S. R. Kulkarni

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (722)4133.6 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The optical and optical/near-infrared pseudobolometric light curves of 84 stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) are constructed using a consistent method and a standard cosmology. The light curves are analysed to derive temporal characteristics and peak luminosity Lp, enabling the construction of a luminosity function. Subsequently, the mass of 56Ni synthesised in the explosion, along with the ratio of ejecta mass to ejecta kinetic energy, are found. Analysis shows that host-galaxy extinction is an important factor in accurately determining luminosity values as it is significantly greater than Galactic extinction in most cases. It is found that broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-BL) and gamma-ray burst SNe are the most luminous subtypes with a combined median Lp, in erg s−1, of log(Lp) = 42.99 compared to 42.51 for SNe Ic, 42.50 for SNe Ib, and 42.36 for SNe IIb. It is also found that SNe Ic-BL synthesise approximately twice the amount of 56Ni compared with SNe Ic, Ib, and IIb, with median MNi = 0.34, 0.16, 0.14, and 0.11 M⊙, respectively. SNe Ic-BL, and to a lesser extent SNe Ic, typically rise from Lp/2 to Lp more quickly than SNe Ib/IIb; consequently, their light curves are not as broad.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Z. Zheng · E. O. Ofek · S. R. Kulkarni · J. D. Neill · M. Juric

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We have commenced a multi-year program, the Caltech-NRAO Stripe 82 Survey (CNSS), to search for radio transients with the Jansky VLA in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The CNSS will deliver five epochs over the entire $\sim$270 deg$^2$ of Stripe 82, an eventual deep combined map with a rms noise of $\sim$40 $\mu$Jy and catalogs at a frequency of 3 GHz, and having a spatial resolution of 3". This first paper presents the results from an initial pilot survey of a 50 deg$^2$ region of Stripe 82, involving four epochs spanning logarithmic timescales between one week and 1.5 years, with the combined map having a median rms noise of 35 $\mu$Jy. This pilot survey enabled the development of the hardware and software for rapid data processing, as well as transient detection and follow-up, necessary for the full 270 deg$^2$ survey. Classification of variable and transient sources relied heavily on the wealth of multi-wavelength data in the Stripe 82 region, supplemented by repeated mapping of the region by the Palomar Transient Factory. $3.9^{+0.5}_{-0.9}$% of the detected point sources were found to vary by greater than 30%, consistent with similar studies at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz. Multi-wavelength photometric data and light curves suggest that the variability is mostly due to shock-induced flaring in the jets of AGN. Although this was only a pilot survey, we detected two bona fide transients, associated with an RS CVn binary and a dKe star. Comparison with existing radio survey data revealed additional highly variable and transient sources on timescales between 5-20 years, largely associated with renewed AGN activity. The rates of such AGN possibly imply episodes of enhanced accretion and jet activity occurring once every $\sim$40,000 years in these galaxies. We compile the revised radio transient rates and make recommendations for future transient surveys and joint radio-optical experiments. (Abridged)
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: While recent observations provide evidence that super-Chandrasekhar Type Ia supernovae and at least a fraction of normal Type Ia supernovae probably originate from double-degenerate systems, these two subclasses show distinct characteristics observationally. Here we report an intermediate supernova iPTF13asv that may bridge this gap. On the one hand, similar to normal Type Ia supernovae, the over-luminous iPTF13asv follows the empirical relation between the peak magnitude, the lightcurve shape and its intrinsic color, and shows a near-IR secondary maximum like normal supernovae. On the other hand, similar to super-Chandrasekhar events, it has strong UV emission around maximum, low expansion velocities and persistent carbon absorption. We estimate a ^(56)Ni mass of 0.81^(+0.10)_(-0.18) M_☉ and a total ejecta mass of 1.44^(+0.44)_(-0.12) M_☉. Despite these similarities, iPTF13asv lacks iron absorption in its early-phase spectra, indicating a stratified ejecta structure with weak mixing. Based on the strong stratification of the ejecta and the similarity to super-Chandrasekhar events, we infer that iPTF13asv probably originates from a double-degenerate system.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Long duration y-ray bursts are thought to be a rare subclass of stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae that launch collimated relativistic out ows (jets). All y-ray-burst-associated supernovae are spectroscopically of Type Ic with broad lines, but the fraction of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae harboring low-luminosity y-ray-bursts remains largely unconstrained. Some supernovae should be accompanied by off-axis y-ray burst jets that remain invisible initially, but then emerge as strong radio sources (as the jets decelerate). However, this critical prediction of the jet model for y-ray bursts has yet to be verified observationally. Here, we present K. G. Jansky Very Large Array radio observations of 15 broad-lined supernovae of Type Ic discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory in an untargeted manner. Most of the supernovae in our sample exclude radio emission observationally similar to that of the radio-loud, relativistic SN 1998bw. We thus constrain the fraction of 1998bw-like broad-lined Type Ic supernovae to be ≾ 14%. Most of the events in our sample also exclude off-axis jets similar to GRB031203 and GRB030329, but we cannot rule out off-axis y-ray-bursts expanding in a low-density wind environment. Three supernovae show late-time radio emission compatible with average speeds ≳ 0.3 c, on the dividing line between relativistic and "ordinary" supernovae. Based on these detections, we estimate that ≾ 45% of the broad-lined Type Ic supernovae in our sample may harbor off-axis y-ray-bursts expanding in media with densities in the range probed by this study.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra ($\leq 10$ days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra ("flash spectroscopy"), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 Type II SNe showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14\% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18\% of SNe~II observed at ages $<5$ days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as "blue/featureless" (BF) those events having a first spectrum which is similar to that of a black body, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude $M_R=-18.2$ belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above $M_R=-17.6$ mag, significantly brighter than average SNe~II.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: During the first few days after explosion, Type II supernovae (SNe) are dominated by relatively simple physics. Theoretical predictions regarding early-time SN light curves in the ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands are thus quite robust. We present, for the first time, a sample of $57$ $R$-band Type II SN light curves that are well monitored during their rise, having $>5$ detections during the first 10 days after discovery, and a well-constrained time of explosion to within $1-3$ days. We show that the energy per unit mass ($E/M$) can be deduced to roughly a factor of five by comparing early-time optical data to the model of Rabinak & Waxman (2011), while the progenitor radius cannot be determined based on $R$-band data alone. We find that Type II SN explosion energies span a range of $E/M=(0.2-20)\times 10^{51} \; \rm{erg/(10 M}_\odot$), and have a mean energy per unit mass of $\left\langle E/M \right\rangle = 0.85\times 10^{51} \; \rm{erg/(10 M}_\odot$), corrected for Malmquist bias. Assuming a small spread in progenitor masses, this indicates a large intrinsic diversity in explosion energy. Moreover, $E/M$ is positively correlated with the amount of $^{56}\rm{Ni}$ produced in the explosion, as predicted by some recent models of core-collapse SNe. We further present several empirical correlations. The peak magnitude is correlated with the decline rate ($\Delta m_{15}$), the decline rate is weakly correlated with the rise time, and the rise time is not significantly correlated with the peak magnitude. Faster declining SNe are more luminous and have longer rise times. This limits the possible power sources for such events.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    S. R. Kulkarni · E. O. Ofek · J. D. Neill
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of fast radio bursts (FRB) has been extensively debated. Here we investigate FRB121102, detected at Arecibo telescope and remarkable for its unusually large spectral index. After extensive study we conclude that the spectral index is caused by a nebula with free-free absorption. We find that putative nebula must lie beyond the Milky Way. We conclude that FRBs are of extra-galactic origin and that they arise in dense star-forming regions. The challenge with extra-galactic models is the the high volumetric rate of FRBs. This high rate allows us to eliminate all models of catastrophic stellar deaths. Hyper-giant flares from young magnetars emerge as the most likely progenitors. Some of the consequences are: (i) Intergalactic FRB models can be safely ignored. (ii) The rich ISM environment of young magnetars can result in significant contribution to DM, Rotation Measure (RM) and in some cases to significant free-free optical depth. (iii) The star-forming regions in the host galaxies can contribute significantly to the DM. Including this contribution reduces the inferred distances to FRBs and correspondingly increases the volumetric rate of FRBs (and, in turn, may require that giant flares can also produce FRBs). (iv) FRBs are likely to be suppressed at lower frequencies. Conversely, searching for FRBs at higher frequencies (2-5 GHz) would be attractive. (v) The blast wave which produces the radio emission can undergo rapid deceleration if the circum-burst medium is dense (as maybe the case for FRB121102), leading to X-ray, radio and possibly gamma-ray emission. (vi) Galaxies with high star formation rate host will have a higher FRB rate. However, such FRBs will have differing DMs owing to differing local contributions. (vi) The DM and RM of FRBs will prove to be noisy probes of the intergalactic medium (density, magnetic field) and cosmography.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z=0.3434, with properties similar to SN2007bi. It rises within (83-148)days (rest-frame) to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.3x$10^{44}$erg/s, then decays very slowly at 0.015mag. per day. The measured ejecta velocity is 13000km/s. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (67-220$M_\odot$), the total radiative and kinetic energy ($10^{51}$ & 2x$10^{53}$erg respectively), is typical of SLSN-R events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251days reveals a Balmer Halpha emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500km/s and has a ~300km/s blue-ward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Halpha emission line as the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) shell, located at a distance of ~4x$10^{16}$cm from the explosion site. This ejecta-CSM interaction can produce the observed Halpha luminosity of 2x$10^{41}$erg/s and causes the rest-frame r-band LC to brighten at late times. The fact that the late-time spectra are not completely absorbed by the shock ionized CSM shell implies that its Thomson scattering optical depth is likely <1, thus setting upper limits on the CSM mass <30$M_\odot$ and the volume number density <4x$10^8cm^{-3}$. The early-time spectra do not show any H emission lines from this CSM shell, indicating that most of the H-atoms are already neutral and the shell is optically thin to the visible light. We predict that this shell should produce Lyalpha absorption in the UV spectra. Of the existing models, a Pulsational Pair Instability Supernova model can naturally explain the observed 30$M_\odot$ H-shell, ejected from a progenitor star with an initial mass of (95-150)$M_\odot$ about 40 years ago.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-infrared light curves and optical spectra of SN 2013dx, associated with the nearby (redshift 0.145) gamma-ray burst GRB130702A. The prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy released from GRB130702A is measured to be E ;iso = 6:4+1:3
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has greatly expanded the number and energy window of observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, the coarse localizations of tens to a hundred square degrees provided by the Fermi GRB Monitor instrument have posed a formidable obstacle to locating the bursts' host galaxies, measuring their redshifts, and tracking their panchromatic afterglows. We have built a target-of-opportunity mode for the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory in order to perform targeted searches for Fermi afterglows. Here, we present the results of one year of this program: 8 afterglow discoveries out of 35 searches. Two of the bursts with detected afterglows (GRBs 130702A and 140606B) were at low redshift (z = 0.145 and 0.384, respectively) and had spectroscopically confirmed broad-line Type Ic supernovae. We present our broadband follow-up including spectroscopy as well as X-ray, UV, optical, millimeter, and radio observations. We study possible selection effects in the context of the total Fermi and Swift GRB samples. We identify one new outlier on the Amati relation. We find that two bursts are consistent with a mildly relativistic shock breaking out from the progenitor star rather than the ultra-relativistic internal shock mechanism that powers standard cosmological bursts. Finally, in the context of the Zwicky Transient Facility, we discuss how we will continue to expand this effort to find optical counterparts of binary neutron star mergers that may soon be detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: GRB 130925A is one of the recent additions to the growing family of ultra-long GRBs (T90$ \gtrsim 1000$ s). While the X-ray emission of ultra-long GRBs have been studied extensively in the past, no comprehensive radio dataset has been obtained so far. We report here the early discovery of an unusual radio afterglow associated with the ultra-long GRB 130925A. The radio emission peaks at low-frequencies ($\sim 7$ GHz) at early times, only $2.2$ days after the burst occurred. More notably, the radio spectrum at frequencies above $10$ GHz exhibits a rather steep cut-off, compared to other long GRB radio afterglows. This cut-off can be explained if the emitting electrons are either mono-energetic or originate from a rather steep, $dN/dE \propto E^{-4}$, power-law energy distribution. An alternative electron acceleration mechanism may be required to produce such an electron energy distribution. Furthermore, the radio spectrum exhibits a secondary underlying and slowly varying component. This may hint that the radio emission we observed is comprised of emission from both a reverse and a forward shock. We discuss our results in comparison with previous works that studied the unusual X-ray spectrum of this event and discuss the implications of our findings on progenitor scenarios.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • E. Y. Hsiao · Y. Cao · S. R. Kulkarni · D. A. Perley · J. Surace · M. M. Kasliwal
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2.3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C i lines, and the C iλ1.0693 μm line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C ii counterparts were found, even though the optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C i compared to the weaker optical C ii appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with Δm15(B) = 1.79 ± 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a “transitional” event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest that composition and density of the inner core are similar to that of 91bg-like events, and that it has a deep-reaching carbon burning layer that is not observed in more slowly declining SNe Ia. There is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si iiλ0.6355 μm line, implying a long dark phase of ~4 days.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Type Ia supernovae are destructive explosions of carbon oxygen white dwarfs. Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances, the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious, One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion. Here we report observations of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a Type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star, and therefore provides evidence that some Type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA).
    No preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous (M_r ≈ 27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 140226A. This marks the first unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically distant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value of yr^−1 (68% confidence interval of 110–2000 yr−1). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncertainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona fide "orphan" afterglows (i.e., those lacking detectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous ($M_{r}\approx-27.8$ mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 140226A. This marks the first unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically distant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value of $\Re_{\mathrm{rel}}=610$ yr$^{-1}$ (68% confidence interval of 110-2000 yr$^{-1}$). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncertainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona fide "orphan" afterglows (i.e., those lacking detectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2.3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C I lines, and the C I {\lambda}1.0693 {\mu}m line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C II counterparts were found, even though the optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely-cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C I compared to the weaker optical C II appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with {\Delta}m15(B) = 1.79 $\pm$ 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a "transitional" event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest composition and density of the inner core similar to that of 91bg-like events, and a deep reaching carbon burning layer not observed in slower declining SNe Ia. There is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si II {\lambda}0.6355 {\mu}m line, implying a long dark phase of ~ 4 days.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has greatly expanded the number and energy window of observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, the coarse localizations of tens to a hundred square degrees provided by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument have posed a formidable obstacle to locating the bursts' host galaxies, measuring their redshifts, and tracking their panchromatic afterglows. We have built a target of opportunity mode for the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) in order to perform targeted searches for Fermi afterglows. Here, we present the results of one year of this program: eight afterglow discoveries, two of which (GRBs 130702A and 140606B) were at low redshift (z=0.145 and 0.384 respectively) and had spectroscopically confirmed broad-line type Ic supernovae. We present our broadband follow-up including spectroscopy as well as X-ray, UV, optical, millimeter, and radio observations. We study possible selection effects in the context of the total Fermi and Swift GRB samples. We identify one new outlier on the Amati relation. We find that two bursts are consistent with a mildly relativistic shock breaking out from the progenitor star, rather than the ultra-relativistic internal shock mechanism that powers standard cosmological bursts. Finally, in the context of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), we discuss how we will continue to expand this effort to find optical counterparts of binary neutron star mergers that may soon be detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

21k Citations
4,133.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990-2016
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      • • Department of Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2011-2013
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Physics
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 2006-2012
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2006-2010
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Physics
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2004-2008
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Pomona College
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Клермонт, California, United States
  • 1999-2005
    • Swinburne University of Technology
      • Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1988-2005
    • Princeton University
      • • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      • • Department of Physics
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2002
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Weizmann Institute of Science
      • Department of Physics of Condensed Matter
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1996
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      North Carolina, United States