[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of gustatory function is a central part of the diagnosis of patients with chemosensory dysfunctions. The taste of monosodium glutamate was described as umami taste a century ago by Ikeda. The aim of this study was to extend a validated gustatory test with 4 concentrations of monosodium glutamate.
The investigation included 96 subjects who reported having a normal sense of taste and smell. Taste function was assessed by 4 concentrations of sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami tastes (extended version) and compared to results obtained in a control group (n = 139) not presented with umami. In a subgroup of 46 participants, the complete test was repeated within 7 days to obtain retest values.
Group comparisons exhibited no differences in taste sensitivity for each of the 4 taste qualities (p > 0.3) and no deviation with regard to the sum of correctly identified tastants (p = 0.81). Test-retest data from the extended version revealed a high correlation of scores (r46 = 0.77; p < 0.001).
The results indicate that the extended version of the gustatory test is applicable for experimental and clinical settings.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemosensory dysfunction has been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the clinical significance in relation to the disease stage remains unclear. The aim of this investigation was to assess olfactory and gustatory function with valid clinical tests in patients with DM types 1 and 2 with and without accompanying diseases. Seventy-six patients with DM were divided into three groups according to disease stage. Taste function was tested by means of impregnated paper strips and smell function was screened using a five-item smell identification test. The results of the patients with uncomplicated DM were compared with the results from 29 healthy subjects. The results showed no significant differences in smell and taste function between patients with uncomplicated DM and healthy subjects. However, patients with additional diseases exhibited decreased smell acuity. Moreover, patients with DM type 2 showed impaired smell function compared with patients with DM type 1.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elaborate normative values for a clinical psychophysical taste test ("Taste Strips").
The "Taste Strips" are a psychophysical chemical taste test. So far, no definitive normative data had been published and only a fairly small sample size has been investigated. In light of this shortcoming for this easy, reliable and quick taste testing device, we attempted to provide normative values suitable for the clinical use.
Normative value acquisition study, multicenter study.
The investigation involved 537 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (318 female, 219 male, mean age 44 years, age range 18-87 years). The taste test was based on spoon-shaped filter paper strips ("Taste Strips") impregnated with the four (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) taste qualities in four different concentrations. The strips were placed on the left or right side of the anterior third of the extended tongue, resulting in a total of 32 trials. With their tongue still extended, patients had to identify the taste from a list of four descriptors, i. e., sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (multiple forced-choice). To obtain an impression of overall gustatory function, the number of correctly identified tastes was summed up for a "taste score".
Taste function decreased significantly with age. Women exhibited significantly higher taste scores than men which was true for all age groups. The taste score at the 10(th) percentile was selected as a cut-off value to distinguish normogeusia from hypogeusia. Results from a small series of patients with ageusia confirmed the clinical usefulness of the proposed normative values.
The present data provide normative values for the "Taste Strips" based on over 500 subjects tested.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Neurology