancreatic beta cell toxicity. Neprilysin and a catalytically compromised neprilysin mutant were tested for their ability to inhibit human IAPP fibrillisation and human IAPP-induced pancreatic beta cell cytotoxicity. Degradation of human IAPP by neprilysin was followed by HPLC, and the degradation products were identified by MS. Neprilysin prevented IAPP fibrillisation by cleaving IAPP at Arg(11)-Leu(12), Leu(12)-Ala(13), Asn(14)-Phe(15), Phe(15)-Leu(16), Asn(22)-Phe(23) and Ala(25)-Ile(26). It also appears to prevent human IAPP fibrillisation through a non-catalytic interaction. Neprilysin protected against beta cell cytotoxicity induced by exogenously added or endogenously produced human IAPP. The data presented support a potential therapeutic role for neprilysin in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study supports the hypothesis that extracellular human IAPP contributes to human IAPP-induced beta cell cytotoxicity. Whether human IAPP exerts its cytotoxic effect through a totally extracellular mechanism or through a cellular reuptake mechanism is unclear at this time.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Diabetologia
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    Peter Arvan · Massimo Pietropaolo · David Ostrov · Christopher J Rhodes
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    ABSTRACT: Islet autoantigens associated with autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) are expressed in pancreatic β cells, although many show wider patterns of expression in the neuroendocrine system. Within pancreatic β cells, every T1D autoantigen is in one way or another linked to the secretory pathway. Together, these autoantigens play diverse roles in glucose regulation, metabolism of biogenic amines, as well as the regulation, formation, and packaging of secretory granules. The mechanism(s) by which immune tolerance to islet-cell antigens is lost during the development of T1D, remains unclear. Antigenic peptide creation for immune presentation may potentially link to the secretory biology of β cells in a number of ways, including proteasomal digestion of misfolded products, exocytosis and endocytosis of cell-surface products, or antigen release from dying β cells during normal or pathological turnover. In this context, we evaluate the biochemical nature and immunogenicity of the major autoantigens in T1D including (pro)insulin, GAD65, ZnT8, IA2, and ICA69.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Insulin resistance can be compensated by increased functional pancreatic β-cell mass; otherwise, diabetes ensues. Such compensation depends not only on environmental and genetic factors but also on the baseline β-cell mass from which the expansion originates. Objective: Little is known about assembly of a baseline β-cell mass in humans. Here, we examined formation of β-cell populations relative to other pancreatic islet cell types and associated neurons throughout the normal human lifespan. Design and Methods: Human pancreatic sections derived from normal cadavers aged 24 wk premature to 72 yr were examined by immunofluorescence. Insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin were used as markers for β-, α-, and δ-cells, respectively. Cytokeratin-19 marked ductal cells, Ki67 cell proliferation, and Tuj1 (neuronal class III β-tubulin) marked neurons. Results: Most β-cell neogenesis was observed preterm with a burst of β-cell proliferation peaking within the first 2 yr of life. Thereafter, little indication of β-cell growth was observed. Postnatal proliferation of α- and δ-cells was rarely seen, but a wave of ductal cell proliferation was found mostly associated with exocrine cell expansion. The β-cell to α-cell ratio doubled neonatally, reflecting increased growth of β-cells, but during childhood, there was a 7-fold change in the β-cell to δ-cell ratio, reflecting an additional loss of δ-cells. A close association of neurons to pancreatic islets was noted developmentally and retained throughout adulthood. Negligible neuronal association to exocrine pancreas was observed. Conclusion: Human baseline β-cell population and appropriate association with other islet cell types is established before 5 yr of age.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
  • Cristina Alarcon · C Bruce Verchere · Christopher J Rhodes
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) biosynthesis and/or processing are thought contribute to formation of islet amyloid in type 2 diabetes. However, it is unclear how normal pro-IAPP biosynthesis and processing are regulated to be able to define such dysfunction. Here, it was found that acute exposure to high glucose concentrations coordinately regulated the biosynthesis of pro-IAPP, proinsulin, and its proprotein convertase PC1/3 in normal isolated rat islets, without affecting their respective mRNA levels. Pro-7B2 biosynthesis, like that of pro-PC2, did not appreciably change, but this was likely due to a much higher expression in pancreatic α-cells masking glucose regulation of their biosynthesis in β-cells. Biosynthesis of pro-SAAS, the putative PC1/3 chaperone, was unaffected by glucose, consistent with its scarce expression in β-cells. We conclude that translational control of pro-IAPP biosynthesis, in parallel to the pro-PC1/3, pro-PC2, and pro-7B2 proprotein-processing endopeptidases/chaperones, is the predominate mechanism to produce IAPP in islet β-cells.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Endocrinology
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    Damien Demozay · Shin Tsunekawa · Isabelle Briaud · Ramila Shah · Christopher J Rhodes
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) plays an essential role in pancreatic islet β-cells by promoting growth and survival. IRS-2 turnover is rapid in primary β-cells, but its expression is highly regulated at the transcriptional level, especially by glucose. The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanism on how glucose regulates IRS-2 gene expression in β-cells. Rat islets were exposed to inhibitors or subjected to adenoviral vector-mediated gene manipulations and then to glucose-induced IRS-2 expression analyzed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) interaction with IRS-2 promoter was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and glucose-induced NFAT translocation by immunohistochemistry. Glucose-induced IRS-2 expression occurred in pancreatic islet β-cells in vivo but not in liver. Modulating rat islet β-cell Ca(2+) influx with nifedipine or depolarization demonstrated that glucose-induced IRS-2 gene expression was dependent on a rise in intracellular calcium concentration derived from extracellular sources. Calcineurin inhibitors (FK506, cyclosporin A, and a peptide calcineurin inhibitor [CAIN]) abolished glucose-induced IRS-2 mRNA and protein levels, whereas expression of a constitutively active calcineurin increased them. Specific inhibition of NFAT with the peptide inhibitor VIVIT prevented a glucose-induced IRS-2 transcription. NFATc1 translocation to the nucleus in response to glucose and association of NFATc1 to conserved NFAT binding sites in the IRS-2 promoter were demonstrated. The mechanism behind glucose-induced transcriptional control of IRS-2 gene expression specific to the islet β-cell is mediated by the Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT pathway. This insight into the IRS-2 regulation could provide novel therapeutic means in type 2 diabetes to maintain an adequate functional mass.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Diabetes

Publication Stats

13k Citations
1,126.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • University of Queensland 
      • Institute for Molecular Bioscience
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Life Sciences Institute
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2001-2007
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of Geneva
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2005
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2000-2005
    • Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998-2000
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1996-2000
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987-1999
    • Joslin Diabetes Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Clinical Biochemistry
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom