Christian Rakos

Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (7)6.79 Total impact

  • Christian Rakos
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter analyzes the lessons learned with the establishment of biomass district heating (BMDH) systems in Austria. Energy from biomass provides about 13% (130 PJ) of all Austrian primary energy consumption today. Small BMDH plants have gained increasing importance in the past 20 years as providers of domestic heating in rural areas in Austria. The advantages of BMDH as compared to traditional heating systems are well known in Austria. BMDH would eliminate fuel handling at the individual level, allow the provision of continuous heat, and reduce emissions significantly. Despite these advantages, the introduction of BMDH in Austria was by no means an easy process. It was only successful because of a unique combination of top-down policies and local bottom-up initiatives. The case of BMDH in Austria shows the complexity of establishing a renewable energy system. It is of fundamental importance for successful renewable energy policies to address this complexity while avoiding a simplistic economic and technical focus. Resources need to be made available for a systemic management during the introduction of renewable energy technologies. Money invested in proper advice, monitoring of technical development, benchmarking, quality control, educational measures, and promotion based on a profound understanding of the social processes in communities is an indispensable prerequisite for success.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2005
  • A Roos · C Rakos
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    ABSTRACT: Factors that complicate bioenergy model building are presented and discussed. Important aspects of ‘real-life’ energy systems that are difficult to represent in modelling are: the cost structure of energy production, information asymmetry, socioeconomic factors, household economics, strategic considerations, and policy uncertainties. The modeller can employ different strategies in dealing with these problems. Complicating aspects can be quantified and integrated in the model, mentioned when the implications of the model are discussed or they may merit separate quantitative or qualitative investigations. The authors make some recommendations as to how these aspects could be considered in the modelling work to improve model accuracy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Biomass and Bioenergy
  • Anders Roos · Robin L. Graham · Bo Hektor · Christian Rakos
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    ABSTRACT: Barriers to bioenergy technology implementation have received increased attention in recent years. This paper contributes to the identification and analysis of barriers and drivers behind bioenergy market growth, here labelled “critical factors”. It presents a framework for the analysis of both existing and projected bioenergy market potential, using economic concepts and models from transaction cost theory and industrial organization. The framework can be used for assessments of the potential for market growth of different bioenergy systems by decision makers in administration and industry. The following critical factors are identified: Integration with other economic activity, Scale effects on bioenergy markets, Competition in bioenergy markets, Competition with other business, National policy, Local policy and local opinion. The framework is demonstrated with five cases of real bioenergy markets: Pellet residential heating in USA, bioenergy power in USA, pellet residential heating in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. Different applications of the framework are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Biomass and Bioenergy
  • A. Roos · B. Hektor · R. L. Graham · C. Rakos
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    ABSTRACT: Focusing on the development of the whole bioenergy market rather than isolated projects, this paper contributes to the identification of barriers and drivers behind bioenergy technology implementation. It presents a framework for the assessment of the potentials for bioenergy market growth to be used by decision makers in administration and industry. The conclusions are based on case studies of operating bioenergy markets in Austria, US and Sweden. Six important factors for bioenergy market growth have been identified: (1) Integration with other business, e.g. for biomass procurement, (2) Scale effects of bioenergy market, (3) Competition on bioenergy market, (4) Competition with other business, (5) National policy, (6) Local policy and local opinion. Different applications of the framework are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998
  • Christian Rakos
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    ABSTRACT: In the last few years, there has been a rising interest in some European countries in both technology assessment (TA) and environmental impact assessment (EIA). The institutional commitments to TA in Austria, F R Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden are described. They show promising concepts for introducing TA into political and industrial policy making. In some concepts, the role of public participation in TA is given special attention.European discussions on EIA are currently in a very dynamic stage, as several members of the European Community should, according to a previous agreement, pass EIA legislation in 1988. Some central issues of discussion, and conflicting views on different implementation options, are described.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1988 · Project Appraisal
  • Ernst Braun · Christian Rakos · Michael Nentwich

    No preview · Book · Jan 1988
  • Christian Rakos

    No preview · Article ·